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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348536

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis parameters (blood carbon dioxide, pCO2; oxygen, pO2; carbonate, HCO3-; standard base excess, SBE) in monitoring respiratory function and ventilation compliance after noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) adaptation, predicting survival in ALS patients. Methods: We selected the first ABG performed after NIV start in ALS patients followed from 2000 to 2015 in Turin ALS Center. Correlations between ABG parameters and survival were calculated. Risk for death/tracheostomy was computed at modifying ABG parameters by using Cox regression models, adjusted for the main prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were then performed and compared. Results: A total of 186 post-NIV ABGs were included. HCO3- and SBE showed a significant correlation with survival after NIV (respectively, R = -0.183, p = 0.018 and R = -0.200, p = 0.010). Risk for death/tracheostomy after NIV was significantly higher at increasing HCO3- and SBE blood levels, especially when HCO3- was >29 mmol/L and SBE >4 mmol/L (respectively, HR 1.466, 95% CI 1.068-2.011, p = 0.018 and HR = 1.411, 95% CI 1.030-1.32, p = 0.032). Survival in NIV was higher in patients with HCO3- < 29.0 mmol/L and SBE < 4.0 mmol/L. Conclusions: HCO3- and SBE blood levels are markers of ventilation compliance, tolerance and efficacy, being able to predict survival after NIV start in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Gasometria , Carbonatos , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365891

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the frequency and predictors of plateaus in ALS progression as assessed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale. Methods: All patients attending the ALS Center of Turin, with a diagnosis between 2007 and 2014 were considered. At each visit, muscle strength was evaluated in several muscles and assessed using the MRC scale. Concomitant ALSFRSr scores were retrieved. Plateaus were calculated as a stable overall MRC or ALSFRSr score lasting at least 6, 12 or 18 months. Results: According to MRC scale scores, 122 (22.8%), 71 (13.2%) and 59 (11.0%) patients experienced a plateau lasting at least 6, 12 and 18 months. ALSFRSr scores revealed similar estimates [134, (25.0%), 89 (16.6%) and 67 (12.5%), respectively]. Plateaus were more frequent at high scores and appeared a median of 24.6 months (IQR 6.7-47.7) after the diagnosis. Only the predominant upper motor neuron phenotype (OR 4.06, 95% CI 2-06-8.10, p-value <0.001) and diagnostic delay OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-10.5, p-value = 0.005) were significantly correlated with their appearance. Discussion: Plateaus in ALS progression as assessed using either ALSFRSr or MRC scale are not infrequent and should be expected especially in less aggressive phenotypes. Similar results were found both using the MRC scale and the ALSFRSr scores, suggesting a comparable reliability of these scales in grasping the disease progression.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860702

RESUMO

Objective: To assess patients Quality of life (QoL) and the burden of their caregivers during Covid-19 pandemic and specifically the impact of two-month lockdown period. Methods: In April 2020, a total of 60 patients and 59 caregivers were administered by phone scales assessing patients' QoL (McGill QoL Questionnaire), general health status (EQ-5D-5L), and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview). The administration was repeated one month after the end of lockdown measures, with the addition of a qualitative questionnaire (COVID-QoL Questionnaire) exploring family reorganization and personal perception of lock down. Results: QoL and perceived health status did not worsen during lockdown, while caregiver burden increased (p = 0.01). Patient's QoL and caregiver burden were inversely correlated at T1 (ZBI total score mildly correlated with Mc Gill existential subscore, p = 0.02, rho = 0.30 and with Mc Gill total score, p = 0.05, rho = 0.265). No significant correlations were found at T2. According to the COVID-QoL questionnaire, caregivers perceived lower family help compared to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Restricted measures of lockdown period during COVID-19 pandemic did not result in a significant reduction of QoL in our cohort of ALS patients, while caregiver burden significantly increased. ALS motor impairment may have played a role in the unchanged life conditions of patients. Instead, the restriction of family help for primary caregivers could be responsible of their increased burden, reflecting the importance of a wide social support in the management of this clinical condition.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924624

RESUMO

We describe the telemedicine experience of an Italian ALS tertiary Center during COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 144 visits were scheduled between 6th March and 6th April 2020. These mostly consisted of neurological or psychological visits (139, 96.5%). One hundred thirty-nine (96.5%) visits were performed as telemedicine and mostly via phone call (112, 80.6%). Three (2.1%) visits were considered as urgent and maintained as outpatient care. Additionally, patients were still able to telephone, being put through directly to their neurologists. Many requests of contact were addressed at getting information about the scheduled visits or examinations (45, 43.3%). Globally, patients and caregivers were satisfied with the telemedicine service. However, the majority (85, 65.9%) would prefer a face-to-face visit. In conclusion, telemedicine could be considered a good complement to face-to-face care, even after social restrictions have been eased.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , COVID-19 , Neurologia , Preferência do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Fonoterapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate and assess the reliability of the Italian version of self-administered ALSFRS-R, considering patients' clinical and cognitive features and caregiver's help. Methods: During the COVID-19 pandemic, by analyzing the results of 70 paired self-administered vs standard telephone-administered ALSFRS-R, we calculated overall score, single item scores, ALSFRS-R domain scores, King's and MiToS stage inter-rater agreement and reliability using different validated methods. We created the Italian version of self-administered ALSFRS-R following ENCALS recommendation. Results: Correlation between the two scales was 0.94 and no systematic directional bias was found. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was very high (>0.90) for the vast majority of the considered classification criteria, especially King's total score (0.96) and MiToS score (0.94). A higher ICC was found when the patients answered the questionnaire with the caregiver's help (0.95). Conclusions: Online self-administered ALSFRS-R scale is a valid tool to stratify ALS patients into clinical stages and to implement telemedicine monitoring.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Telemedicina/métodos
6.
Neurobiol Aging ; 98: 205-213, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316576

RESUMO

We tested the Cognitive Reserve (CR) hypothesis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), enrolling 111 patients, using education as CR proxy, 18F-FDG-PET to assess brain damage, and ECAS to measure cognition. Education was regressed out against brain metabolism, including age, sex, spinal/bulbar onset, ALSFRS-R, and ECAS as covariates. Clusters showing a significant correlation were used as seed regions in an interregional correlation analysis (IRCA) in the ALS group and in 40 controls. In the ALS group, we found a negative correlation between brain metabolism and education in the right anterior cingulate and bilateral medial frontal gyrus. In the IRCA in the ALS group, the medial frontal cluster metabolism positively correlated with that of frontotemporal regions (right > left), bilateral caudate nuclei, and right insula, and negatively correlated with that of corticospinal tracts, cerebellum, and pons. In controls, the IRCA showed significant positive correlations in the same regions but less extended. Our results agree with the CR hypothesis. The negative correlation between the medial frontal cluster and the cerebellum found only in ALS patients might reflect cerebellar compensation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Reserva Cognitiva , Escolaridade , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dano Encefálico Crônico/diagnóstico por imagem , Dano Encefálico Crônico/etiologia , Dano Encefálico Crônico/patologia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
7.
Brain Sci ; 10(9)2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961718

RESUMO

(1) Background: Cognitive features of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have never been specifically analyzed according to the lateralization of motor impairment. In the present study we investigated the cognitive performances of ALS patients to describe the relationship between motor and cognitive dysfunction, according to site and side of disease onset. (2) Methods: Six-hundred and nine ALS patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation at diagnosis in Turin ALS Centre Tests included-mini-mental state examination (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), trail-making test A/B (TMT A-B), digit span forward and backward (digit span FW/digit span BW), letter fluency test (FAS), category fluency test (CAT), Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), Babcock story recall test (BSRT), Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (ROCFT), Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM47). Cognitive performances of patients, grouped by side and site of onset, were statistically compared using z-scores, as appropriate. (3) Results: Bulbar patients and bilateral spinal onset patients (Sbil) were generally characterized by lower cognitive performances in most neuropsychological tests, when compared to patients with lateralized onset (right-side spinal onset, Sri and left-side spinal onset, Sle). Digit span backward and visual memory task (ROCFT) median z-scores were significantly higher, reflecting a better cognitive performance, in Sri patients when compared to bulbar/Sbil patients, while verbal memory tasks (RAVLT and BRST) resulted in significantly higher scores in Sle patients. Our results are in keeping with hemispheric functional lateralization of language and visuospatial abilities. (4) Conclusions: In ALS patients, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, we found a direct relationship between lateralized motor and cognitive features.

9.
J Neurol ; 266(7): 1633-1642, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a spectrum of phenotypes, but only a few studies have addressed the presence of parkinsonian (PK) symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of PK features in a prospective population-based cohort of ALS patients, determining their demographic, clinical, neuropsychological and genetic characteristics, and identifying their morphological and functional imaging correlates. METHODS: A consecutive series of ALS patients were enrolled and prospectively followed for 2 years. Patients were classified according to the presence (ALS-PK) or absence (ALS) of PK signs, and they underwent neuropsychological testing, genetic analysis for the main ALS and PD genes, brain MRI and 18F-FDG-PET. ALS-PK patients underwent 123I-ioflupane SPECT. RESULTS: Out of 114 eligible patients, 101 (64 men; mean age at onset 65.1 years) were recruited. Thirty-one patients (30.7%) were classified as ALS-PK. Compared to ALS patients, ALS-PK patients were more frequently male, but did not differ for any other clinical, demographic or neuropsychological factors. 123I-ioflupane SPECT was normal in all but two ALS-PK patients. At 18F-FDG-PET, ALS-PK patients showed a relative hypometabolism in left cerebellum and a relatively more preserved metabolism in right insula and frontal regions; MRI fractional anisotropy was reduced in the sagittal stratum and increased in the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, about 30% of ALS patients showed PK signs. Neuroimaging data indicate that PK signs are due to the involvement of brain circuitries other than classical nigrostriatal ones, strengthening the hypothesis of ALS as a complex multisystem disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic influence of pre-morbid type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) risk profile on ALS phenotype and outcome in a population-based cohort of Italian patients. METHODS: A total of 650 ALS patients from the Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, incident in the 2007-2011 period, were recruited. Information about premorbid presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension was collected at the time of diagnosis. Patients' CV risk profile was calculated according to the Joint British Societies' guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice (JBS2). RESULTS: At the univariate analysis, the presence of pre-morbid arterial hypertension was associated with a higher age at onset of ALS and a shorter survival, and patients with a high CV risk profile had a worse prognosis than those with a low CV risk profile. The Cox multivariable analysis did not confirm such findings. Type 2 diabetes mellitus did not modify either the phenotype or the prognosis of ALS patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study performed on a large population-based cohort of ALS patients has demonstrated that arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes and CV risk factors, calculated using the Framingham equation, do not influence ALS phenotype and prognosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 87(11): 1229-1233, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27656044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic influence of premorbid smoking habits and vascular risk profile on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotype and outcome in a population-based cohort of Italian patients. METHODS: A total of 650 patients with ALS from the Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, incident in the 2007-2011 period, were recruited. Information about premorbid cigarette smoking habits and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were collected at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: Current smokers had a significantly shorter median survival (1.9 years, IQR 1.2-3.4) compared with former (2.3 years, IQR 1.5-4.2) and never smokers (2.7 years, IQR 1.8-4.6) (p=0.001). Also COPD adversely influenced patients' prognosis. Both smoking habits and CODP were retained in Cox multivariable model. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated in a large population-based cohort of patients with ALS that cigarette smoking is an independent negative prognostic factor for survival, with a dose-response gradient. Its effect is not related to the presence of COPD or to respiratory status at time of diagnosis. The understanding of the mechanisms, either genetic or epigenetic, through which exogenous factors influence disease phenotype is of major importance towards a more focused approach to cure ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/mortalidade , Atividades Cotidianas/classificação , Idade de Início , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
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