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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(2): 114-120, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on Candida bloodstream infections in pediatric patients in Europe are limited. We performed a retrospective multicenter European study of the epidemiology and outcome of neonatal and pediatric candidemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All first positive blood cultures from patients ≤ 18 years of age with candidemia were registered. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and causative Candida species were collected and analyzed. Regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with mortality. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred ninety-five episodes of candidemia (57.8% male) were reported from 23 hospitals in 10 European countries. Of the 1395 episodes, 36.4% occurred in neonates (≤ 44 weeks postmenstrual age), 13.8% in infants (> 44 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year) and 49.8% in children and adolescents. Candida albicans (52.5%) and Candida parapsilosis (28%) were the predominant species. A higher proportion of candidemia caused by C. albicans was observed among neonatal patients (60.2%) with highest rates of C. parapsilosis seen among infants (42%). Children admitted to hematology-oncology wards presented the highest rates of non-albicans Candida species. Candidemia because of C. albicans was more frequent than non-albicans Candida in Northern versus Southern Europe (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.9; P < 0.001). The all-cause mortality at 30 days was 14.4%. All-cause mortality was higher among patients admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care units than other wards. Over time, no significant changes in species distribution were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This first multicenter European study shows unique characteristics of the epidemiology of pediatric candidemia. The insights obtained from this study will be useful to guide clinical management and antifungal stewardship.

2.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(1): 61-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515866

RESUMO

HIV co-infection has been suggested to play a deleterious role on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis among vertically HCV-infected children. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal evolution of vertically acquired HIV/HCV co-infection in youths, in comparison with HCV infection alone. This was a retrospective, multicentre study including vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients and age- and sex-matched vertically HCV-mono-infected patients. Progression to advanced liver fibrosis, defined as F3 or more by elastography or METAVIR biopsy staging, and response to treatment were compared by means of univariate and multivariate regression analyses and Cox regression models. Sixty-seven co-infected patients were compared with 67 matched HCV-mono-infected patients. No progression to advanced liver disease was observed during the first decade. At a median age of 20.0 [19.0, 22.0] years, 26.7% co-infected vs 20% mono-infected had progressed to advanced fibrosis (P = .617). Peg-IFN/RBV for HCV treatment was given to 37.9% vs 86.6% (P-value < .001). At treatment initiation, co-infected patients were older (16.9 ± 4.1 vs 11.7 ± 4.5 years, P < .001), and 47.1% vs 7.1% showed advanced fibrosis (P < .003), with no differences in hard-to-treat genotype distribution. Sustained viral response was comparable between groups (43.5% vs 44.0%, P = .122). In vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients, the progression to liver fibrosis was rare during childhood. At the end of adolescence, over 25% of patients displayed advanced liver disease. Response to Peg-IFN/RBV was poor and comparable in both groups, supporting the need for fast access to early treatment with direct-acting antivirals against HCV for vertically co-infected patients.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92: 114-122, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current knowledge on infections caused by Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans in children is scarce. We therefore aim to provide an overview of risk groups, clinical manifestation and treatment strategies of these infections. METHODS: Pediatric patients (age ≤18 years) with proven/probable Scedosporium spp. or L. prolificans infection were identified in PubMed and the FungiScope® registry. Data on diagnosis, treatment and outcome were collected. RESULTS: Fifty-five children (median age 9 years [IQR: 5-14]) with invasive Scedosporium spp. (n = 33) or L. prolificans (n = 22) infection were identified between 1990 and 2019. Malignancy, trauma and near drowning were the most common risk factors. Infections were frequently disseminated. Most patients received systemic antifungal therapy, mainly voriconazole and amphotericin B, plus surgical treatment. Overall, day 42 mortality was 31%, higher for L. prolificans (50%) compared to Scedosporium spp. (18%). L. prolificans infection was associated with a shorter median survival time compared to Scedosporium spp. (6 days [IQR: 3-28] versus 61 days [IQR: 16-148]). Treatment for malignancy and severe disseminated infection were associated with particularly poor outcome (HR 8.33 [95% CI 1.35-51.40] and HR 6.12 [95% CI 1.52-24.66], respectively). Voriconazole use at any time and surgery for antifungal treatment were associated with improved clinical outcome (HR 0.33 [95% CI 0.11-0.99] and HR 0.09 [95% CI 0.02-0.40], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Scedosporium spp. and L. prolificans infections in children are associated with high mortality despite comprehensive antifungal therapy. Voriconazole usage and surgical intervention are associated with successful outcome.

5.
Metabolites ; 9(12)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775291

RESUMO

Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common mother-to-child transmitted infection in the developed world. Certain aspects of its management remain a challenge. Urinary metabolic profiling is a promising tool for use in pediatric conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary metabolic profile in HCMV-infected infants and controls during acute care hospitalization. Urine samples were collected from 53 patients at five hospitals participating in the Spanish congenital HCMV registry. Thirty-one cases of HCMV infection and 22 uninfected controls were included. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra were obtained using NOESYPR1D pulse sequence. The dataset underwent orthogonal projection on latent structures discriminant analysis to identify candidate variables affecting the urinary metabolome: HCMV infection, type of infection, sex, chronological age, gestational age, type of delivery, twins, and diet. Statistically significant discriminative models were obtained only for HCMV infection (p = 0.03) and chronological age (p < 0.01). No significant differences in the metabolomic profile were found between congenital and postnatal HCMV infection. When the HCMV-infected group was analyzed according to chronological age, a statistically significant model was obtained only in the neonatal group (p = 0.01), with the differentiating metabolites being betaine, glycine, alanine, and dimethylamine. Despite the considerable variation in urinary metabolic profiles in a real-life setting, clinical application of metabolomics to the study of HCMV infection seems feasible.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681265

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) refer to a clinically, immunologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of over 350 disorders affecting development or function of the immune system. The increasing use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly facilitated identification of genetic defects in PID patients in daily clinical practice. Several NGS approaches are available, from the unbiased whole exome sequencing (WES) to specific gene panels. Here, we report on a 3-year experience with clinical exome sequencing (CES) for genetic diagnosis of PIDs. We used the TruSight One sequencing panel, which includes 4,813 disease-associated genes, in 61 unrelated patients (pediatric and adults). The analysis was done in 2 steps: first, we focused on a virtual PID panel and then, we expanded the analysis to the remaining genes. A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 19 (31%) patients: 12 (20%) with mutations in genes included in the virtual PID panel and 7 (11%) with mutations in other genes. These latter cases provided interesting and somewhat unexpected findings that expand the clinical and genetic spectra of PID-related disorders, and are useful to consider in the differential diagnosis. We also discuss 5 patients (8%) with incomplete genotypes or variants of uncertain significance. Finally, we address the limitations of CES exemplified by 7 patients (11%) with negative results on CES who were later diagnosed by other approaches (more specific PID panels, WES, and comparative genomic hybridization array). In summary, the genetic diagnosis rate using CES was 31% (including a description of 12 novel mutations), which rose to 42% after including diagnoses achieved by later use of other techniques. The description of patients with mutations in genes not included in the PID classification illustrates the heterogeneity and complexity of PID-related disorders.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695692

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the most severe form of T-cell immunodeficiency, can be screened at birth by quantifying T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Early detection of this condition speeds up the establishment of appropriate treatment and increases the patient's life expectancy. Newborn screening for SCID started in January 2017 in Catalonia, the first Spanish and European region to universally include this testing. The results obtained in the first 2 years of experience are evaluated here. All babies born between January 2017 and December 2018 were screened. TREC quantification in DBS (1.5 mm diameter) was performed with the Enlite Neonatal TREC kit from PerkinElmer (Turku, Finland). In 2018, the retest cutoff in the detection algorithm was updated based on the experience gained in the first year, and changed from 34 to 24 copies/µL. This decreased the retest rate from 3.34 to 1.4% (global retest rate, 2.4%), with a requested second sample rate of 0.23% and a positive detection rate of 0.02%. Lymphocyte phenotype (T, B, NK populations), expression of CD45RA/RO isoforms, percentage and intensity of TCR αß and TCR γδ, presence of HLA-DR+ T lymphocytes, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation were studied in all patients by flow cytometry. Of 130,903 newborns screened, 30 tested positive, 15 of which were male. During the study period, one patient was diagnosed with SCID: incidence, 1 in 130,903 births in Catalonia. Thirteen patients had clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (non-SCID) with an incidence of 1 in 10,069 newborns (43% of positive detections). Nine patients were considered false-positive cases because of an initially normal lymphocyte count with normalization of TRECs between 3 and 6 months of life, four infants had transient lymphopenia due to an initially low lymphocyte count with recovery in the following months, and three patients are still under study. The results obtained provide further evidence of the benefits of including this disease in newborn screening programs. Longer follow-up is needed to define the exact incidence of SCID in Catalonia.

8.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 91(5): 351.e1-351.e13, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3993

RESUMO

En los últimos años se ha evidenciado un incremento en la incidencia de infecciones por bacterias multirresistentes. Las principales amenazas son los bacilos gramnegativos productores de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido, AmpC o carbapenemasas, Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina y Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina. Para hacer frente a este problema, es fundamental establecer programas de optimización en el uso de antimicrobianos específicos para pediatría, realizar una vigilancia epidemiológica activa y desarrollar una adecuada política de control de infecciones. Su abordaje terapéutico es, a menudo, complejo y multidisciplinar, y precisa frecuentemente del uso de antibióticos menos empleados. En este documento de posicionamiento, elaborado por la Asociación Española de Pediatría y la Sociedad Española de Infectología Pediátrica, se revisa la epidemiología y el tratamiento de estas infecciones siguiendo la mejor evidencia disponible


A progressive increase in the incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms is being reported. Among these resistant microorganisms, the main threats are extended-spectrum β-lactamase-, AmpC-, and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. To address this important problem, it is essential to establish pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship programs, perform active epidemiological surveillance and develop an adequate infection control policy. The therapeutic approach of these infections is often complex, frequently requiring antibiotics with less experience in children. In this position document made by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics and the Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the epidemiology and treatment of these infections are reviewed according to the best available evidence

9.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(5): 351.e1-351.e13, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635925

RESUMO

A progressive increase in the incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms is being reported. Among these resistant microorganisms, the main threats are extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-, AmpC-, and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. To address this important problem, it is essential to establish pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship programs, perform active epidemiological surveillance and develop an adequate infection control policy. The therapeutic approach of these infections is often complex, frequently requiring antibiotics with less experience in children. In this position document made by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics and the Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the epidemiology and treatment of these infections are reviewed according to the best available evidence.

10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(12): e1016, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current scenario of newborn screening is changing as DNA studies are being included in the programs of several countries. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disorders can be detected using quantitative PCR assays to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a byproduct of correct T-cell development. However, in addition to SCID, other T-cell-deficient phenotypes such as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 duplication syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, and trisomy 21 are detected. METHODS: We present our experience with the detection of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 22q11.2 duplication syndrome in a series of 103,903 newborns included in the newborn screening program of Catalonia (Spain). RESULTS: Thirty newborns tested were positive (low TREC levels) and five were found to have copy number variations at the 22q11 region (4 deletions and 1 duplication) when investigated with array comparative genomic hybridization technology and MLPA. CONCLUSION: Newborn screening for SCID enables detection of several conditions, such as 22q syndromes, which should be managed by prompt, proactive approaches with adequate counseling for families by a multidisciplinary team.

12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a life-threatening condition in immunocompromised children. Our aim is to analyze the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of PJP cases in our setting, describing the prognosis and related risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective study including all pediatric patients (≤18 years) with PJP admitted to our hospital (January 1989-December 2016). Case definition: patient with acute pneumonitis and P.jirovecii detection in bronchoalveolar lavage or tracheal aspirate using methenamine silver or direct antibody fluorescence staining, or Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases (0.9 cases/year) were identified. Median age was 2.2 years (interquartile range: 0.5-12.3), 64% were male, and 12% were receiving appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Cytomegalovirus coinfection was detected in 26% cases. The most common underlying diseases were primary immunodeficiencies (36%) and 16% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. Eighteen were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and overall 30-day mortality was 20% (31.25% in HIV non-infected vs 0% in HIV-infected patients; OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.02-7.24, p=0.55). Clinical outcome was worse in girls and those patients requiring adjuvant steroid therapy. HIV non-infected patients, higher initial LDH, younger age and shorter time elapsed between diagnosis of PJP and the underlying disease were identified as risk factors to be admitted to the PICU (p=0.05, p=0.026, p=0.04 and p=0.001 respectively). CONCLUSION: Accompanying the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy, PJP has been diagnosed almost exclusively in HIV non-infected children at our institution. Moreover, significant higher morbidity rates associated with PJP are seen in this group of patients.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245340

RESUMO

Introduction: Children younger than 2 years have an increased risk of complications associated with tuberculosis (TB) due to the immaturity of the innate and adaptive immune response. We aimed to identify TB clinical presentations and outcomes as well as risk factors for complications in this age group. Materials and Methods: Multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study of TB cases in children aged <2 years in Catalonia (2005-2013). Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from the hospital medical records. TB complications, sequelae included, were defined as any tissue damage generating functional or anatomical impairment after being diagnosed or after TB treatment being completed. Statistical analyses were based on bivariate chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, and it was carried out with Stata® version 13.1. Odds ratios (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated (CI). Results: A total of 134 patients were included, 50.7% were male, the median [IQR] age was 13[8-18] months, and 18.7% (25/134) showed TB-associated complications. Pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 94.0% (126/134) of children, and the most common complications were lobar collapse (6/126). TB meningitis was diagnosed in 14/134 (10.4%), and hydrocephalus and mental impairment occurred in 1 and 2 patients, respectively. Two patients with spinal TB developed vertebral destruction and paraplegia, respectively. Only one of the patients died. At multivariate level, tachypnea (OR = 4.24; 95% CI 1.17-15.35) and meningeal (OR = 52.21; 95% CI 10.05-271.2) or combined/extrapulmonary forms (OR = 11.3; 95% CI 2.85-45.1) were associated with the development of TB complications. Discussion: TB complications are common in children under 2 years old. Extrapulmonary TB forms in this pediatric age remain a challenge and require prompt diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent them. The presence of tachypnea at the time of TB diagnosis is an independent associated factor to the development of TB complications in infants. This clinical sign should be closely monitored in patients in this age group. It is necessary to perform further studies in this age group in a prospective design in order to understand whether there are other factors associated to TB complications.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15532, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses. Serial serologic testing is required for the diagnosis of congenital infection when diagnostic molecular biology is not possible. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 2-year-old girl, born to a mother with confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy, with a confirmed ZIKV infection in utero, showed at birth a severe microcephaly and clinical characteristics of fetal brain disruption sequence compatible with a congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS). DIAGNOSIS: ZIKV-RNA and ZIKV-IgM serological response performed at birth and during the follow-up time tested always negative. Serial serologic ZIKV-IgG tests were performed to assess the laboratory ZIKV diagnosis, ZIKV-IgG seroreversion was observed at 21 months of age. ZIKV diagnosis of this baby had to be relied on her clinical and radiological characteristics that were compatible with a CZS. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was followed-up as per protocol at approximately 1, 4, 9, 12, 18-21, and 24 months of age. Neurological, radiological, audiological, and ophthalmological assessment were performed during this period of time. Prompt rehabilitation was initiated to prevent potential adverse long-term neurological outcomes. OUTCOMES: The growth of this girl showed a great restriction at 24 months of age with a weight of 8.5 kg (-2.5 z-score) and a head circumference of 40.5 cm (-4.8 z-score). She also had a great neurodevelopmental delay at the time of this report. CONCLUSION: We presume that as a consequence of prenatal ZIKV infection, the fetal brain and other organs are damaged before birth through direct injury. Following this, active infection ends during intrauterine life, and as a consequence the immune system of the infant is unable to build up a consistent immune response thereafter. Further understanding of the mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital infection is needed. This finding might change our paradigm regarding serological response in the ZIKV congenital infection.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Testes Sorológicos , Espanha , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 586, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984175

RESUMO

Background: Immunodeficiencies (ID), in particular primary immunodeficiencies (PID), are often associated with haematological manifestations, such as peripheral cytopenias or lymphoproliferative syndromes. Early diagnosis and management have significant prognostic implications. Secondary immunodeficiencies (SID) may also be induced by oncohaematological diseases and their treatments. Haematologists and oncologists must therefore be aware of the association between blood disorders and cancer and ID, and be prepared to offer their patients appropriate treatment without delay. Our aim was to define the warning signs of primary and secondary IDs in paediatric and adult patients with oncohaematological manifestations. Methods: A multidisciplinary group of six experts (2 haematologists, 2 immunologists, and 2 paediatricians specializing in ID) conducted a literature review and prepared a document based on agreements reached an in-person meeting. An external group of 44 IDs specialists from all over Spain assessed the document and were consulted regarding their level of agreement. Results: This document identifies the haematological and extra-haematological diseases that should prompt a suspicion of PIDs in adults and children, in both primary care and haematology and oncology departments. Cytopenia and certain lymphoproliferative disorders are key diagnostic pointers. The diagnosis must be based on a detailed clinical history, physical exploration, complete blood count and standard laboratory tests. The immunological and haematological tests included in the diagnostic process will depend on the care level. Patients who are candidates for immunoglobulin replacement therapy must be carefully selected, and treatment should be offered as soon as possible to avoid the development of complications. Finally, this document recommends procedures for monitoring these patients. Conclusions: This document combines scientific evidence with the opinion of a broad panel of experts, and emphasizes the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment to avoid complications. The resulting document is a useful tool for primary care physicians and specialists who see both adult and paediatric patients with oncohaematological diseases.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929024

RESUMO

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients.

17.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 90(3): 141-147, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178366

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la seguridad y la eficacia de la combinación de ledipasvir/sofosbuvir en la infección crónica por el genotipo 1 y 4 del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) en pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: Se incluyó a pacientes de entre 6 y 18 años. La duración y la dosis de los fármacos antivirales se administraron según la edad del paciente, el estadio de fibrosis y los tratamientos previos con interferón pegilado y ribavirina. La variable principal de eficacia fue el porcentaje de pacientes con una respuesta virológica sostenida 12 semanas (RVS12) después del tratamiento. Resultados: Nueve pacientes con una mediana de edad de 14,8 años (8,48-17,91) fueron tratados con combinación de ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Cinco pacientes habían recibido previamente tratamiento con interferón pegilado + ribavirina. Ocho pacientes tenían algún grado de fibrosis. La mediana de la carga viral previa al tratamiento fue de 6,2 log (5,9-6,8) con negativización del ARN del VHC 6 semanas después de comenzar el tratamiento en el 100% de los pacientes. Todos los pacientes mantuvieron una respuesta viral sostenida a las 12 semanas. Tres pacientes (33,3%) tuvieron algún tipo de efecto adverso (2 dolores de cabeza y un afta oral). La mediana de seguimiento posterior al tratamiento fue de 24 semanas (12-104). Conclusiones: El tratamiento con ledipasvir/sofosbuvir en pacientes pediátricos con infección crónica por VHC de genotipo 1 y 4 es seguro y efectivo con RVS12, similar a lo reportado en adultos


Introduction: Hepatitis C virus infection is world health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination in chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 infection in paediatric patients. Methods: Eligible patients to be treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir were patients from 6 to 18 years old with a chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection. The duration and doses of antiviral drugs were changed depending on patient age, fibrosis stage, and PEGylated interferon+ribavirin experience status. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with a sustained virological response 12 weeks post-treatment. Results: A total of nine patients (7 males) with a median age of 14.8 years (8.48-17.91) were treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination. Five patients received previous treatment with PEGylated interferon + ribavirin during a median of 8.5 months (3-12 months). Eight patients had some degree of fibrosis (1 patient presented with F1, three patients F2, 2 patients F3, and 2 patients F4). The median pre-treatment viral load was 6.2 Log [5.9-6.8] with the HCV RNA becoming negative six weeks after starting the treatment in 100% of the patients. All patients maintained a sustained viral response at 12 weeks. Three patients (33.3%) had some type of adverse effect (2 headache and one oral thrush). The median post-treatment follow-up was 24 weeks (12-104). Conclusions: Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in paediatric patients with chronic HCV infection genotype 1 and 4 is safe and effective with SVR12 and similar to those reported in adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Infecção/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudo Observacional
19.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Doenças Hematológicas/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos
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