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1.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799703

RESUMO

In addition to their detection in typical X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, hypomorphic mutations in the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain gene (IL2RG) have been described in patients with atypical clinical and immunological phenotypes. In this leaky clinical phenotype, the diagnosis is often delayed, limiting prompt therapy in these patients. Here, we report the biochemical and functional characterization of a nonsense mutation in exon 8 (p.R328X) of IL2RG in 2 siblings: a 4-year-old boy with lethal Epstein Barr virus-related lymphoma and his asymptomatic 8-month-old brother with a Tlow B+ NK+ immunophenotype, dysgammaglobulinemia, abnormal lymphocyte proliferation, and reduced levels of T cell receptor excision circles. After confirming normal IL2RG expression (CD132) on T lymphocytes, STAT5 phosphorylation was examined to evaluate the functionality of the common gamma chain (γc ), which showed partially preserved function. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to assess the interaction capacity of the R328X mutant with JAK3, concluding that R328X impairs JAK3 binding to γc . Here, we describe how the R328X mutation in IL2RG may allow partial phosphorylation of STAT5 through a JAK3-independent pathway. We identified a region of 3 amino acids in the γc intracellular domain that may be critical for receptor stabilization and allow this alternative signaling. Identification of the functional consequences of pathogenic IL2RG variants at the cellular level is important to enable better understanding of partial defects leading to leaky phenotypes.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681265

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) refer to a clinically, immunologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of over 350 disorders affecting development or function of the immune system. The increasing use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly facilitated identification of genetic defects in PID patients in daily clinical practice. Several NGS approaches are available, from the unbiased whole exome sequencing (WES) to specific gene panels. Here, we report on a 3-year experience with clinical exome sequencing (CES) for genetic diagnosis of PIDs. We used the TruSight One sequencing panel, which includes 4,813 disease-associated genes, in 61 unrelated patients (pediatric and adults). The analysis was done in 2 steps: first, we focused on a virtual PID panel and then, we expanded the analysis to the remaining genes. A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 19 (31%) patients: 12 (20%) with mutations in genes included in the virtual PID panel and 7 (11%) with mutations in other genes. These latter cases provided interesting and somewhat unexpected findings that expand the clinical and genetic spectra of PID-related disorders, and are useful to consider in the differential diagnosis. We also discuss 5 patients (8%) with incomplete genotypes or variants of uncertain significance. Finally, we address the limitations of CES exemplified by 7 patients (11%) with negative results on CES who were later diagnosed by other approaches (more specific PID panels, WES, and comparative genomic hybridization array). In summary, the genetic diagnosis rate using CES was 31% (including a description of 12 novel mutations), which rose to 42% after including diagnoses achieved by later use of other techniques. The description of patients with mutations in genes not included in the PID classification illustrates the heterogeneity and complexity of PID-related disorders.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695692

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the most severe form of T-cell immunodeficiency, can be screened at birth by quantifying T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Early detection of this condition speeds up the establishment of appropriate treatment and increases the patient's life expectancy. Newborn screening for SCID started in January 2017 in Catalonia, the first Spanish and European region to universally include this testing. The results obtained in the first 2 years of experience are evaluated here. All babies born between January 2017 and December 2018 were screened. TREC quantification in DBS (1.5 mm diameter) was performed with the Enlite Neonatal TREC kit from PerkinElmer (Turku, Finland). In 2018, the retest cutoff in the detection algorithm was updated based on the experience gained in the first year, and changed from 34 to 24 copies/µL. This decreased the retest rate from 3.34 to 1.4% (global retest rate, 2.4%), with a requested second sample rate of 0.23% and a positive detection rate of 0.02%. Lymphocyte phenotype (T, B, NK populations), expression of CD45RA/RO isoforms, percentage and intensity of TCR αß and TCR γδ, presence of HLA-DR+ T lymphocytes, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation were studied in all patients by flow cytometry. Of 130,903 newborns screened, 30 tested positive, 15 of which were male. During the study period, one patient was diagnosed with SCID: incidence, 1 in 130,903 births in Catalonia. Thirteen patients had clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (non-SCID) with an incidence of 1 in 10,069 newborns (43% of positive detections). Nine patients were considered false-positive cases because of an initially normal lymphocyte count with normalization of TRECs between 3 and 6 months of life, four infants had transient lymphopenia due to an initially low lymphocyte count with recovery in the following months, and three patients are still under study. The results obtained provide further evidence of the benefits of including this disease in newborn screening programs. Longer follow-up is needed to define the exact incidence of SCID in Catalonia.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on Candida bloodstream infections in pediatric patients in Europe are limited. We performed a retrospective multicenter European study of the epidemiology and outcome of neonatal and pediatric candidemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All first positive blood cultures from patients ≤ 18 years of age with candidemia were registered. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and causative Candida species were collected and analyzed. Regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with mortality. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred ninety-five episodes of candidemia (57.8% male) were reported from 23 hospitals in 10 European countries. Of the 1395 episodes, 36.4% occurred in neonates (≤ 44 weeks postmenstrual age), 13.8% in infants (> 44 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year) and 49.8% in children and adolescents. Candida albicans (52.5%) and Candida parapsilosis (28%) were the predominant species. A higher proportion of candidemia caused by C. albicans was observed among neonatal patients (60.2%) with highest rates of C. parapsilosis seen among infants (42%). Children admitted to hematology-oncology wards presented the highest rates of non-albicans Candida species. Candidemia because of C. albicans was more frequent than non-albicans Candida in Northern versus Southern Europe (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.9; P < 0.001). The all-cause mortality at 30 days was 14.4%. All-cause mortality was higher among patients admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care units than other wards. Over time, no significant changes in species distribution were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This first multicenter European study shows unique characteristics of the epidemiology of pediatric candidemia. The insights obtained from this study will be useful to guide clinical management and antifungal stewardship.

6.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(5): 351.e1-351.e13, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635925

RESUMO

A progressive increase in the incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms is being reported. Among these resistant microorganisms, the main threats are extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-, AmpC-, and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. To address this important problem, it is essential to establish pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship programs, perform active epidemiological surveillance and develop an adequate infection control policy. The therapeutic approach of these infections is often complex, frequently requiring antibiotics with less experience in children. In this position document made by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics and the Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the epidemiology and treatment of these infections are reviewed according to the best available evidence.

7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1016, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current scenario of newborn screening is changing as DNA studies are being included in the programs of several countries. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disorders can be detected using quantitative PCR assays to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a byproduct of correct T-cell development. However, in addition to SCID, other T-cell-deficient phenotypes such as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 duplication syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, and trisomy 21 are detected. METHODS: We present our experience with the detection of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 22q11.2 duplication syndrome in a series of 103,903 newborns included in the newborn screening program of Catalonia (Spain). RESULTS: Thirty newborns tested were positive (low TREC levels) and five were found to have copy number variations at the 22q11 region (4 deletions and 1 duplication) when investigated with array comparative genomic hybridization technology and MLPA. CONCLUSION: Newborn screening for SCID enables detection of several conditions, such as 22q syndromes, which should be managed by prompt, proactive approaches with adequate counseling for families by a multidisciplinary team.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515866

RESUMO

HIV co-infection has been suggested to play a deleterious role on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis among vertically HCV-infected children. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal evolution of vertically acquired HIV/HCV co-infection in youths, in comparison with HCV infection alone. This was a retrospective, multicentre study including vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients and age- and sex-matched vertically HCV-mono-infected patients. Progression to advanced liver fibrosis, defined as F3 or more by elastography or METAVIR biopsy staging, and response to treatment were compared by means of univariate and multivariate regression analyses and Cox regression models. Sixty-seven co-infected patients were compared with 67 matched HCV-mono-infected patients. No progression to advanced liver disease was observed during the first decade. At a median age of 20.0 [19.0, 22.0] years, 26.7% co-infected vs 20% mono-infected had progressed to advanced fibrosis (P = .617). Peg-IFN/RBV for HCV treatment was given to 37.9% vs 86.6% (P-value < .001). At treatment initiation, co-infected patients were older (16.9 ± 4.1 vs 11.7 ± 4.5 years, P < .001), and 47.1% vs 7.1% showed advanced fibrosis (P < .003), with no differences in hard-to-treat genotype distribution. Sustained viral response was comparable between groups (43.5% vs 44.0%, P = .122). In vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients, the progression to liver fibrosis was rare during childhood. At the end of adolescence, over 25% of patients displayed advanced liver disease. Response to Peg-IFN/RBV was poor and comparable in both groups, supporting the need for fast access to early treatment with direct-acting antivirals against HCV for vertically co-infected patients.

9.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a life-threatening condition in immunocompromised children. Our aim is to analyze the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of PJP cases in our setting, describing the prognosis and related risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective study including all pediatric patients (≤18 years) with PJP admitted to our hospital (January 1989-December 2016). Case definition: patient with acute pneumonitis and P.jirovecii detection in bronchoalveolar lavage or tracheal aspirate using methenamine silver or direct antibody fluorescence staining, or Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases (0.9 cases/year) were identified. Median age was 2.2 years (interquartile range: 0.5-12.3), 64% were male, and 12% were receiving appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Cytomegalovirus coinfection was detected in 26% cases. The most common underlying diseases were primary immunodeficiencies (36%) and 16% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. Eighteen were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and overall 30-day mortality was 20% (31.25% in HIV non-infected vs 0% in HIV-infected patients; OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.02-7.24, p=0.55). Clinical outcome was worse in girls and those patients requiring adjuvant steroid therapy. HIV non-infected patients, higher initial LDH, younger age and shorter time elapsed between diagnosis of PJP and the underlying disease were identified as risk factors to be admitted to the PICU (p=0.05, p=0.026, p=0.04 and p=0.001 respectively). CONCLUSION: Accompanying the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy, PJP has been diagnosed almost exclusively in HIV non-infected children at our institution. Moreover, significant higher morbidity rates associated with PJP are seen in this group of patients.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15532, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses. Serial serologic testing is required for the diagnosis of congenital infection when diagnostic molecular biology is not possible. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 2-year-old girl, born to a mother with confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy, with a confirmed ZIKV infection in utero, showed at birth a severe microcephaly and clinical characteristics of fetal brain disruption sequence compatible with a congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS). DIAGNOSIS: ZIKV-RNA and ZIKV-IgM serological response performed at birth and during the follow-up time tested always negative. Serial serologic ZIKV-IgG tests were performed to assess the laboratory ZIKV diagnosis, ZIKV-IgG seroreversion was observed at 21 months of age. ZIKV diagnosis of this baby had to be relied on her clinical and radiological characteristics that were compatible with a CZS. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was followed-up as per protocol at approximately 1, 4, 9, 12, 18-21, and 24 months of age. Neurological, radiological, audiological, and ophthalmological assessment were performed during this period of time. Prompt rehabilitation was initiated to prevent potential adverse long-term neurological outcomes. OUTCOMES: The growth of this girl showed a great restriction at 24 months of age with a weight of 8.5 kg (-2.5 z-score) and a head circumference of 40.5 cm (-4.8 z-score). She also had a great neurodevelopmental delay at the time of this report. CONCLUSION: We presume that as a consequence of prenatal ZIKV infection, the fetal brain and other organs are damaged before birth through direct injury. Following this, active infection ends during intrauterine life, and as a consequence the immune system of the infant is unable to build up a consistent immune response thereafter. Further understanding of the mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital infection is needed. This finding might change our paradigm regarding serological response in the ZIKV congenital infection.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Testes Sorológicos , Espanha , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929024

RESUMO

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients.

12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 586, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984175

RESUMO

Background: Immunodeficiencies (ID), in particular primary immunodeficiencies (PID), are often associated with haematological manifestations, such as peripheral cytopenias or lymphoproliferative syndromes. Early diagnosis and management have significant prognostic implications. Secondary immunodeficiencies (SID) may also be induced by oncohaematological diseases and their treatments. Haematologists and oncologists must therefore be aware of the association between blood disorders and cancer and ID, and be prepared to offer their patients appropriate treatment without delay. Our aim was to define the warning signs of primary and secondary IDs in paediatric and adult patients with oncohaematological manifestations. Methods: A multidisciplinary group of six experts (2 haematologists, 2 immunologists, and 2 paediatricians specializing in ID) conducted a literature review and prepared a document based on agreements reached an in-person meeting. An external group of 44 IDs specialists from all over Spain assessed the document and were consulted regarding their level of agreement. Results: This document identifies the haematological and extra-haematological diseases that should prompt a suspicion of PIDs in adults and children, in both primary care and haematology and oncology departments. Cytopenia and certain lymphoproliferative disorders are key diagnostic pointers. The diagnosis must be based on a detailed clinical history, physical exploration, complete blood count and standard laboratory tests. The immunological and haematological tests included in the diagnostic process will depend on the care level. Patients who are candidates for immunoglobulin replacement therapy must be carefully selected, and treatment should be offered as soon as possible to avoid the development of complications. Finally, this document recommends procedures for monitoring these patients. Conclusions: This document combines scientific evidence with the opinion of a broad panel of experts, and emphasizes the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment to avoid complications. The resulting document is a useful tool for primary care physicians and specialists who see both adult and paediatric patients with oncohaematological diseases.

13.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 90(3): 141-147, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178366

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la seguridad y la eficacia de la combinación de ledipasvir/sofosbuvir en la infección crónica por el genotipo 1 y 4 del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) en pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: Se incluyó a pacientes de entre 6 y 18 años. La duración y la dosis de los fármacos antivirales se administraron según la edad del paciente, el estadio de fibrosis y los tratamientos previos con interferón pegilado y ribavirina. La variable principal de eficacia fue el porcentaje de pacientes con una respuesta virológica sostenida 12 semanas (RVS12) después del tratamiento. Resultados: Nueve pacientes con una mediana de edad de 14,8 años (8,48-17,91) fueron tratados con combinación de ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Cinco pacientes habían recibido previamente tratamiento con interferón pegilado + ribavirina. Ocho pacientes tenían algún grado de fibrosis. La mediana de la carga viral previa al tratamiento fue de 6,2 log (5,9-6,8) con negativización del ARN del VHC 6 semanas después de comenzar el tratamiento en el 100% de los pacientes. Todos los pacientes mantuvieron una respuesta viral sostenida a las 12 semanas. Tres pacientes (33,3%) tuvieron algún tipo de efecto adverso (2 dolores de cabeza y un afta oral). La mediana de seguimiento posterior al tratamiento fue de 24 semanas (12-104). Conclusiones: El tratamiento con ledipasvir/sofosbuvir en pacientes pediátricos con infección crónica por VHC de genotipo 1 y 4 es seguro y efectivo con RVS12, similar a lo reportado en adultos


Introduction: Hepatitis C virus infection is world health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination in chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 infection in paediatric patients. Methods: Eligible patients to be treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir were patients from 6 to 18 years old with a chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection. The duration and doses of antiviral drugs were changed depending on patient age, fibrosis stage, and PEGylated interferon+ribavirin experience status. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with a sustained virological response 12 weeks post-treatment. Results: A total of nine patients (7 males) with a median age of 14.8 years (8.48-17.91) were treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination. Five patients received previous treatment with PEGylated interferon + ribavirin during a median of 8.5 months (3-12 months). Eight patients had some degree of fibrosis (1 patient presented with F1, three patients F2, 2 patients F3, and 2 patients F4). The median pre-treatment viral load was 6.2 Log [5.9-6.8] with the HCV RNA becoming negative six weeks after starting the treatment in 100% of the patients. All patients maintained a sustained viral response at 12 weeks. Three patients (33.3%) had some type of adverse effect (2 headache and one oral thrush). The median post-treatment follow-up was 24 weeks (12-104). Conclusions: Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in paediatric patients with chronic HCV infection genotype 1 and 4 is safe and effective with SVR12 and similar to those reported in adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Infecção/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudo Observacional
15.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2397, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386343

RESUMO

LRBA deficiency was first described in 2012 as an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the LRBA gene (OMIM #614700). It was initially characterized as producing early-onset hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune manifestations, susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease, and recurrent infection. However, further reports expanded this phenotype (including patients without hypogammaglobulinemia) and described LRBA deficiency as a clinically variable syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We present the case of a female patient who presented with type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, oral thrush, and enlarged liver and spleen at the age of 8 months. She later experienced recurrent bacterial and viral infections, including pneumococcal meningitis and Epstein Barr viremia. She underwent two consecutive stem cell transplants at the age of 8 and 9 years, and ultimately died. Samples from the patient and her parents were subjected to whole exome sequencing, which revealed a homozygous 1-bp insertion in exon 23 of the patient's LRBA gene, resulting in frameshift and premature stop codon. The patient's healthy mother was heterozygous for the mutation and her father tested wild-type. This finding suggested that either one copy of the paternal chromosome 4 bore a deletion including the LRBA locus, or the patient inherited two copies of the mutant maternal LRBA allele. The patient's sequencing data showed a 1-Mb loss of heterozygosity region in chromosome 4, including the LRBA gene. Comparative genomic hybridization array of the patient's and father's genomic DNA yielded normal findings, ruling out genomic copy number abnormalities. Here, we present the first case of LRBA deficiency due to a uniparental disomy (UPD). In contrast to classical Mendelian inheritance, UPD involves inheritance of 2 copies of a chromosomal region from only 1 parent. Specifically, our patient carried a small segmental isodisomy of maternal origin affecting 1 Mb of chromosome 4.

18.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 219, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are common in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) and contribute to morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, their varied presentation and a general lack of awareness of PID in this setting make early diagnosis and treatment difficult. The aim of this study was to define the warning signs of PID in patients with respiratory manifestations, the necessary diagnostic tests, and the therapeutic management of both children and adults. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed, and 43 PID interdisciplinary specialists were consulted. RESULTS: This document identifies the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations that should prompt a suspicion of PID, the immunological and respiratory tests that should be included in the diagnostic process according to the level of care, recommendations regarding the use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy according to the specific immunodeficiency, and the minimum recommended immunological and pulmonary monitoring in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: This document is the first to combine scientific evidence with the opinion of a broad panel of experts specializing in the treatment of patients with immunodeficiencies. It aims to provide a useful tool for all practitioners who are regularly involved in the management of these patients.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the accurate diagnosis of immunodeficiencies is crucial to compare patients' immunology laboratory values with age-sex matched controls, yet there is a paucity of normal values for most populations. OBJECTIVES: To define appropriate reference values of extended lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell receptor excision circle (TRECs) levels in healthy pediatric donors between 1 month and 18 years of age. METHODS: Extended immunophenotyping values were obtained by analysis of multiparameter flow cytometry panels for the following subpopulations: CD4+ and CD8+ Naive, Effector, Effector Memory and Central Memory, T helper subpopulations and their degrees of activation, T Regulatory cells, Recent Thymic Emigrants (RTE), B Lymphocyte subpopulations (Transitional, Naive, Preswitch-Memory, Switch-Memory, Plasmablasts, CD21low, and Exhausted), and subpopulations for Monocytes, NK cells and Dendritic Cells. RESULTS: Median values and the 10th and 90th percentiles were obtained for 32 lymphocyte and monocyte subpopulations, and for TRECs levels in each age group of children. Naive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations tended to decrease with age, with significant difference between the groups, in parallel with the reduction in thymic function assessed by TRECs counts and the recent thymic emigrant population. Relative numbers of Th cell populations tended to increase with age. The percentage of class-switched B cell populations showed a significant increase between the youngest group and the others. CONCLUSION: This study provides essential data for interpreting extended immunophenotyping profiles in the pediatric and young adult populations, which could be of value for the diagnosis of PIDs and immune-mediated diseases, particularly those associated with subtle immunological abnormalities. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

20.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial defined daily dose (DDD), has limitations for antimicrobial consumption measurement in paediatrics. An alternative DDD design applicable for children is proposed. METHODS: Children (<16 years-old) from 10 Spanish hospitals during a 12-months period were included. Weight for age (50th percentile) was calculated for the median age of the cohort using standardized World Health Organization tables. DDD (g) for each antimicrobial was calculated by multiplying the obtained weight times the recommended dose (mg/kg) of the antimicrobial for the most common infectious indication. RESULTS: A total of 40,575 children were included. Median age was 4.17 (IQR: 1.36-8.98) and 4.81 (IQR: 1.42-9.60) years for boys and girls, respectively. Mean weight for this age was 17.08kg. Standardized DDD for representative antimicrobials were calculated. CONCLUSIONS: A useful method for antimicrobial DDD measurement in paediatrics has been proposed and should be validated in future studies for its use in paediatric antimicrobial stewardship programmes.

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