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1.
Front Immunol ; 9: 636, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867916

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and poor response to vaccines. Its diagnosis is made based on clinical and immunological criteria, after exclusion of other diseases that can cause similar phenotypes. Currently, less than 20% of cases of CVID have a known underlying genetic cause. We have analyzed whole-exome sequencing and copy number variants data of 36 children and adolescents diagnosed with CVID and healthy relatives to estimate the proportion of monogenic cases. We have replicated an association of CVID to p.C104R in TNFRSF13B and reported the second case of homozygous patient to date. Our results also identify five causative genetic variants in LRBA, CTLA4, NFKB1, and PIK3R1, as well as other very likely causative variants in PRKCD, MAPK8, or DOCK8 among others. We experimentally validate the effect of the LRBA stop-gain mutation which abolishes protein production and downregulates the expression of CTLA4, and of the frameshift indel in CTLA4 producing expression downregulation of the protein. Our results indicate a monogenic origin of at least 15-24% of the CVID cases included in the study. The proportion of monogenic patients seems to be lower in CVID than in other PID that have also been analyzed by whole exome or targeted gene panels sequencing. Regardless of the exact proportion of CVID monogenic cases, other genetic models have to be considered for CVID. We propose that because of its prevalence and other features as intermediate penetrancies and phenotypic variation within families, CVID could fit with other more complex genetic scenarios. In particular, in this work, we explore the possibility of CVID being originated by an oligogenic model with the presence of heterozygous mutations in interacting proteins or by the accumulation of detrimental variants in particular immunological pathways, as well as perform association tests to detect association with rare genetic functional variation in the CVID cohort compared to healthy controls.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Genótipo , Mutação/genética , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adolescente , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Modelos Biológicos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
2.
3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15224, 2017 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123202

RESUMO

The genus Pan is the closest related to humans (Homo sapiens) and it includes two species: Pan troglodytes (chimpanzees) and Pan paniscus (bonobos). Different characteristics, some of biomedical aspect, separate them from us. For instance, some common human medical conditions are rare in chimpanzees (menopause, Alzheimer disease) although it is unclear to which extent longevity plays an active role in these differences. However, both humans and chimpanzees present similar pathologies, thus, understanding traits in chimpanzees can help unravel the molecular basis of human conditions. Here, we sequenced the genome of Nico, a central chimpanzee diagnosed with a particular biomedical condition, the Chiari malformation. We performed a variant calling analysis comparing his genome to 25 whole genomes from healthy individuals (bonobos and chimpanzees), and after predicting the effects of the genetic variants, we looked for genes within the OMIM database. We found a novel, private, predicted as damaging mutation in Nico in LRP5, a gene related to bone density alteration pathologies, and we suggest a link between this mutation and his Chiari malformation as previously shown in humans. Our results reinforce the idea that a comparison between humans and chimpanzees can be established in this genetic frame of common diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/genética , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/genética , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/patologia , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Mutação , Animais , Masculino , Pan troglodytes , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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