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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042899, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that (1) the prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) after adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, socioeconomic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, (2) there are sex differences in GEH and (3) sex modifies an association of prevalent CVD with GEH. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, cohort study. SETTING: Prospective African-American The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) with a nested family cohort in 2000-2004 enrolled residents of the Jackson, Mississippi metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Participants from the JHS with analysable ECGs recorded in 2009-2013 (n=3679; 62±12 y; 36% men; 863 family units). QRS, T and spatial ventricular gradient (SVG) vectors' magnitude and direction, spatial QRS-T angle and sum absolute QRST integral (SAI QRST) were measured. OUTCOME: Prevalent CVD was defined as the history of (1) coronary heart disease defined as diagnosed/silent myocardial infarction, or (2) revascularisation procedure defined as prior coronary/peripheral arterial revascularisation, or (3) carotid angioplasty/carotid endarterectomy, or (4) stroke. RESULTS: In adjusted mixed linear models, women had a smaller spatial QRS-T angle (-12.2 (95% CI -19.4 to -5.1)°; p=0.001) and SAI QRST (-29.8 (-39.3 to -20.3) mV*ms; p<0.0001) than men, but larger SVG azimuth (+16.2(10.5-21.9)°; p<0.0001), with a significant random effect between families (+20.8 (8.2-33.5)°; p=0.001). SAI QRST was larger in women with CVD as compared with CVD-free women or men (+15.1 (3.8-26.4) mV*ms; p=0.009). Men with CVD had a smaller T area (by 5.1 (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0) mV*ms) and T peak magnitude (by 44 (95%CI 16 to 71) µV) than CVD-free men. T vectors pointed more posteriorly in women as compared with men (peak T azimuth + 17.2(8.9-25.6)°; p<0.0001), with larger sex differences in T azimuth in some families by +26.3(7.4-45.3)°; p=0.006. CONCLUSIONS: There are sex differences in the electrical signature of CVD in African-American men and women. There is a significant effect of unmeasured genetic and environmental factors on cardiac repolarisation.

3.
J Electrocardiol ; 65: 105-109, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol guidelines introduced a new list of markers called "risk enhancers" that, if present, confer an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Silent myocardial infarction (SMI) on electrocardiogram (ECG) is notably absent, even though it associated with future ASCVD. METHODS: We assessed the utility of SMI on ECG as a risk-enhancer in intermediate-risk participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) - those with 10-year ASCVD risk of 5-20% by the pooled cohort equation (PCE). SMI was defined as major Q-wave abnormality or minor Q/QS waves in the setting of major ST-T abnormalities without prevalent clinical cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Among 2946 participants (mean age 63.1 ± 7.6, 53.9% women, 36% white, 11% Chinese-American, 33% African-American, 19% Hispanic), 66 (2.2%) had SMI at baseline. After a median 15.8 years of follow-up, incident ASCVD events occurred in 431/2876 (15.0%) of those without SMI and 16/66 (24.2%) of those with SMI. In a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, baseline SMI was associated with an increased risk of incident ASCVD events (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.77, p = 0.04). However, adding SMI to the PCE did not improve discrimination and reclassification was modest-net reclassification improvement was 0.0161 (95% CI 0.002-0.034, p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the prevalence of SMI is 2.2% among those without known clinical cardiovascular disease considered intermediate-risk by the PCE. In our analysis, SMI only modestly improved classification of risk, suggesting that it may not be very useful as an ASCVD risk enhancer.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e017172, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631952

RESUMO

Background Psychosocial factors predict heart disease risk, but our understanding of underlying mechanisms is limited. We sought to evaluate the physiologic correlates of psychosocial factors by measuring their relationships with heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic health, in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study. We hypothesize that increased psychosocial stress associates with lower HRV. Methods and Results We studied 9331 participants in ARIC with short-term HRV data at visits 2 and 4. The mean (SD) age was 54.4 (5.7) years, 55% were women, and 25% were Black. Psychosocial factors included: (1) vital exhaustion (VE), (2) anger proneness, a personality trait, and (3) perceived social support. Linear models adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Low frequency HRV (ln ms2) was significantly lower in the highest versus lowest quartiles of VE (B=-0.14, 95% CI, -0.24 to -0.05). When comparing this effect to age (B=-0.04, 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.04), the difference was equivalent to 3.8 years of accelerated aging. Perceived social support associated with lower time-domain HRV. High VE (versus low VE) also associated with greater decreases in low frequency over time, and both anger and VE associated with greater increases in resting heart rate over time. Survival analyses were performed with Cox models, and no evidence was found that HRV explains the excess risk found with high VE and low perceived social support. Conclusions Vital exhaustion, and to a lesser extent anger and social support, were associated with worse autonomic function and greater adverse changes over time.

5.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12829, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) represents preclinical cardiovascular disease and predicts cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. While the newly developed Peguero-Lo Presti ECG-LVH criteria have greater sensitivity for LVH than the Cornell voltage and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, its short-term repeatability is unknown. Therefore, we characterized the short-term repeatability of Peguero-Lo Presti ECG-LVH criteria and evaluate its agreement with Cornell voltage and Sokolow-Lyon ECG-LVH criteria. METHODS: Participants underwent two resting, standard, 12-lead ECGs at each of two visits one week apart (n = 63). We defined a Peguero-Lo Presti index as a sum of the deepest S wave amplitude in any single lead and lead V4 (i.e., SD  + SV4 ) and defined Peguero-Lo Presti LVH index as ≥ 2,300 µV among women and ≥ 2,800 µV among men. We estimated repeatability as an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), agreement as a prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa coefficient (κ), and precision using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The Peguero-Lo Presti index was repeatable: ICC (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.91-0.97). Within-visit agreement of Peguero-Lo Presti LVH was high at the first and second visits: κ (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.91-1.00) and 1.00 (1.00-1.00). Between-visit agreement of the first and second measurements at each visit was comparable: κ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.80-1.00) and 0.93 (0.85-1.00). Agreement of Peguero-Lo Presti and Cornell or Sokolow-Lyon LVH on any one of the four ECGs was slightly lower: κ (95% CI) = 0.71 (0.54-0.89). CONCLUSION: The Peguero-Lo Presti index and LVH have excellent repeatability and agreement, which support their use in clinical and epidemiological studies.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(4): e018093, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538182

RESUMO

Background High levels of supraventricular ectopy are associated with greater risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke, and death. Little information is available about differences by race/ethnicity in the extent of supraventricular ectopy, or about whether high levels of supraventricular ectopy are associated with impaired left atrial (LA) function and LA enlargement. Methods and Results In the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), 1148 participants (47% men; mean age, 67 years) had cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 2010 to 2012, followed by 14-day ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in 2016 to 2018. We analyzed participant characteristics and cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of LA function and structure in relation to average count of premature atrial contractions (PACs) per hour and average number of runs per day of supraventricular tachycardia. In adjusted regression analyses, older age, male sex, White race, elevated NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and a history of clinically detected atrial fibrillation were associated with more PACs/hour. Chinese and Hispanic participants had on average fewer PACs/hour than White participants (Chinese participants, 31% less [95% CI, 8%-49%]; Hispanic participants, 38% less [95% CI, 19%-52%]). Greater LA total emptying fraction was associated with fewer PACs/hour (per SD, 16% fewer PACs/hour [95% CI, 7%-25% fewer PACs/hour]). Larger LA minimum volume was associated with more PACs/hour (per SD, 7% more PACs/hour [95% CI, 2%-13% more PACs/hour]). Associations of LA volumes with runs of supraventricular tachycardia/day were similar in direction but were weaker. Conclusions Impaired LA function and LA enlargement were associated with more PACs/hour on extended ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Measurement of supraventricular ectopy may provide information about the extent of atrial myopathy.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with diabetes have higher resting heart rate compared with those without, which may be predictive of long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using data from the DCCT/EDIC study, we evaluated whether the beneficial effect of intensive versus conventional diabetes therapy on heart rate persisted, the factors mediating the differences in heart rate between treatment groups, and the effects of heart rate on future CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Longitudinal changes in heart rate, from annual electrocardiograms over 22 years of EDIC follow-up, were evaluated in 1,402 participants with type 1 diabetes. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of DCCT treatment group on mean heart rate over time, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of heart rate on CVD risk during DCCT/EDIC. RESULTS: At DCCT closeout, 52% of participants were male and mean ± SD age was 33 ± 7 years, diabetes duration 12 ± 5 years, and HbA1c 7.4 ± 1.2% (intensive) and 9.1 ± 1.6% (conventional). Through EDIC, participants in the intensive group had significantly lower heart rate in comparison with the conventional group. While significant group differences in heart rate were fully attenuated by DCCT/EDIC mean HbA1c, higher heart rate predicted CVD and major adverse cardiovascular events independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: After 22 years of follow-up, former intensive versus conventional therapy remained significantly associated with lower heart rate, consistent with the long-term beneficial effects of intensive therapy on CVD. DCCT treatment group effects on heart rate were explained by differences in DCCT/EDIC mean HbA1c.

8.
Hypertens Res ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479519

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In Japan, the incidence of CVD among persons with CKD is lower than that in the United States. Although various classes of antihypertensive agents are prescribed to prevent CVD, the proportion varies between the United States and Japan. Until now, few studies have compared clinical practices and CVD prevalence among patients with CKD in the United States vs. Japan. In this study, we performed a cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of CVD and the prescription of ß-blockers at study entry to the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) Study and the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. The mean patient age was 58.2 and 60.3 years, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 42.8 and 28.9 (mL/min/1.73 m2), and the median urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was 51.9 and 485.9 (mg/g) among 3939 participants in the CRIC Study and 2966 participants in the CKD-JAC Study, respectively. The prevalence of any CVD according to a self-report (CRIC Study) was 33%, while that according to a medical chart review (CKD-JAC Study) was 24%. These findings were consistent across eGFR levels. Prescriptions for ß-blockers differed between the CRIC and CKD-JAC Studies (49% and 20%, respectively). The odds ratios for the association of any history of CVD and ß-blocker prescription were 3.0 [2.6-3.5] in the CRIC Study and 2.0 [1.6-2.5] in the CKD-JAC Study (P < 0.001 for the interaction). In conclusion, the prevalence of CVD and treatment with ß-blockers were higher in the CRIC Study across eGFR levels.

9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 629-638, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CKD is associated with sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, other types of arrhythmia and different measures of the burden of arrhythmias, such as presence and frequency, have not been well characterized in CKD. METHODS: To quantify the burden of arrhythmias across CKD severity in 2257 community-dwelling adults aged 71-94 years, we examined associations of major arrhythmias with CKD measures (eGFR and albuminuria) among individuals in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Participants underwent 2 weeks of noninvasive, single-lead electrocardiogram monitoring. We examined types of arrhythmia burden: presence and frequency of arrhythmias and percent time in arrhythmias. RESULTS: Of major arrhythmias, there was a higher prevalence of AF and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia among those with more severe CKD, followed by long pause (>30 seconds) and atrioventricular block. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was the most frequent major arrhythmia (with 4.2 episodes per person-month). Most participants had ventricular ectopy, supraventricular tachycardia, and supraventricular ectopy. Albuminuria consistently associated with higher AF prevalence and percent time in AF, and higher prevalence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. When other types of arrhythmic burden were examined, lower eGFR was associated with a lower frequency of atrioventricular block. Although CKD measures were not strongly associated with minor arrhythmias, higher albuminuria was associated with a higher frequency of ventricular ectopy. CONCLUSIONS: CKD, especially as measured by albuminuria, is associated with a higher burden of AF and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Additionally, eGFR is associated with less frequent atrioventricular block, whereas albuminuria is associated with more frequent ventricular ectopy. Use of a novel, 2-week monitoring approach demonstrated a broader range of arrhythmias associated with CKD than previously reported.

10.
Diabetologia ; 64(3): 504-511, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420509

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: T-wave abnormalities (TWA) are often found on ECG and signify abnormal ventricular repolarisation. While TWA have been shown to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the relationship between TWA and hard cardiovascular endpoints is less clear and may differ in the presence of diabetes, so we sought to explore these associations in participants from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. METHODS: TWA were operationally defined as the presence of any Minnesota Codes 5-1 through 5-4 in any lead distribution. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to examine relationships between TWA and clinical cardiovascular events. Secondary analyses explored the risks conferred by major vs minor TWA, differential effects of TWA by anatomic localisation (anterolateral, inferior or anterior lead distributions), and differing associations in those with or without prevalent CVD. RESULTS: Among 8176 eligible participants (mean 62.1 ± 6.3 SD years, 61.4% male), there were 3759 cardiovascular events, including 1430 deaths (473 of a cardiovascular aetiology), 474 heart failure events, 1452 major CHD events and 403 strokes. Participants with TWA had increased risks of all-cause mortality (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.30, 1.62], p < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.93 [1.59, 2.34], p = 0.0001), congestive heart failure (HR 2.04 [1.69, 2.48], p < 0.0001) and major CHD (HR 1.40 [1.26, 1.57], p < 0.0001), but no increased risk of stroke (HR 0.99 [0.80, 1.23], p = 0.95). Major TWA conferred a higher risk than minor TWA. When TWA were added to the UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine, there was improved discrimination for incident CHD events, but only for those with prevalent CVD (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.5744 and 0.6030 with p = 0.0067). Adding TWA to the risk engine yielded improvements in reclassification that were of greater magnitude in those with prevalent CVD (net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.24 [95% CI 0.16, 0.32] in those with prevalent CVD, NRI 0.14 [95% CI 0.07, 0.22] in those without prevalent CVD). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The presence and magnitude of TWA are associated with increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with diabetes and may have value in refining risk, particularly in those with prevalent CVD. Graphical abstract.

11.
Am Heart J ; 235: 36-43, 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently described the association between periodontal disease (PD) and stroke risk. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the association between PD, dental care utilization and incident atrial fibrillation (AF), as well as AF as a mediator to PD- stroke association. METHODS: In dental cohort of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), participants without prior AF underwent full-mouth periodontal measurements. PD was defined on an ordinal scale as healthy (referent), mild, moderate and severe. In ARIC main cohort, participants were classified as regular or episodic dental care users. These patients were followed for AF, over 17 years. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for AF risk factors were used to study relationships between PD severity, dental care utilization and AF. Mediation analysis was used to test if AF mediated the PD- stroke association. RESULTS: In dental ARIC cohort, 5,958 were assessed without prior AF, 754 were found to have AF. Severe PD was associated with AF on both univariable (crude HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.26-1.87) and multivariable (adjusted HR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.06-1.62) analyses. Mediation analysis suggested AF mediates the association between PD and stroke. In the main ARIC cohort, 9,666 participants without prior AF were assessed for dental care use, 1558 were found to have AF. Compared with episodic users, regular users had a lower risk for AF on univariable (crude HR, 0.82, 95% CI, 0.74-0.90) and multivariable (adjusted HR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.78-0.99) analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PD is associated with AF. The association may explain the PD-stroke risk. Regular users had a lower risk of incident AF compared with episodic users.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e018592, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382342

RESUMO

Background Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF), but it is not known whether this relationship varies by race/ethnicity. Methods and Results Eligible participants (6739) from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) were surveilled for incident AF using MESA hospital surveillance, scheduled MESA study ECG, and Medicare claims data. After a median 13.8 years of follow-up, 970 participants (14.4%) had incident AF. With BMI modeled categorically in a Cox proportional hazards model, only those with grade II and grade III obesity had increased risks of AF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.14-1.98, P=0.004 for grade II obesity and HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.48-3.05, P<0.0001 for grade III obesity). The relationship between BMI and AF risk was J-shaped. However, the risk of AF as a function of BMI varied substantially by race/ethnicity (P value for interaction=0.02), with Chinese-American participants having a much higher risk of AF with higher BMI and Black participants having minimal increased risk of AF with higher BMI. Conclusions Obesity is associated with an increased risk of incident AF, but the relationship between BMI and the risk of AF is J-shaped and this relationship differs by race/ethnicity, such that Chinese-American participants have a more pronounced increased risk of AF with higher BMI, while Black participants have minimal increased risk. Further exploration of the differential effects of BMI by race/ethnicity on cardiovascular outcomes is needed.

13.
J Electrocardiol ; 64: 18-22, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of the Goldberger electrocardiographic (ECG) triad criteria to detect left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is well-established. However, the prognostic significance of this triad as a predictor of poor outcomes is not known. OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between the Goldberger ECG-LVD triad with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in the general population. METHODS: This analysis included 8426 participants (60.5 ±â€¯13.6 years, 51.5% women, 50% non-Hispanic white) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Goldberger ECG-LVD triad was defined as follows: high precordial QRS voltage (SV1 or SV2 + RV5 or RV6 ≥ 3500 µV); low limb lead QRS voltage (mean QRS amplitude in each of the limb leads ≤800 µV); and poor R wave progression (RV4/SV4 < 1). Mortality was ascertained using the National Death Index. RESULTS: At baseline, 1384 (47.3%) of the participants had at least one of the criteria of Goldberger triad (1193 had only one and 191 participants had 2 or more). During a median follow up of 13.8 years, 3184 deaths occurred, of which 1405 were cardiovascular. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, presence of at least one of the Goldberger triad criteria (vs. none) was associated with increased risk of all-cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.26, p ≤0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (1.19, 1.06-1.33, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The Goldberger ECG-LVD triad for left ventricular dysfunction may offer prognostic value in addition to its reported diagnostic utility.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(13): 1713-1720, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the relationship between obesity and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in diabetes. BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risk of AF in the general population, but there is evidence that this relationship may differ in those with diabetes. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and incident AF on study electrocardiogram in participants from the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) trial. RESULTS: Among 10,074 ACCORD participants (age 62.7 ± 6.6 years, 38.7% women, 62.2% white), 8.4% were normal weight, 29.0% were overweight, 53.1% were obese, and 9.5% were severely obese. Participants with obesity and severe obesity had increased risks of AF compared with normal weight (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 3.93; and HR: 3.69; 95% CI: 1.79 to 8.22, respectively). There was a 51% increased risk of AF per SD (5.4 U) BMI increase. However, there was a sex and BMI interaction-in men, obesity and severe obesity were associated with a substantially increased AF risk (HR: 3.19; 95% CI: 1.27 to 7.31; and HR: 4.79; 95% CI: 2.11 to 11.93, respectively), whereas there was no statistically significant association in women. CONCLUSIONS: In those with diabetes, obesity and severe obesity are associated with increased risk of AF, but there is an interaction between sex and BMI, such that elevated BMI appears to confer a much greater risk of AF in men than in women. Further studies exploring the differential effects of BMI on AF risk in men and women are needed.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317208

RESUMO

An automatic accurate T-wave end (T-end) annotation for the electrocardiogram (ECG) has several important clinical applications. While there have been several algorithms proposed, their performance is usually deteriorated when the signal is noisy. Therefore, we need new techniques to support the noise robustness in T-end detection. We propose a new algorithm based on the signal quality index (SQI) for T-end, coined as tSQI, and the optimal shrinkage (OS). For segments with low tSQI, the OS is applied to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We validated the proposed method using eleven short-term ECG recordings from QT database available at Physionet, as well as four 14-day ECG recordings which were visually annotated at a central ECG core laboratory. We evaluated the correlation between the real-world signal quality for T-end and tSQI, and the robustness of proposed algorithm to various additive noises of different types and SNR's. The performance of proposed algorithm on arrhythmic signals was also illustrated on MITDB arrhythmic database. The labeled signal quality is well captured by tSQI, and the proposed OS denoising help stabilize existing T-end detection algorithms under noisy situations by making the mean of detection errors decrease. Even when applied to ECGs with arrhythmia, the proposed algorithm still performed well if proper metric is applied. We proposed a new T-end annotation algorithm. The efficiency and accuracy of our algorithm makes it a good fit for clinical applications and large ECG databases. This study is limited by the small size of annotated datasets.

16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309861

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Circulating cardiac biomarkers may signal potential mechanistic pathways involved in heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Single measures of circulating cardiac biomarkers are strongly associated with incident HF and AF in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested the associations of longitudinal changes in the N-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), and soluble ST-2 (sST-2) with incident HF and AF in patients with CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, case-cohort study design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adults with CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. EXPOSURES: Biomarkers were measured at baseline and 2 years later among those without kidney failure. We created 3 categories of absolute change in each biomarker: the lowest quartile, the middle 2 quartiles, and the top quartile. OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes were incident HF and AF. ANALYTIC APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to test the associations of the change categories of each cardiac biomarker with each outcome (with the middle 2 quartiles of change as the referent group), adjusting for potential confounders and baseline concentrations of each biomarker. RESULTS: The incident HF analysis included 789 participants (which included 138 incident HF cases), and the incident AF analysis included 774 participants (123 incident AF cases). In multivariable models, the top quartile of NT-proBNP change (>232pg/mL over 2years) was associated with increased risk of incident HF (HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.06-3.04]) and AF (HR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.37-3.93]) compared with the referent group. Participants in the top quartile of sST2 change (>3.37ng/mL over 2years) had significantly greater risk of incident HF (HR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.13-3.16]), whereas those in the bottom quartile (≤-3.78ng/mL over 2years) had greater risk of incident AF (HR, 2.43 [95% CI, 1.39-4.22]) compared with the 2 middle quartiles. There was no association of changes in hsTnT, galectin-3, or GDF-15 with incident HF or AF. LIMITATIONS: Observational study. CONCLUSIONS: In CKD, increases in NT-proBNP were significantly associated with greater risk of incident HF and AF, and increases in sST2 were associated with HF. Further studies should investigate whether these markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease can be modified to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in CKD.

17.
J Electrocardiol ; 63: 98-103, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is challenging to diagnose due to its intermittent nature. Circadian rhythmicity has been reported for cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction; whether diurnal variation exists for paroxysmal AF is less known. We characterized the temporal pattern of AF initiation in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective community-based cohort study. METHODS: We included 74 ARIC study participants with paroxysmal AF detected by the Zio XT Patch at ARIC Visit 6 in 2016-17. We divided each participant's 2-week continuous monitoring data into 3-h intervals and summed the number of AF episodes in each interval. We performed Poisson regression using generalized estimating equations to estimate the effect of time of day on the number of AF episodes. RESULTS: Compared to the reference interval of time 00:00-02:59, the time intervals 12:00-14:59, 15:00-17:59, and 18:00-20:59 had significantly higher frequency of AF initiation. Rate ratios (95% CI) for mean number of episodes in these three intervals were 1.91 (1.11, 2.92), 2.54 (1.42, 4.53), and 1.99 (1.19, 3.25) respectively. Furthermore, we found no significant association between duration of episode and time of day. CONCLUSION: There is diurnal variation in the initiation of AF episodes, with a peak in frequency in the late afternoon. Our finding is consistent with sympathetically driven AF. Pulse palpation or obtaining an electrocardiogram in the late afternoon may produce the highest diagnostic yield for AF.

18.
Neurology ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that thrombogenic atrial cardiopathy may be relevant to stroke-related racial disparities, we compared atrial cardiopathy phenotypes between Black versus White ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We assessed markers of atrial cardiopathy in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study, a study of stroke incidence in a population of 1.3 million. We obtained ECGs and reports of echocardiograms performed during evaluation of stroke during the 2010/2015 study periods. Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or flutter (AFL) were excluded. Investigators blinded to patients' characteristics measured P-wave terminal force in ECG lead V1 (PTFV1), a marker of left atrial fibrosis and impaired inter-atrial conduction, and abstracted left atrial diameter from echocardiogram reports. Linear regression was used to examine the association between race and atrial cardiopathy markers after adjustment for demographics, body mass index, and vascular comorbidities. RESULTS: Among 3,426 ischemic stroke cases in Black or White patients without AF/AFL, 2,391 had a left atrial diameter measurement (mean, 3.65 ±0.70 cm). Black race was associated with smaller left atrial diameter in unadjusted (ß coefficient, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.05) and adjusted (ß, -0.15; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.09) models. PTFV1 measurements were available in 3,209 patients (mean, 3,434 ±2,525 µV*ms). Black race was associated with greater PTFV1 in unadjusted (ß, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.97) and adjusted (ß, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.80) models. CONCLUSIONS: We found systematic Black-White racial differences in left atrial structure and pathophysiology in a population-based sample of ischemic stroke patients. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides class II evidence that the rate of atrial cardiopathy is greater among Black people with acute stroke compared to White people.

19.
Neurology ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: -We performed a cross-sectional analysis to determine whether nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were associated with dementia in a population-based study. METHODS: - We included 2517 (mean age 79; 26% black) participants who wore a 2-week ambulatory continuous ECG recording device in 2016-17. NSVT was defined as a wide complex tachycardia ≥ 4 beats with a rate >100 beats per minute. We calculated NSVT and PVC burden as the number of episodes per day. Dementia was adjudicated by experts. We used logistic regression to assess the associations of NSVT and PVCs with dementia. RESULTS: - The mean recording time of the Zio® XT Patch was 12.6 ± 2.6 days. There were 768 (31%) participants with NSVT; prevalence was similar in whites and blacks. There were 134 (6.5%) dementia cases (5% in whites; 10% in blacks). After multivariable adjustment, there was no overall association between NSVT and dementia; however, there was a significant race interaction (p<0.001). In blacks, NSVT was associated with a 3.67 times higher adjusted odds of dementia (95% CI = 1.92-7.02) compared to those without NSVT, whereas in whites NSVT was not associated with dementia [OR (95% CI) = 0.64 (0.37-1.10)]. In blacks only, a higher burden of PVCs was associated with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: - Presence of NSVT and a higher burden of NSVT and PVCs are associated with dementia in elderly blacks. Further research to confirm this novel finding and elucidate the underlying mechanisms is warranted.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e016724, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865122

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke and extracranial systemic embolic events (SEEs), but little is known about the magnitude of the association of AF with SEE. Methods and Results This analysis included 14 941 participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study (mean age, 54.2±5.8, 55% women, 74% White) without AF at baseline (1987-1989) followed through 2017. AF was identified from study ECGs, hospital discharges, and death certificates, while SEEs were ascertained from hospital discharges. CHA2DS2-VASc was calculated at the time of AF diagnosis. Cox regression was used to estimate associations of incident AF with SEE risk in the entire cohort, and between CHA2DS2-VASc score and SEE risk in those with AF. Among eligible participants, 3114 participants developed AF and 270 had an SEE (59 events in AF). Incident AF was associated with increased risk of SEE (hazard ratio [HR], 3.58; 95% CI, 2.57-5.00), after adjusting for covariates. The association of incident AF with SEE was stronger in women (HR, 5.26; 95% CI, 3.28-8.44) than in men (HR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.66-4.32). In those with AF, higher CHA2DS2-VASc score was associated with increased SEE risk (HR per 1-point increase, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.47). Conclusions AF is associated with more than a tripling of the risk of SEE, with a stronger association in women than in men. CHA2DS2-VASc is associated with SEE risk in AF patients, highlighting the value of the score to predict adverse outcomes and guide treatment decisions in people with AF.

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