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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: . The final diagnosis of myocarditis is challenging. The aim of our study was to provide the D.A.M.E. (Diagnosis of Acute Myocarditis in Emergency) Score for the fast identification of patients suffering from myocarditis at Emergency Department (ED). METHODS: . This was a multicenter, retrospective study involving three centers. All medical records from January 2010 to December 2014 reporting a final discharge diagnosis of myocarditis were considered. One hundred-four patients (mean age: 40.2±16.5 years) were enrolled. Clinical, biochemical and instrumental data were gathered. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression model and factorial analysis. A validation cohort from a fourth center was enrolled. RESULTS: . The final determinants of the DAME score were six: fever, chest pain, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) > 20 mm/h, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) >3 mg/L, troponin serum levels >3 ng/L, and left ventricle ejection fraction < 50%. All of them received a specified score ranging from 0 to 4. A score > 4 was related to 75% probability of myocarditis; a final score ranging between 1 and 4 was related to 57% probability of myocarditis. ROC curve on the validation cohort (289 patients, 27 with myocarditis) demonstrated the best cut-off to be 7: AUC 0.958 (p< 0.001), sensibility: 100%, specificity: 85.11%, PPV: 40.9%, NPV: 100% (LR+: 6.72; LR-: 0.00). Logistic regression analysis revealed Odds Ratio equal to 2.83 (95% CI 1.90 - 4.20, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: . DAME score can offer a reliable tool in ED setting for the evaluation of patients suffering from suspected myocarditis.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322462

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Italy has proven to be one of the countries with the highest coronavirus-linked death rate. To reduce the impact of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the Italian Government decision-makers issued a series of law decrees that imposed measures limiting social contacts, stopped non-essential production activities, and restructured public health care in order to privilege assistance to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Health care services were substantially limited including planned hospitalization and elective surgeries. These substantial measures were criticized due to their impact on individual rights including freedom and autonomy, but were justified by the awareness that hospitals would have been unable to cope with the surge of infected people who needed treatment for COVID-19. The imbalance between the need to guarantee ordinary care and to deal with the pandemic, in a context of limited health resources, raises ethical concerns as well as clinical management issues. The emergency scenario caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the lockdown phase, led the Government and health care decision-makers to prioritize community safety above the individuals' rights. This new community-centered approach to clinical care has created tension among the practitioners and exposed health workers to malpractice claims. Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of the COVID-19 pandemic is the priority of every government, but the legitimate question remains whether the policy that supports this measure could be less harmful for the health care system.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Direitos do Paciente , Administração em Saúde Pública/ética , Quarentena/ética , /mortalidade , Emergências , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 48: 101816, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242824

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lethal injuries by animal attacks are a matter of concern for the forensic pathologist; the presented case illustrates a two dogs attack on a 61-year-old man. The authors have focused on a multidisciplinary approach involving forensic pathologists and veterinarians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The victim was cycling in the countryside when he was attacked by two dogs that came out of a large house. He was found lying in the street by the homeowners who called for help. The victim was transported to the hospital where he died five days later. According to recovery data and medico-legal autopsy findings the cause of death was septic shock. RESULTS: Forensic pathologists and veterinarians multidisciplinary evaluation revealed lacerations, abrasions, and multiple small punctures constituting bite marks over the entire body. Six skin dowels with bite marks were taken and compared with the dental cast of the dogs. CONCLUSION: A comparison of the dog dental casts and the bite marks on the victim's body allowed the identification of the animals involved in the attack.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872189

RESUMO

Clinical risk management constitutes a central element in the healthcare systems in relation to the reverberation that it establishes, and as regards the optimization of clinical outcomes for the patient. The starting point for a right clinical risk management is represented by the identification of non-conforming results. The aim of the study is to carry out a systematic analysis of all data received in the first three years of adoption of a reporting system, revealing the strengths and weaknesses. The results emerged showed an increasing trend in the number of total records. Notably, 86.0% of the records came from the medical category. Moreover, 41.0% of the records reported the possible preventive measures that could have averted the event and in 30% of the reports are hints to be put in place to avoid the repetition of the events. The second experimental phase is categorizing the events reported. Implementing the reporting system, it would guarantee a virtuous cycle of learning, training and reallocation of resources. By sensitizing health workers to a correct use of the incident reporting system, it could become a virtuous error learning system. All this would lead to a reduction in litigation and an implementation of the therapeutic doctor-patient alliance.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Itália , Auditoria Administrativa , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração
5.
Pediatr Rep ; 12(2): 8823, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922713

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic forced the Italian Government to act extreme measures that put the entire country under lockdown. The citizens experimented a radical transformation of their lives while the healthcare system started building a novel COVID-system that quickly dissolved the former organization, included pediatric healthcare network. For a number of reasons COVID-19 pandemic is polite with children; however, the fear of this unknown disease drove to develop dedicated pathways in the Pediatric Emergency Departments for the suspected and diagnosed cases of COVID-19, together with their relatives. The combination of conflicting feelings resulted in an unexpected scenario: the number of accesses to the pediatric Hospital or Unit(s) sharply dropped to less than half. How do we explain this phenomenon? The authors believe that our health care system may learn a lesson from the catastrophe of COVID, if we will be able to redesign our way of providing our cares to children. Nothing should be taken for granted, because this might be a real "time for a change".

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946065

RESUMO

Despite being an infrequent crime, parental homicide has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in adult perpetrators and a history of child abuse and family violence in adolescent perpetrators. Among severe psychiatric disorders there is initial evidence that delusional misidentification might also play a role in parricide. Parricides are often committed with undue violence and may result in overkill. The authors present the case of an adult male affected by schizoaffective disorder and Capgras syndrome who committed patricide. Forensic pathologists classify such cases as overkill by multiple fatal means comprising stabbing, blunt trauma and choking. Accurate crime scene investigations coupled with psychiatric examinations of perpetrator allow reconstruction of the murder stages. This overkill case is discussed in the context of a broad review of the literature.

7.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 75: 102057, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949898

RESUMO

Tako-Tsubo is one of a number of rare acquired cardiomyopathies that are characterized by left ventricular dyskinesia and symptomatology typical of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The most important feature is that the clinical features are triggered by a severe physical or emotional stress. The authors describe the story of a woman, who was brutally assaulted by two men during a house robbery and died from sudden heart failure 8 hours later, after being taken to hospital. External examination revealed no macroscopic alteration of the inner organs, whereas microscopy showed contraction bands with myocardial necrosis, subendocardial and interstitial neutrophil infiltration and fibrosis. These findings were consistent with death due to stress cardiomyopathy even in the absence of previous heart disease. The robbers were convicted of homicide and sentenced to eighteen years in prison.

9.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(4): 718-720, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415625

RESUMO

Lethal injuries due to large animal attack are uncommon in routine forensic practice in Europe. Specifically, few incidents are reported concerning tiger/lion attacks that usually involve captive circus or zoo animals. We present the case of a 61-year old animal tamer who was mauled to death by four tigers while he was training them for a circus performance. Careful investigation of the circumstances surrounding the fatality revealed that the tamer had most likely been struck with a tiger paw and then mauled by additional tigers resulting in serious and fatal injuries. Although a full medico-legal autopsy was not authorized, total body CT scan coupled with post-mortem external examination allowed a reconstruction of events.

10.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(2): 355-358, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679122

RESUMO

Blunt renal artery injury (BRAI) is a rare finding with incidence ranging from 0.05% to 0.08% among blunt abdominal trauma patients. BRAI occurs in 1% to 4% of patients with renal injury, and the most common cause is motor vehicle accidents. An unusual case of BRAI in a 47-year-old man at work is reported. The victim accidentally fell from a scaffold (approximately 3 m in height). He was transported to the hospital where he was intubated, but he died after 30 min despite the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Surveillance cameras showed the man falling from the scaffold, but his impact with the ground was not captured. At autopsy, except for an oval bruise on the left hypochondrium, no external injury was found. The same mark was noticed on the shirt worn by the victim. Bilateral ribs fractures were found. The abdominal cavity was filled with 2 l of fresh blood and clots as a consequence of a complete transection of the left renal artery. Investigation of the workplace revealed a partial footprint on the external side of the scaffold, matching shoes worn by the victim. On the ground, a metallic pedestrian gate with a 1 m high post was found placed just below the scaffold. It was concluded that the man hit the gate's post as intermediate impact after the fall, which caused the oval bruise, ribs fractures, and the rupture of the left renal artery without injury of the internal organs.

11.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661804

RESUMO

Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined as the presence of a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, and it represents a significant burden for the healthcare system. This is particularly true when it is diagnosed in the setting of nosocomial infections, which are usually a matter of concern with regard to medical liability being correlated with increasing economic costs and people's loss of trust in healthcare. Hence, the Italian governance promotes the clinical risk management with the aim of improving the quality and safety of healthcare services. In this context, the role of medico-legal experts working in a hospital setting is fundamental for performing autopsy to diagnose sepsis and link it with possible nosocomial infections. On the other hand, medico-legal experts are party to the clinical risk management assessment, and deal with malpractice cases and therefore contribute to formulating clinical guidelines and procedures for improving patient safety and healthcare providers' work practices. Due to this scenario, the authors here discuss the role of medico-legal experts in Italy, focusing on sepsis and nosocomial infections.

12.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 386-390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305278

RESUMO

The injection of drugs of abuse causes many millions of deaths each year; deaths are mostly due to fatal overdose and the trauma and infection caused by repeated injections. The scientific literature widely reports cases of infected pseudoaneurysm in injecting drug abusers; however, most of these autopsy cases deal with the rupture of pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery. We present fatal hemorrhagic shock in a heroin-cocaine abuser subsequent to rupture of pseudoaneurysm of the brachial artery; the man collapsed just before injecting himself with a dose of heroin-cocaine (speedball).


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/patologia , Aneurisma Roto/patologia , Artéria Braquial/patologia , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Usuários de Drogas , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 298: 402-407, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953975

RESUMO

The term overkill usually indicates the infliction of massive injuries by far exceeding the extent necessary to kill the victim. Only few articles or textbooks report this term that is mostly associated with sex-motivated homicides where injuries, generally stabbing, are directed to significant sexual parts of the body. The aim of this study is to shed light on the phenomenon of overkill by reviewing some cases personally analyzed by the authors from both a forensic pathology rather than forensic psychiatry views. The reported results coupled with the literature revision confirmed the importance of a complete analysis of all criminological elements for better defining overkill cases.


Assuntos
Homicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade , Inteligência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Motivação , Traumatismo Múltiplo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Armas , Ferimentos Perfurantes/psicologia
14.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 14(2): 229-235, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556967

RESUMO

"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive necrotic ulcerative lesions on the forearms, and autopsy showed a hypertrophic heart with ample endocardial vegetation on the aortic valve and patency of the foramen ovale. Histopathological examination of the heart showed ulcero-vegetative lesions of the aortic valve with an abscess on the annulus and extension to the periaortic adipose tissue, as well as diffuse myocardial interstitial inflammatory neutrophilic infiltrates. Toxicological analysis demonstrated a desomorphine metabolite in urine. On the basis of all these findings the cause of death was ruled to be congestive heart failure caused by endocarditis and myocarditis, correlated with chronic abuse of krokodil.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Codeína/análogos & derivados , Endocardite/induzido quimicamente , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Codeína/efeitos adversos , Morte Súbita/etiologia , Endocardite/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Miocardite/patologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Úlcera Cutânea/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia
15.
Forensic Sci Int ; 280: e1-e5, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089165

RESUMO

Traumatic injuries in pregnancy such as abdominal trauma, pelvic fractures and penetrating trauma are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The most common causes of trauma during pregnancy are motor vehicle accidents, falls, assaults, gunshots, and burns. Pregnancy itself has been identified as a risk factor for trauma, together with a younger age, drug use, alcohol use, and domestic violence. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman, 34 weeks pregnant, who attempted suicide by jumping from a flyover, immediately after a probably deliberate traffic collision with the guardrail. She had fractures of five lumbar vertebrae and three ribs with pulmonary contusions, but was without other injuries. Following the mother's stabilization, the fetal heart tones were detected as abnormal and the patient had an emergency caesarean section delivering a still-born male infant. Neither alcohol nor drugs were found in the mother who had been diagnosed with an unspecified episodic mood disorder. She recovered completely from her injuries. At autopsy of the newborn, a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage with deformity of the skull was found, caused by maternal blunt abdominal trauma following car accident and fall. This case is an outstanding example of fetal head trauma which occurred with no life-threatening maternal injury due to attempted suicide. It is important for clinicians and forensic pathologists to have adequate knowledge and practical experience of these cases, because pregnancy is a special risk factor for self-inflicted injuries among females, with significant adverse effects on the fetus even with minor injuries to the mother.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal/etiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Acidentes de Trânsito , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Crânio/lesões , Crânio/patologia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações
16.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 10: 87-93, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to standardize and rationalize the handover, a critical and essential moment in common health care practices, through the realization of an efficient and standardized checklist, which could be used daily to ensure complete, thorough and effective handover. The principal purpose of the implementation of the handover is to reduce errors due to superficial and insufficient communication. METHODS: The "operative group" defined the phases to the realization of the delineated aims: at first, the direct observation and the consequent realization of a handover checklist model and then, the experimental phases (trials). The handover checklist model was used for a month and it was daily and duly completed by the doctors who took part in the trial. To prove the success of the study, three questionnaires were distributed on different occasions. RESULTS: Analyzing the answers to the questionnaires, the importance of the handover has come to light and that for the most part, the doctors consider it an essential and irreplaceable moment in daily health care work. Moreover, it became obvious that the use of the handover checklist guaranteed a considerable improvement in the traditional handover in terms of security, completeness, care continuity and clarity. The handover checklist was completely appreciated by the majority of the participant doctors who agree with the definitive introduction of it in their unit. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated the consistency of the handover checklist as an instrument to implement the handover and, indirectly, to improve the quality of the care.

18.
J Forensic Sci ; 61(4): 1139-1142, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364300

RESUMO

A rare case of lethal idiopathic plasmacytic lymphadenopathy (IPL) with polyclonal hyperimmunoglobulinemia with chronic renal failure is described. A 40-year-old woman who had suffered from upper airways disease was admitted to the Emergency Room with acute renal failure and hypergammaglobulinemia. She developed pericardial effusion, a pruritic rash, splenomegaly and fell into a coma after 6 days. Multiple myeloma, infection, collagenopathy, and coagulopathy were ruled out. Finally, a form of malignant hypergammapathy was suspected. At autopsy, lymph nodes were infiltrated by polyclonal plasma cells and lymphocytes, with erythrophagocytosis features; immunohistochemistry confirmed the plasma cells (CD138+), with a prevalence of kappa-positive cells, B (CD20+) and T (CD3+) cells. Kidneys showed advanced glomerulosclerosis containing similar infiltrates. The cause of death was IPL with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and advanced renal failure. Similar cases are unusual, and possible medical liability associated with failure to diagnose and treat idiopathic plasmacytic lymphadenopathy deserves discussion and further studies.

19.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 25(2): 87-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764139

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of myocardium, associated with nonischemic necrosis and degeneration of myocytes. Although the clinical course is rapid, myocarditis can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy with chambers dilatation and ventricular dysfunction. The pathophysiology of myocarditis in humans is not completely understood. There are several etiological agents implicated, mainly viral agents. The clinical presentation is extremely various, with nonspecific systemic symptoms until sudden death. The great variability of symptoms makes the diagnosis, therefore, extremely difficult. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed, after childbirth, hyperthermia associated with neck and left arm pain; initially treated with acetaminophen, without any benefit, the young woman, after few days, died suddenly. The autopsy documented the presence of edematous lungs and enlarged and congested liver. The microbiological tests performed 4 days after death were negative. The heart was normal in shape and volume; a section of the left ventricle wall showed subendocardial discromic areas histologically characterized by multifocal perivascular and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates. These infiltrates consisted mainly of neutrophils with eosinophil component associated with myocyte necrosis and hemorrhagic interstitial infiltration.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Miocardite/patologia , Adulto , Autopsia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Período Periparto , Gravidez
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