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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 176, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997117

RESUMO

The BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism is a relevant factor explaining inter-individual differences to TMS responses in studies of the motor system. However, whether this variant also contributes to TMS-induced memory effects, as well as their underlying brain mechanisms, remains unexplored. In this investigation, we applied rTMS during encoding of a visual memory task either over the left frontal cortex (LFC; experimental condition) or the cranial vertex (control condition). Subsequently, individuals underwent a recognition memory phase during a functional MRI acquisition. We included 43 young volunteers and classified them as 19 Met allele carriers and 24 as Val/Val individuals. The results revealed that rTMS delivered over LFC compared to vertex stimulation resulted in reduced memory performance only amongst Val/Val allele carriers. This genetic group also exhibited greater fMRI brain activity during memory recognition, mainly over frontal regions, which was positively associated with cognitive performance. We concluded that BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism, known to exert a significant effect on neuroplasticity, modulates the impact of rTMS both at the cognitive as well as at the associated brain networks expression levels. This data provides new insights on the brain mechanisms explaining cognitive inter-individual differences to TMS, and may inform future, more individually-tailored rTMS interventions.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Memória , Polimorfismo Genético , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834459

RESUMO

(1) Background: The evolution and predictors of cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood. We aimed to define the temporal dynamics of cognition throughout the disease course and identify clinical and neuroimaging measures that predict CI. (2) Methods: This paper features a longitudinal study with 212 patients who underwent several cognitive examinations at different time points. Dynamics of cognition were assessed using mixed-effects linear spline models. Machine learning techniques were used to identify which baseline demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures best predicted CI. (3) Results: In the first 5 years of MS, we detected an increase in the z-scores of global cognition, verbal memory, and information processing speed, which was followed by a decline in global cognition and memory (p < 0.05) between years 5 and 15. From 15 to 30 years of disease onset, cognitive decline continued, affecting global cognition and verbal memory. The baseline measures that best predicted CI were education, disease severity, lesion burden, and hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex volume. (4) Conclusions: In MS, cognition deteriorates 5 years after disease onset, declining steadily over the next 25 years and more markedly affecting verbal memory. Education, disease severity, lesion burden, and volume of limbic structures predict future CI and may be helpful when identifying at-risk patients.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(18): 5911-5926, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547147

RESUMO

Quadrantanopia caused by inadvertent severing of Meyer's Loop of the optic radiation is a well-recognised complication of temporal lobectomy for conditions such as epilepsy. Dissection studies indicate that the anterior extent of Meyer's Loop varies considerably between individuals. Quantifying this for individual patients is thus an important step to improve the safety profile of temporal lobectomies. Previous attempts to delineate Meyer's Loop using diffusion MRI tractography have had difficulty estimating its full anterior extent, required manual ROI placement, and/or relied on advanced diffusion sequences that cannot be acquired routinely in most clinics. Here we present CONSULT: a pipeline that can delineate the optic radiation from raw DICOM data in a completely automated way via a combination of robust pre-processing, segmentation, and alignment stages, plus simple improvements that bolster the efficiency and reliability of standard tractography. We tested CONSULT on 696 scans of predominantly healthy participants (539 unique brains), including both advanced acquisitions and simpler acquisitions that could be acquired in clinically acceptable timeframes. Delineations completed without error in 99.4% of the scans. The distance between Meyer's Loop and the temporal pole closely matched both averages and ranges reported in dissection studies for all tested sequences. Median scan-rescan error of this distance was 1 mm. When tested on two participants with considerable pathology, delineations were successful and realistic. Through this, we demonstrate not only how to identify Meyer's Loop with clinically feasible sequences, but also that this can be achieved without fundamental changes to tractography algorithms or complex post-processing methods.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia , Vias Visuais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Semin Ultrasound CT MR ; 42(5): 490-506, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537117

RESUMO

Quantitative diffusion imaging techniques enable the characterization of tissue microstructural properties of the human brain "in vivo", and are widely used in neuroscientific and clinical contexts. In this review, we present the basic physical principles behind diffusion imaging and provide an overview of the current diffusion techniques, including standard and advanced techniques as well as their main clinical applications. Standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers sensitivity to changes in microstructure due to diseases and enables the characterization of single fiber distributions within a voxel as well as diffusion anisotropy. Nonetheless, its inability to represent complex intravoxel fiber topologies and the limited biological specificity of its metrics motivated the development of several advanced diffusion MRI techniques. For example, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) techniques enabled the characterization of fiber crossing areas and other complex fiber topologies in a single voxel and supported the development of higher-order signal representations aiming to decompose the diffusion MRI signal into distinct microstructure compartments. Biophysical models, often known by their acronym (e.g., CHARMED, WMTI, NODDI, DBSI, DIAMOND) contributed to capture the diffusion properties from each of such tissue compartments, enabling the computation of voxel-wise maps of axonal density and/or morphology that hold promise as clinically viable biomarkers in several neurological and neuroscientific applications; for example, to quantify tissue alterations due to disease or healthy processes. Current challenges and limitations of state-of-the-art models are discussed, including validation efforts. Finally, novel diffusion encoding approaches (e.g., b-tensor or double diffusion encoding) may increase the biological specificity of diffusion metrics towards intra-voxel diffusion heterogeneity in clinical settings, holding promise in neurological applications.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16805, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413373

RESUMO

The spatio-temporal characteristics of grey matter (GM) impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood. We used a new surface-based diffusion MRI processing tool to investigate regional modifications of microstructure, and we quantified volume loss in GM in a cohort of patients with MS classified into three groups according to disease duration. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between GM changes with disease severity. We studied 54 healthy controls and 247 MS patients classified regarding disease duration: MS1 (less than 5 years, n = 67); MS2 (5-15 years, n = 107); and MS3 (more than15 years, n = 73). We compared GM mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume between groups, and estimated their clinical associations. Regional modifications in diffusion measures (MD and FA) and volume did not overlap early in the disease, and became widespread in later phases. We found higher MD in MS1 group, mainly in the temporal cortex, and volume reduction in deep GM and left precuneus. Additional MD changes were evident in cingulate and occipital cortices in the MS2 group, coupled to volume reductions in deep GM and parietal and frontal poles. Changes in MD and volume extended to more than 80% of regions in MS3 group. Conversely, increments in FA, with very low effect size, were observed in the parietal cortex and thalamus in MS1 and MS2 groups, and extended to the frontal lobe in the later group. MD and GM changes were associated with white matter lesion load and with physical and cognitive disability. Microstructural integrity loss and atrophy present differential spatial predominance early in MS and accrual over time, probably due to distinct pathogenic mechanisms that underlie tissue damage.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Atrofia/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Recidiva , Substância Branca/patologia
7.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 107, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a regression neural network for the reconstruction of lesion probability maps on Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting using echo-planar imaging (MRF-EPI) in addition to [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], NAWM, and GM- probability maps. METHODS: We performed MRF-EPI measurements in 42 patients with multiple sclerosis and 6 healthy volunteers along two sites. A U-net was trained to reconstruct the denoised and distortion corrected [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] maps, and to additionally generate NAWM-, GM-, and WM lesion probability maps. RESULTS: WM lesions were predicted with a dice coefficient of [Formula: see text] and a lesion detection rate of [Formula: see text] for a threshold of 33%. The network jointly enabled accurate [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] times with relative deviations of 5.2% and 5.1% and average dice coefficients of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for NAWM and GM after binarizing with a threshold of 80%. CONCLUSION: DL is a promising tool for the prediction of lesion probability maps in a fraction of time. These might be of clinical interest for the WM lesion analysis in MS patients.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Imagem Ecoplanar , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Probabilidade
8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractal geometry measures the morphology of the brain and detects CNS damage. We aimed to assess the longitudinal changes on brain's fractal geometry and its predictive value for disease worsening in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 146 consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS with up to 5 years of clinical and brain MRI (3 T) assessments. The fractal dimension and lacunarity were calculated for brain regions using box-counting methods. Longitudinal changes were analyzed in mixed-effect models and the risk of disability accumulation were assessed using Cox Proportional Hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the fractal dimension and increases of lacunarity in different brain regions over the 5-year follow-up. Lower cortical fractal dimension increased the risk of disability accumulation for the Expanded Disability Status Scale [HR 0.9734, CI 0.8420-0.9125; Harrell C 0.59; Wald p 0.038], 9-hole peg test [HR 0.9734, CI 0.8420-0.9125; Harrell C 0.59; Wald p 0.0083], 2.5% low contrast vision [HR 0.4311, CI 0.2035-0.9133; Harrell C 0.58; Wald p 0.0403], symbol digit modality test [HR 2.215, CI 1.043-4.705; Harrell C 0.65; Wald p 0.0384] and MS Functional Composite-4 [HR 0.55, CI 0.317-0.955; Harrell C 0.59; Wald p 0.0029]. CONCLUSIONS: Fractal geometry analysis of brain MRI identified patients at risk of increasing their disability in the next five years.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Fractais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(1): 471-486, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547656

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an accelerated postprocessing pipeline for reproducible and efficient assessment of white matter lesions using quantitative magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and deep learning. METHODS: MRF using echo-planar imaging (EPI) scans with varying repetition and echo times were acquired for whole brain quantification of T 1 and T 2 ∗ in 50 subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy volunteers along 2 centers. MRF T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps were distortion corrected and denoised. A CNN was trained to reconstruct the T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps, and the WM and GM probability maps. RESULTS: Deep learning-based postprocessing reduced reconstruction and image processing times from hours to a few seconds while maintaining high accuracy, reliability, and precision. Mean absolute error performed the best for T 1 (deviations 5.6%) and the logarithmic hyperbolic cosinus loss the best for T 2 ∗ (deviations 6.0%). CONCLUSIONS: MRF is a fast and robust tool for quantitative T 1 and T 2 ∗ mapping. Its long reconstruction and several postprocessing steps can be facilitated and accelerated using deep learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a single-center cohort of patients with MS and to explore the contribution of their comorbidities and therapies to the outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-method study was conducted involving an email-based, self-administered questionnaire sent on May 21, 2020, to 586 patients with MS followed at the MS Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, along with telephone interview, and review of electronic medical records until June 18, 2020. The cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 (positive PCR or antibody test) and all COVID-19 cases (confirmed and suspected) from the start of the pandemic was compared with the population estimates for Barcelona. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients (69.5%) completed the survey. Most of the responders (67%) were female. The responders had a median age of 48 years (range 19-86), relapsing-remitting disease (84%), at least 1 comorbidity (45%), and were on disease-modifying therapy (DMT; 74.7%). COVID-19 was confirmed in 5 patients (1.2%) and suspected in 46 (11.3%). The cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was similar to that of the general population but was almost 2-fold higher when all cases were considered (p < 0.001). Six patients (11.7%) were hospitalized, of which 5 had good recovery and 1 died. Hospitalized patients were more frequently male, had diabetes and had progressive forms of MS (p < 0.05). DMT was not associated with the risk of infection or the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied MS cohort, the incidence of COVID-19 was higher than that of the general population; however, most patients did not require hospitalization and had a good outcome despite the frequent presence of comorbidities and treatment with DMT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2420, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510243

RESUMO

Preterm newborns with germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) are at a higher risk of evidencing neurodevelopmental alterations. Present study aimed to explore the long-term effects that GM-IVH have on hippocampal subfields, and their correlates with memory. The sample consisted of 58 participants, including 36 preterm-born (16 with GM-IVH and 20 without neonatal brain injury), and 22 full-term children aged between 6 and 15 years old. All participants underwent a cognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging study. GM-IVH children evidenced lower scores in Full Intelligence Quotient and memory measures compared to their low-risk preterm and full-term peers. High-risk preterm children with GM-IVH evidenced significantly lower total hippocampal volumes bilaterally and hippocampal subfield volumes compared to both low-risk preterm and full-term groups. Finally, significant positive correlations between memory and hippocampal subfield volumes were only found in preterm participants together; memory and the right CA-field correlation remained significant after Bonferroni correction was applied (p = .002). In conclusion, memory alterations and both global and regional volumetric reductions in the hippocampus were found to be specifically related to a preterm sample with GM-IVH. Nevertheless, results also suggest that prematurity per se has a long-lasting impact on the association between the right CA-field volume and memory during childhood.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Memória , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
12.
Mult Scler ; 27(11): 1706-1716, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic markers are needed to guide multiple sclerosis (MS) management in the context of large availability of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers to inform long-term MS outcomes. METHODS: Demographic features, IgM index, oligoclonal IgM bands (OCMB), lipid-specific OCMB, CSF neurofilament light chain protein levels, expanded disability status scale (EDSS), relapses and DMD use over the study period and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses in non-optic neuritis eyes (end of follow-up) were collected from relapsing MS (RMS) patients with CSF obtained ⩽2 years after MS onset prospectively followed at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. We assessed associations between CSF markers and MS outcomes using multivariable models. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients (71 females; median 32.9 years of age) followed over a median of 9.6 years were included. OCMB were associated with a 33% increase in the annualized relapse rate (ARR; p = 0.06), higher odds for high-efficacy DMDs use (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = (1.5, 16.1)), thinner pRNFL (ß = -4.4; 95% CI = (-8.6, -0.2)) and GCIPL (ß = -2.9; 95% CI = (-5.9, +0.05)), and higher rates to EDSS ⩾ 3.0 (HR = 4.4; 95% CI = (1.6, 11.8)) and EDSS ⩾ 4.0 (HR = 5.4; 95% CI = (1.1, 27.1)). No overall associations were found for other CSF markers. CONCLUSION: The presence of OCMB was associated with unfavorable long-term outcomes. OCMB should be determined in RMS to inform long-term prognosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Bandas Oligoclonais , Cegueira , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva , Retina
13.
J Autoimmun ; 117: 102580, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is increasing interest regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AI/IMID) with some discrepancies in different cohorts about their risk and outcomes. The aim was to describe a multidisciplinary cohort of patients with AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single tertiary center and analyze sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic factors associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted from the 1st of March until May 29th, 2020 in a University tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Patients with an underlying AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified in our local SARS-CoV-2 infection database. Controls (2:1) were selected from the same database and matched by age and gender. The primary outcome was severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was a composite endpoint including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation (MV), and/or death. Several covariates including age, sex, and comorbidities among others were combined into a multivariate model having severe SARS-CoV-2 as the dependent variable. Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed evaluating AID and IMID separately. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of AI/IMID patients was 1.3%. Eighty-five patients with AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were identified, requiring hospitalization in 58 (68%) cases. A total of 175 patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 (58 with AI/IMID and 117 matched-controls) were analyzed. In logistic regression analysis, a significant inverse association between AI/IMID group and severe SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.12-0.61; p = 0.001), need of MV (OR 0.20; IC 95% 0.05-0.71; p = 0.014), and ICU admission (OR 0.25; IC 95% 0.10-0.62; p = 0.003) was found. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AI/IMID who require admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection have a lower risk of developing severe disease, including the need to stay in the ICU and MV.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/mortalidade , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Front Neurol ; 11: 581700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193039

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive reserve (CR) could attenuate the impact of the brain burden on the cognition in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Objective: To explore the relationship between CR and structural brain connectivity and investigate their role on cognition in PwMS cognitively impaired (PwMS-CI) and cognitively preserved (PwMS-CP). Methods: In this study, 181 PwMS (71% female; 42.9 ± 10.0 years) were evaluated using the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ), Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests, and MRI. Brain lesion and gray matter volumes were quantified, as was the structural network connectivity. Patients were classified as PwMS-CI (z scores = -1.5 SD in at least two tests) or PwMS-CP. Linear and multiple regression analyses were run to evaluate the association of CRQ and structural connectivity with cognition in each group. Hedges's effect size was used to compute the strength of associations. Results: We found a very low association between CRQ scores and connectivity metrics in PwMS-CP, while in PwMS-CI, this relation was low to moderate. The multiple regression model, adjusted for age, gender, mood, lesion volume, and graph metrics (local and global efficiency, and transitivity), indicated that the CRQ (ß = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.17-0.35) was associated with cognition (adj R 2 = 0.34) in PwMS-CP (55%). In PwMS-CI, CRQ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.29), age, and network global efficiency were independently associated with cognition (adj R 2 = 0.55). The age- and gender-adjusted association between CRQ score and global efficiency on having an impaired cognitive status was -0.338 (OR: 0.71, p = 0.036) and -0.531 (OR: 0.59, p = 0.002), respectively. Conclusions: CR seems to have a marginally significant effect on brain structural connectivity, observed in patients with more severe clinical impairment. It protects PwMS from cognitive decline regardless of their cognitive status, yet once cognitive impairment has set in, brain damage and aging are also influencing cognitive performance.

15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950904

RESUMO

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging can reveal quantitative information about the tissue changes in multiple sclerosis. The recently developed multi-compartment spherical mean technique can map different microscopic properties based only on local diffusion signals, and it may provide specific information on the underlying microstructural modifications that arise in multiple sclerosis. Given that the lesions in multiple sclerosis may reflect different degrees of damage, we hypothesized that quantitative diffusion maps may help characterize the severity of lesions "in vivo" and correlate these to an individual's clinical profile. We evaluated this in a cohort of 59 multiple sclerosis patients (62% female, mean age 44.7 years), for whom demographic and disease information was obtained, and who underwent a comprehensive physical and cognitive evaluation. The magnetic resonance imaging protocol included conventional sequences to define focal lesions, and multi-shell diffusion imaging was used with b-values of 1000, 2000 and 3000 s/mm2 in 180 encoding directions. Quantitative diffusion properties on a macro- and micro-scale were used to discriminate distinct types of lesions through a k-means clustering algorithm, and the number and volume of those lesion types were correlated with parameters of the disease. The combination of diffusion tensor imaging metrics (fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity) and multi-compartment spherical mean technique values (microscopic fractional anisotropy and intra-neurite volume fraction) differentiated two type of lesions, with a prediction strength of 0.931. The B-type lesions had larger diffusion changes compared to the A-type lesions, irrespective of their location (P < 0.001). The number of A and B type lesions was similar, although in juxtacortical areas B-type lesions predominated (60%, P < 0.001). Also, the percentage of B-type lesion volume was higher (64%, P < 0.001), indicating that these lesions were larger. The number and volume of B-type lesions was related to the severity of disease evolution, clinical disability and cognitive decline (P = 0.004, Bonferroni correction). Specifically, more and larger B-type lesions were correlated with a worse Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, cerebellar function and cognitive performance. Thus, by combining several microscopic and macroscopic diffusion properties, the severity of damage within focal lesions can be characterized, further contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms that drive disease evolution. Accordingly, the classification of lesion types has the potential to permit more specific and better-targeted treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13333, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770013

RESUMO

Understanding of the role of focal inflammation, a treatable feature, on neuro-axonal injury, is paramount to optimize neuroprotective strategy in MS. To quantify the impact of focal inflammatory activity on the rate of neuro-axonal injury over the MS course. We quantified the annualized rates of change in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), whole-brain, gray matter and thalamic volumes in patients with and without focal inflammatory activity in 161 patients followed over 5 years. We used mixed models including focal inflammatory activity (the presence of at least one relapse or a new/enlarging T2-FLAIR or gadolinium- enhancing lesion), and its interaction with time adjusted by age, sex, use of disease-modifying therapies and steroids, and prior optic neuritis. The increased rate of neuro-axonal injury during the first five years after onset was more prominent among active patients, as reflected by the changes in GCIPL thickness (p = 0.02), whole brain (p = 0.002) and thalamic volumes (p < 0.001). Thereafter, rates of retinal and brain changes stabilized and were similar in active and stable patients. Focal inflammatory activity is associated with neurodegeneration early in MS which reinforces the use of an early intensive anti-inflammatory therapy to prevent neurodegeneration in MS.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Adulto , Axônios/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurite Óptica/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a structured telephone interview examining the long-term cognitive and functional status in anti-leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 37 patients after a median follow-up of 87 months from disease onset and 23 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Cognitive status was assessed with the telephone Mini-Mental State Examination (t-MMSE) and 3 tests exploring verbal memory, fluency, and executive function. Functional status was evaluated with the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Patients were classified as normal, with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or with dementia based on cognitive and functional status. Assessment of the cognitive reserve was performed with a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify predictors of cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Telephone interviews were successful in 36/37 (97%) patients. Cognitive impairment was detected in 27 (75%) including 17 with MCI and 10 with dementia. Eight (29%) patients would have been misclassified using only the t-MMSE. Twenty-six (72%) patients were functionally independent according to the mRS, but only 9 (35%) were cognitively normal. Independent predictors for long-term cognitive impairment were a low cognitive reserve (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.76; p = 0.02) and bilateral hippocampal hyperintensity at initial MRI (OR = 27.03, 95% CI: 1.87-390; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine is a feasible tool to assess the cognitive and functional outcome in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Cognitive impairment is often missed if only functional scales are used. Premorbid cognitive reserve and MRI with bilateral hippocampal hyperintensity were predictors for long-term cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Reserva Cognitiva , Demência/diagnóstico , Encefalite/complicações , Encefalite/imunologia , Estado Funcional , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Telemedicina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Demência/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Telefone
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20172, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882922

RESUMO

Brain structural network modifications in multiple sclerosis (MS) seem to be clinically relevant. The discriminative ability of those changes to identify MS patients or their cognitive status remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate connectivity changes in MS patients related to their cognitive status, and to define an automatic classification method to classify subjects as patients and healthy volunteers (HV) or as cognitively preserved (CP) and impaired (CI) patients. We analysed structural brain connectivity in 45 HV and 188 MS patients (104 CP and 84 CI). A support vector machine with k-fold cross-validation was built using the graph metrics features that best differentiate the groups (p < 0.05). Local efficiency (LE) and node strength (NS) network properties showed the largest differences: 100% and 69.7% of nodes had reduced LE and NS in CP patients compared to HV. Moreover, 55.3% and 57.9% of nodes had decreased LE and NS in CI compared to CP patients, in associative multimodal areas. The classification method achieved an accuracy of 74.8-77.2% to differentiate patients from HV, and 59.9-60.8% to discriminate CI from CP patients. Structural network integrity is widely reduced and worsens as cognitive function declines. Central network properties of vulnerable nodes can be useful to classify MS patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Discriminação Psicológica , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3337, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833610

RESUMO

Aging is accompanied by a decline in memory and other brain functions. Physical exercise may mitigate this decline through the modulation of factors participating in the crosstalk between skeletal muscle and the brain, such as neurotrophins and oxidative stress parameters. We aimed to determine whether long term exercise training (35 ± 15 years) promotes memory maintenance in middle-aged men, and to characterize the changes in neurotrophic factors and lipid oxidation markers in peripheral blood samples in both middle-aged and young men. The neuropsychological analysis showed significant improvements in memory through the Free and Cued Immediate Recall tests, in the middle-aged trained individuals when compared to the sedentary ones. We found a significant decrease in the resting serum BDNF and plasma Cathepsin B (CTSB) levels in the trained groups at both middle and young ages. BDNF and CTSB levels were inversely correlated with weekly hours of exercise. We also found a significant decrease in plasma malondialdehyde, an index of lipid peroxidation, in middle-aged and young trained subjects. The positive impact of long-term exercise training by delaying the onset of physiological memory loss and the associated neurotrophic and redox peripheral modulation, suggests the effectiveness of exercise as preventive strategy against age-related memory loss and neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Catepsina B/sangue , Exercício Físico , Memória , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cognição , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956305

RESUMO

Physical exercise performed regularly is known to improve health and to reduce the risk of age-related diseases. Furthermore, there is some evidence of cognitive improvement in physically active middle-aged and older adults. We hypothesized that long-term physically active middle-aged men may have developed brain resilience that can be detected with the analysis of peripheral blood markers. We aimed to analyze the activation of pathways potentially modulated by physical activity in a cohort of healthy amateur rugby players (n = 24) and control subjects with low physical activity (n = 25) aged 45-65 years. We had previously reported neuropsychological improvement in immediate memory responses in the player group compared to the controls. Here, we tested the expression of selected genes of longevity, inflammation, redox homeostasis, and trophic signaling in whole blood mRNA. Analyses were also performed on blood samples of young (aged 15-25 years) control subjects with low physical activity (n = 21). Physical activity and other lifestyle factors were thoroughly recorded with standardized questionnaires. Interestingly, middle-aged control subjects showed lower levels of expression of SIRT1, SIRT3, CAT, and SOD1 than the young controls, although rugby players maintained the expression levels of these genes at a young-like level. Middle-aged players showed lower levels of IL1B than the non-physically active groups. However, there was a tendency towards a decrease in trophic and transduction factors in middle-aged groups as compared to the young controls. A statistical study of Spearman's correlations supported a positive effect of sporting activity on memory and executive functions, and on peripheral gene expression of SIRT1, SIRT3 and downstream genes, in the middle-aged rugby players. Our results indicate that the SIRT1-SIRT3 axis, and associated neuroprotective signaling, may contribute to the anti-aging resilience of the brain mediated by physical exercise.

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