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Hepat Oncol ; 8(4): HEP32, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765105


Chemotherapy is a potential cause of focal and diffuse hepatobiliary lesions. Many of these lesions may be demonstrated on imaging, especially computed tomography and MRI. Some of these lesions, especially those of steatosis and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, are associated with a worse prognosis and risk of hepatic failure in the context of surgical management. Notably, some chemotherapy-induced hepatic alterations, such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, pseudocirrhosis and focal hepatopathies, may be mistakenly interpreted as signs of cancer progression, misguiding the therapeutic planning for patients receiving chemotherapy.

Br J Pain ; 15(2): 221-233, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055343


BACKGROUND: The main symptoms of fibromyalgia comprise diffuse pain, disability, depressive symptoms, catastrophizing, sleep disruption and fatigue, associated with dysfunction of the descending pain-modulating system (DPMS). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify patterns of main symptoms of fibromyalgia and neuroplasticity biomarkers (i.e. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100B protein) in non-responders to the conditioned pain modulation task (CPM-task) induced by immersion of hand in cold water (0-1°C). Furthermore, we evaluated if these patterns predict responsiveness to CPM-task. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 117 women with fibromyalgia ((n = 60) non-responders and (n = 57) responders), with age ranging from 30 to 65 years old. We analysed changes in numerical pain scale (NPS-10) during the CPM-task using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: A hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to construct a propensity score-adjusted index to identify non-responders compared to responders to CPM-task. The following variables were retained in the models: analgesic use four or more times per week, heat pain threshold (HPT), poor sleep quality, pain catastrophizing, serum levels of BDNF, number of psychiatric diagnoses and the impact of symptoms of fibromyalgia on quality of life. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis showed non-responders can be discriminated from responders by a composite index of more frequent symptoms of fibromyalgia and neuroplasticity markers (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.83, sensitivity = 100% and specificity = 98%). CONCLUSION: Patterns of fibromyalgia symptoms and neuroplasticity markers may be helpful to predict responsiveness to the CPM-task which might help personalize treatment and thereby contribute to the care of patients with fibromyalgia.

BJR Case Rep ; 7(4): 20200139, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047190


Formerly called dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) of the septum pellucidum, myxoid glioneuronal tumour (MGT) was recently recognized as a distinct entity. We report three cases of presumed MGT with typical location and image features.

Neuroradiol J ; 33(5): 368-373, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666873


Central nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increasingly been recognised in the literature, and possible mechanisms of neuroinvasion, neurotropism and neurovirulence have been described. Neurological signs have been described in 84% of COVID-19 intensive care unit patients, and haemostatic abnormalities in such patients may play an important role, with a broad spectrum of neuroimaging findings. This report describes the magnetic resonance imaging neurovascular findings in an acutely ill patient with COVID-19, including perfusion abnormalities depicted in the arterial spin labelling technique.

Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Corpo Caloso , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pandemias , Lobo Parietal , Imagem de Perfusão , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Marcadores de Spin , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Tálamo
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263406


Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES), which encompasses several techniques with heterogeneous physiological responses, has shown in some cases remarkable outcomes for pain treatment and clinical rehabilitation. However, results are still mixed, mainly because there is a lack of understanding regarding its neural mechanisms of action. In this study, we aimed to assess its effects by measuring cortical activation as indexed by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). fNIRS is a functional optical imaging method to evaluate hemodynamic changes in oxygenated (HbO) and de-oxygenated (HbR) blood hemoglobin concentrations in cortical capillary networks that can be related to cortical activity. We hypothesized that non-painful PES of accessory spinal nerve (ASN) can promote cortical activation of sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) pain processing cortical areas. Fifteen healthy volunteers received both active and sham ASN electrical stimulation in a crossover study. The hemodynamic cortical response to unilateral right ASN burst electrical stimulation with 10 Hz was measured by a 40-channel fNIRS system. The effect of ASN electrical stimulation over HbO concentration in cortical areas of interest (CAI) was observed through the activation of right-DLPFC (p = 0.025) and left-SMC (p = 0.042) in the active group but not in sham group. Regarding left-DLPFC (p = 0.610) and right-SMC (p = 0.174) there was no statistical difference between groups. As in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) top-down modulation, bottom-up electrical stimulation to the ASN seems to activate the same critical cortical areas on pain pathways related to sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational pain dimensions. These results provide additional mechanistic evidence to develop and optimize the use of peripheral nerve electrical stimulation as a neuromodulatory tool (NCT03295370-

Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(1): 146-157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412010


The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers. The findings provide evidence for brain connectivity and function differences in an underrepresented population in fMRI studies of dyslexia; the results suggest atypical intrinsic function, and differences in directed attention processes in dyslexia.

Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Leitura , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 29(1): ID32295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009928


AIMS: To validate the Brazilian version of the Fresno test of competence in Evidence-Based Medicine. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, validation study. Phase 1: translation of the Fresno instrument. Phase 2: validation of the translated version, which was tested in 70 undergraduate medical students. The psychometric properties evaluated were validity, internal consistency, and sensitivity to change. RESULTS: Overall, validity was adequate; most items showed a moderate to strong and significant correlation with the total score; there was an important and significant difference between both groups, with and without previous contact with Evidence-Based Medicine (median, 55 [IQ25-75, 45.2-61.7] vs. median, 18.5 [IQ25-75, 6.0-29.7]) (p<0.001). Internal consistency was also adequate (α-C 0.718), and sensitivity to change showed a considerable and significant difference between pre and post-test (median, 18.5 [IQ25-75, 6.0-29.7] vs. median, 44 [IQ25-75, 34.0-60.0]) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Fresno test showed satisfactory psychometric properties, and it can now be used as a tool to assess the knowledge and skills of Evidence-Based Medicine in Brazilian medical students.

OBJETIVOS: Validar a versão brasileira do teste Fresno de competência em Medicina Baseada em Evidências. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal de validação. Fase 1: tradução do instrumento Fresno. Fase 2: validação da versão traduzida, testada em 70 estudantes de graduação em medicina. As propriedades psicométricas avaliadas foram validade, consistência interna e sensibilidade à mudança. RESULTADOS: No geral, a validade foi adequada; a maioria dos itens apresentou correlação moderada a forte e significativa com o escore total; houve diferença importante e significativa entre os dois grupos, com e sem contato prévio com medicina baseada em evidências (mediana, 55 [IQ25-75, 45,2-61,7] vs. mediana, 18,5 [IQ25-75, 6,0-29,7]) (p<0,001). A consistência interna também foi adequada (α-C 0,718), e a sensibilidade à mudança mostrou uma diferença considerável e significativa entre o pré e o pós-teste (mediana, 18,5 [IQ25-75, 6,0-29,7] vs. mediana, 44 [IQ25-75], 34,0-60,0]) (p<0,001). CONCLUSÕES: A versão brasileira do teste Fresno mostrou propriedades psicométricas satisfatórias, e agora pode ser usada como uma ferramenta para avaliar o conhecimento e as habilidades da Medicina Baseada em Evidências em estudantes de medicina brasileiros.

Medicina Baseada em Evidências
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 406, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510505


Background: The fibromyalgia (FM) physiopathology involves an intracortical excitability/inhibition imbalance as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation measures (TMS). TMS measures provide an index that can help to understand how the basal neuronal plasticity state (i.e., levels of the serum neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100-B protein) could predict the effect of therapeutic approaches on the cortical circuitries. We used an experimental paradigm to evaluate if pregabalin could be more effective than a placebo, to improve the disinhibition in the cortical circuitries in FM patients, than in healthy subjects (HS). We compared the acute intragroup effect of pregabalin with the placebo in FM patients and healthy subjects (HS) on the current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI), which were the primary outcomes. Pain scores and the pain pressure threshold (PPT) were secondary outcomes. Methods: This study included 27 women (17 FM and 10 HS), with ages ranging from 19 to 65 years. In a blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, participants were randomized to receive, in a cross-over manner, oral pregabalin of 150 mg or a placebo. The cortical excitability pain measures were assessed before and 90 min after receiving the medication. Results: A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed that in FM, pregabalin increased the CSP by 14.34% [confidence interval (CI) 95%; 4.02 to 21.63] and the placebo reduced the CSP by 1.58% (CI 95%; -57 to 25.9) (P = 0.00). Pregabalin reduced the SICI by 8.82% (CI 95%, -26 to 46.00) and the placebo increased it by 19.56% (CI 95%; 8.10 to 59.45; P = 0.02). Pregabalin also improved the pain measures. In the treatment group, the BDNF-adjusted index was positively correlated and the serum S100-B negatively correlated with the CSP, respectively. However, in the HS, pregabalin and the placebo did not induce a statistically significant effect in either intracortical excitability or pain measures. Conclusion: These results suggest that pregabalin's effect on cortical neural networks occurs, particularly under basal neuronal hyperexcitability, because its impact on the cortical excitability and the pain measures was observed only in the FM group. This indicates that pregabalin increased the CSP to induce inhibition in specific neural networks, while it increased the SICI to improve the excitability in other neurobiological systems. Trial registration in Identifier: NCT02639533.

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 9(6): 167-176, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854386


Background: Overweight and obesity are significant public health concerns that are prevalent in younger age cohorts. Preventive or therapeutic interventions are difficult to implement and maintain over time. On the other hand, the majority of adolescents in the United States have a smartphone, representing a huge potential for innovative digitized interventions, such as weight loss programs delivered via smartphone applications. Although the number of available smartphone applications is increasing, evidence for their effectiveness in weight loss is insufficient. Therefore, the proposed study aims to assess the efficacy of a gamification-based smartphone application for weight loss in overweight and obese adolescents. The trial is designed to be a phase II, single-centre, two-arm, triple-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a duration of 6 months. Method: The intervention consists of a smartphone application that provides both tracking and gamification elements, while the control arm consists of an identically designed application solely with tracking features of health information. The proposed trial will be conducted in an urban primary care clinic of an academic centre in the United States of America, with expertise in the management of overweight and obese adolescents. Eligible adolescents will be followed for 6 months. Changes in body mass index z score from baseline to 6 months will be the primary outcome. Secondary objectives will explore the effects of the gamification-based application on adherence, as well as anthropometric, metabolic and behavioural changes. A required sample size of 108 participants (54 participants per group) was calculated. Discussion: The benefits of the proposed study include mid-term effects in weight reduction for overweight and obese adolescents. The current proposal will contribute to fill a gap in the literature on the mid-term effects of gamification-based interventions to control weight in adolescents. This trial is a well-designed RCT that is in line with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement.

Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-882918


Acidente vascular cerebral é uma emergência médica de alta morbimortalidade cuja conduta depende do tempo de início dos sintomas, da agilidade diagnóstica e de técnicas de neuroimagem. Diferenciar quadros isquêmicos de hemorrágicos com a tomografia computadorizada (TC) de crânio com contraste é fundamental para definir tratamento.

Stroke is a medical emergency with a high rate of morbidity and mortality in which treatment depends on the onset of the symptoms, on the diagnostic agility and on neuroimaging technics. Differentiation between ischemic and hemorrhagic type of stroke using a non-contrast CT scan of the brain is very important to define treatment.

Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Emergências
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-883001


Delirium é um estado confusional agudo, patologia neuropsiquiátrica de forte importância em contexto emergencial e frequentemente subdiagnosticada. De etiologia variada, os pacientes com delirium devem receber manejo imediato e investigação causal básica para resolução completa do quadro.

Delirium is an acute confusional state, a neuropsychiatric pathology with great importance in the emergency department and frequently underdiagnosed. With multiple etiology, patients with delirium should receive immediate management and workup for complete clinical resolution.

Delírio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Manifestações Neurocomportamentais
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-883025


Os suportes básicos e avançados de vida continuam a ser a chave para melhorar os resultados de sobrevivência da parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR). O objetivo deste artigo é atualizar a abordagem da PCR, enfatizando os diferentes cenários clínicos e individualizando as terapias conforme o ritmo e a etiologia.

Basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support continue to be the key to improve survival rates of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). The purpose of this article is to update the approach to SCA, emphasizing the different clinical scenarios and individualizing therapies according to rhythm and etiology.

Parada Cardíaca , Cardiopatias , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Massagem Cardíaca
Sci. med ; 25(2): ID20313, abr.-jun. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-832143


Aims: Published evidence suggests that Vitamin D supplementation may have a protective effect on infectious disease of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this review was to critically appraise the effects of vitamin D intake in the prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis in children. Methods: We searched the databases Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, until December 2014, using the keywords: "Vitamin D" or cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol and "bronchiolitis, viral" or "viral bronchiolitis" or "bronchiolitides, viral" or "viral bronchiolitides". Studies evaluating the effect of vitamin D intake in the prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis in young children were included. Studies with less than two weeks of intervention and review articles were excluded. Results: The search identified 241 articles, among which 20 articles were selected for full reading and two articles were included in the systematic review, comprising 296 children. No study measured serum levels of vitamin D. One of the included studies was a clinical trial, where the number of episodes of acute viral bronchiolitis was significantly lower in children supplemented with vitamin D (Group I: mean 0.6±0.7 Group II: mean 1.4±0.9; P=0.001). The other, a case-control study, did not find a significant relationship between the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis cases and the intake of vitamin D (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 0.7-4.0). Conclusions: Current scientific evidence is insufficient to prove clinical benefits of vitamin D in preventing acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objetivos: Evidências publicadas sugerem que a suplementação da vitamina D pode ter efeito protetor nas infecções do trato respiratório inferior. O objetivo desta revisão foi avaliar os efeitos da ingestão de vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda em crianças. Métodos: Foram feitas buscas nas bases de dados Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, até dezembro de 2014, usando os descritores "Vitamin D" ou cholecalciferol ou ergocalciferol e "bronchiolitis, viral" ou "viral bronchiolitis" ou "bronchiolitides, viral" ou "viral bronchiolitides". Foram incluídos estudos que avaliaram o efeito da ingesta da vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda em crianças. Estudos com intervenção menor que duas semanas e artigos de revisão foram excluídos. Resultados: A busca identificou 241 artigos, entre os quais 20 artigos foram selecionados para leitura na íntegra e dois artigos foram incluídos na revisão sistemática, incluindo 296 crianças. Nenhum estudo mediu os níveis séricos de vitamina D. Um dos estudos incluídos foi um ensaio clinico, no qual o número de episódios de bronquiolite foi significativamente menor nas crianças suplementadas com vitamina D (Grupo I: média 0,6±0,7 Grupo II: média 1,4 ±0,9; P=0,001). No outro, um estudo de casos e controles, não se encontrou relação significativa entre casos de bronquiolite viral aguda e ingesta de vitamina D (odds ratio 1,7 ­ intervalo de confiança 95% 0,7-4,0). Conclusões: As evidências científicas atuais são insuficientes para comprovar os benefícios clínicos da vitamina D na prevenção da bronquiolite viral aguda.

Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879695


Diplopia aguda é um sintoma incomum, mas presente na cena de urgência e nos consultórios clínicos. A avaliação da diplopia é desafiadora para o médico generalista, pois envolve conhecimentos de múltiplas áreas. A correta avaliação inicial e identificação dos sinais de gravidade são fundamentais para manejo de condições potencialmente ameaçadoras à vida do paciente.

Acute diplopia is an uncommon but present symptom in emergence scene and generalists practice. The evaluation of diplopia is challenging for the general practitioner because it demands multiple medical areas knowledge. The proper initial evaluation of this symptom and identification of gravity signals is crucial to life threatening conditions.

Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 36: [10], 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879697


O abdome agudo não traumático é uma síndrome clínica muito frequente na prática médica e que exige diagnóstico rápido e preciso para orientar a abordagem terapêutica mais adequada. Os exames de imagem tem fundamental importância no processo diagnóstico, sendo a radiologia convencional, a ultrassonografia e a tomografia computadorizada os exames mais utilizados.

The non-traumatic acute abdomen is a very common clinical syndrome in medical practice and requires rapid e accurate diagnosis to guide the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Imaging studies are essencial in the diagnosis process. Conventional radiography, ultrassonography and computed tomography are the most used.

Abdome Agudo , Radiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 36: [11], 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879720


O presente capítulo tem como objetivos a explanação, classificação, abordagem e manejo da dor crônica na prática médica. Foi escolhido dada sua importância no dia-a-dia do profissional de saúde. Este capítulo está dividido em introdução, classificação, neurofisiologia da dor, apresentação do paciente com dor crônica, tratamento e conclusão.

Our aim in this chapter is to explain, classify, assess and manage chronic pain in medical practice. The topic was chosen due to its relevance in daily health care practice. This chapter is divided into introduction, classification, pain neurophysiology, the patient presented with chronic pain, treatment and conclusion.

Dor , Analgesia , Dor Crônica