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1.
Zootaxa ; 5099(4): 450-474, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391403

RESUMO

This study identifies the number of named and described species of three monotrysian, plant-mining lepidopteran families worldwide: Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Nepticuloidea), and Tischeriidae (Tischerioidea). At the end of 2021, we estimated that a total of 1000 Nepticulidae species, 197 Opostegidae species, and 170 Tischeriidae species have been described since the taxonomic practice of describing species began in the 18th century. We examine and discuss the history of descriptions and authorship of species worldwide for each of the three families. We found that the total (accumulative) number of species described increased with each time period delineated. About five new species were described per year on average, or about 22 new species were described per year in the 21st century. We recognize researchers with the most number of described species in these three taxa.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Humanos , Plantas
2.
Zookeys ; 1085: 129-143, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210907

RESUMO

Rheumapteramochica (Dognin, 1904) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) is reported from Chile for the first time. It was described from the western slopes of the Andes of southern Peru more than 100 years ago, and was recently rediscovered in Chile after larvae were collected and reared on the shrub Sennabirostrisvar.arequipensis (Meyen ex Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). This discovery expands the known distribution of this moth and provides its first host plant record. The genitalia of R.mochica are described and illustrated for the first time and compared to those of R.affirmata (Guenée, [1858]). A maximum likelihood analysis based on mitochondrial DNA sequences clustered R.mochica as sister to R.affirmata with 3.6-3.8% divergence (K2P). A lectotype is designated for Calocalpemochica Dognin, 1904.

3.
Zootaxa ; 5047(3): 300-320, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810845

RESUMO

Four new species of trumpet leaf-miner moths (Tischeriidae) are described from the Neotropics: Coptotriche serjaniphaga Remeikis Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Serjania Mill. (Sapindaceae), Astrotischeria mystica Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Verbesina L. (Asteraceae), A. yungasi Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Oyedaea DC. (Asteraceae), and A. parapallens Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Records on Sapindaceae-feeding Tischeriidae are very rare and Serjania is a novel host-plant genus for Tischeriidae. It is hypothesized that Serjania, a diverse genus in the tropical and subtropical Americas, may be a host for many undiscovered species of specialized stenophagous Tischeriidae. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and, if available, female genitalia, and the leaf mines. We briefly discuss the importance of new species descriptions as a part of biodiversity assessment.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Sapindaceae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália
4.
Zookeys ; 1013: 1-665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512087

RESUMO

Three new genera are described: Michener (Proteropinae), Bioalfa (Rogadinae), and Hermosomastax (Rogadinae). Keys are given for the New World genera of the following braconid subfamilies: Agathidinae, Braconinae, Cheloninae, Homolobinae, Hormiinae, Ichneutinae, Macrocentrinae, Orgilinae, Proteropinae, Rhysipolinae, and Rogadinae. In these subfamilies 416 species are described or redescribed. Most of the species have been reared and all but 13 are new to science. A consensus sequence of the COI barcodes possessed by each species is employed to diagnose the species, and this approach is justified in the introduction. Most descriptions consist of a lateral or dorsal image of the holotype, a diagnostic COI consensus barcode, the Barcode Index Number (BIN) code with a link to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), and the holotype specimen information required by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The following species are treated and those lacking authorship are newly described here with authorship attributable to Sharkey except for the new species of Macrocentrinae which are by Sharkey & van Achterberg: AGATHIDINAE: Aerophiluspaulmarshi, Mesocoelusdavidsmithi, Neothlipsisbobkulai, Plesiocoelusvanachterbergi, Pneumagathiserythrogastra (Cameron, 1905), Therophilusbobwhartoni, T.donaldquickei, T.gracewoodae, T.maetoi, T.montywoodi, T.penteadodiasae, Zacremnopsbrianbrowni, Z.coatlicue Sharkey, 1990, Zacremnopscressoni (Cameron, 1887), Z.ekchuah Sharkey, 1990, Z.josefernandezi, Zelomorphasarahmeierottoae. BRACONINAE: Braconalejandromarini, B.alejandromasisi, B.alexamasisae, B.andresmarini, B.andrewwalshi, B.anniapicadoae, B.anniemoriceae, B.barryhammeli, B.bernardoespinozai, B.carlossanabriai, B.chanchini, B.christophervallei, B.erasmocoronadoi, B.eugeniephillipsae, B.federicomatarritai, B.frankjoycei, B.gerardovegai, B.germanvegai, B.isidrochaconi, B.jimlewisi, B.josejaramilloi, B.juanjoseoviedoi, B.juliodiazi, B.luzmariaromeroae, B.manuelzumbadoi, B.marialuisariasae, B.mariamartachavarriae, B.mariorivasi, B.melissaespinozae, B.nelsonzamorai, B.nicklaphami, B.ninamasisae, B.oliverwalshi, B.paulamarinae, B.rafamoralesi, B.robertofernandezi, B.rogerblancoi, B.ronaldzunigai, B.sigifredomarini, B.tihisiaboshartae, B.wilberthbrizuelai, Digonogastramontylloydi, D.montywoodi, D.motohasegawai, D.natwheelwrighti, D.nickgrishini. CHELONINAE: Adeliusadrianguadamuzi, A.gauldi Shimbori & Shaw, 2019, A.janzeni Shimbori & Shaw, 2019, Ascogastergloriasihezarae, A.grettelvegae, A.guillermopereirai, A.gustavoecheverrii, A.katyvandusenae, A.luisdiegogomezi, Chelonusalejandrozaldivari, C.gustavogutierrezi, C.gustavoinduni, C.harryramirezi, C.hartmanguidoi, C.hazelcambroneroae, C.iangauldi, C.isidrochaconi, C.janecheverriae, C.jeffmilleri, C.jennyphillipsae, C.jeremydewaardi, C.jessiehillae, C.jesusugaldei, C.jimlewisi, C.jimmilleri, C.jimwhitfieldi, C.johanvalerioi, C.johnburnsi, C.johnnoyesi, C.jorgebaltodanoi, C.jorgehernandezi, C.josealfredohernandezi, C.josefernandeztrianai, C.josehernandezcortesi, C.josemanuelperezi, C.josephinerodriguezae, C.juanmatai, C.junkoshimurae, C.kateperezae, C.luciariosae, C.luzmariaromeroae, C.manuelpereirai, C.manuelzumbadoi, C.marianopereirai, C.maribellealvarezae, C.markmetzi, C.markshawi, C.martajimenezae, C.mayrabonillae, C.meganmiltonae, C.melaniamunozae, C.michaelstroudi, C.michellevanderbankae, C.mingfangi, C.minorcarmonai, C.monikaspringerae, C.moniquegilbertae, C.motohasegawai, C.nataliaivanovae, C.nelsonzamorai, C.normwoodleyi, C.osvaldoespinozai, C.pamelacastilloae, C.paulgoldsteini, C.paulhansoni, C.paulheberti, C.petronariosae, C.ramyamanjunathae, C.randallgarciai, C.rebeccakittelae, C.robertoespinozai, C.robertofernandezi, C.rocioecheverriae, C.rodrigogamezi, C.ronaldzunigai, C.rosibelelizondoae, C.rostermoragai, C.ruthfrancoae, C.scottmilleri, C.scottshawi, C.sergioriosi, C.sigifredomarini, C.stevearonsoni, C.stevestroudi, C.sujeevanratnasinghami, C.sureshnaiki, C.torbjornekremi, C.yeimycedenoae, Leptodrepanaalexisae, L.erasmocoronadoi, L.felipechavarriai, L.freddyquesadai, L.gilbertfuentesi, L.manuelriosi, Phanerotomaalmasolisae, P.alvaroherrerai, P.anacordobae, P.anamariamongeae, P.andydeansi, P.angelagonzalezae, P.angelsolisi, P.barryhammeli, P.bernardoespinozai, P.calixtomoragai, P.carolinacanoae, P.christerhanssoni, P.christhompsoni, P.davesmithi, P.davidduthiei, P.dirksteinkei, P.donquickei, P.duniagarciae, P.duvalierbricenoi, P.eddysanchezi, P.eldarayae, P.eliethcantillanoae, P.jenopappi, Pseudophanerotomaalanflemingi, Ps.albanjimenezi, Ps.alejandromarini, Ps.alexsmithi, Ps.allisonbrownae, Ps.bobrobbinsi. HOMOLOBINAE: Exasticolusjennyphillipsae, E.randallgarciai, E.robertofernandezi, E.sigifredomarini, E.tomlewinsoni. HORMIINAE: Hormiusanamariamongeae, H.angelsolisi, H.anniapicadoae, H.arthurchapmani, H.barryhammeli, H.carmenretanae, H.carloswalkeri, H.cesarsuarezi, H.danbrooksi, H.eddysanchezi, H.erikframstadi, H.georgedavisi, H.grettelvegae, H.gustavoinduni, H.hartmanguidoi, H.hectoraritai, H.hesiquiobenitezi, H.irenecanasae, H.isidrochaconi, H.jaygallegosi, H.jimbeachi, H.jimlewisi, H.joelcracrafti, H.johanvalerioi, H.johnburleyi, H.joncoddingtoni, H.jorgecarvajali, H.juanmatai, H.manuelzumbadoi, H.mercedesfosterae, H.modonnellyae, H.nelsonzamorai, H.pamelacastilloae, H.raycypessi, H.ritacolwellae, H.robcolwelli, H.rogerblancosegurai, H.ronaldzunigai, H.russchapmani, H.virginiaferrisae, H.warrenbrighami, H.willsflowersi. ICHNEUTINAE: Oligoneuruskriskrishtalkai, O.jorgejimenezi, Paroligoneuruselainehoaglandae, P.julianhumphriesi, P.mikeiviei. MACROCENTRINAE: Austrozelejorgecampabadali, A.jorgesoberoni, Dolichozelegravitarsis (Muesebeck, 1938), D.josefernandeztrianai, D.josephinerodriguezae, Hymenochaoniakalevikulli, H.kateperezae, H.katherinebaillieae, H.katherineellisonae, H.katyvandusenae, H.kazumifukunagae, H.keithlangdoni, H.keithwillmotti, H.kenjinishidai, H.kimberleysheldonae, H.krisnorvigae, H.lilianamadrigalae, H.lizlangleyae, Macrocentrusfredsingeri, M.geoffbarnardi, M.gregburtoni, M.gretchendailyae, M.grettelvegae, M.gustavogutierrezi, M.hannahjamesae, M.harisridhari, M.hillaryrosnerae, M.hiroshikidonoi, M.iangauldi, M.jennyphillipsae, M.jesseausubeli, M.jessemaysharkae, M.jimwhitfieldi, M.johnbrowni, M.johnburnsi, M.jonathanfranzeni, M.jonathanrosenbergi, M.jorgebaltodanoi, M.lucianocapelli. ORGILINAE: Orgilusamyrossmanae, O.carrolyoonae, O.christhompsoni, O.christinemcmahonae, O.dianalipscombae, O.ebbenielsoni, O.elizabethpennisiae, O.evertlindquisti, O.genestoermeri, O.jamesriegeri, O.jeanmillerae, O.jeffmilleri, O.jerrypowelli, O.jimtiedjei, O.johnlundbergi, O.johnpipolyi, O.jorgellorentei, O.larryspearsi, O.marlinricei, O.mellissaespinozae, O.mikesmithi, O.normplatnicki, O.peterrauchi, O.richardprimacki, O.sandraberriosae, O.sarahmirandae, O.scottmilleri, O.scottmorii, Stantoniabillalleni, S.brookejarvisae, S.donwilsoni, S.erikabjorstromae, S.garywolfi, S.henrikekmani, S.luismirandai, S.miriamzunzae, S.quentinwheeleri, S.robinkazmierae, S.ruthtifferae. PROTEROPINAE: Hebichneutestricolor Sharkey & Wharton, 1994, Proteropsiangauldi, P.vickifunkae, Michenercharlesi. RHYSIPOLINAE: Pseudorhysipolisluisfonsecai, P. mailyngonzalezaeRhysipolisjulioquirosi. ROGADINAE: Aleiodesadrianaradulovae, A.adrianforsythi, A.agnespeelleae, A.alaneaglei, A.alanflemingi, A.alanhalevii, A.alejandromasisi, A.alessandracallejae, A.alexsmithi, A.alfonsopescadori, A.alisundermieri, A.almasolisae, A.alvarougaldei, A.alvaroumanai, A.angelsolisi, A.annhowdenae, A.bobandersoni, A.carolinagodoyae, A.charlieobrieni, A.davefurthi, A.donwhiteheadi, A.doylemckeyi, A.frankhovorei, A.henryhowdeni, A.inga Shimbori & Shaw, 2020, A.johnchemsaki, A.johnkingsolveri, A.gonodontovorus Shimbori & Shaw, 2020, A.manuelzumbadoi, A.mayrabonillae, A.michelledsouzae, A.mikeiviei, A.normwoodleyi, A.pammitchellae, A.pauljohnsoni, A.rosewarnerae, A.steveashei, A.terryerwini, A.willsflowersi, Bioalfapedroleoni, B.alvarougaldei, B.rodrigogamezi, Choreborogasandydeansi, C.eladiocastroi, C.felipechavarriai, C.frankjoycei, Clinocentrusandywarreni, Cl.angelsolisi, Cystomastaxalexhausmanni, Cy.angelagonzalezae, Cy.ayaigarashiae, Hermosomastaxclavifemorus Quicke sp. nov., Heterogamusdonstonei, Pseudoyeliconesbernsweeneyi, Stiropiusbencrairi, S.berndkerni, S.edgargutierrezi, S.edwilsoni, S.ehakernae, Triraphisbillfreelandi, T.billmclarneyi, T.billripplei, T.bobandersoni, T.bobrobbinsi, T.bradzlotnicki, T.brianbrowni, T.brianlaueri, T.briannestjacquesae, T.camilocamargoi, T.carlosherrerai, T.carolinepalmerae, T.charlesmorrisi, T.chigiybinellae, T.christerhanssoni, T.christhompsoni, T.conniebarlowae, T.craigsimonsi, T.defectus Valerio, 2015, T.danielhubi, T.davidduthiei, T.davidwahli, T.federicomatarritai, T.ferrisjabri, T.mariobozai, T.martindohrni, T.matssegnestami, T.mehrdadhajibabaei, T.ollieflinti, T.tildalauerae, Yeliconesdirksteinkei, Y.markmetzi, Y.monserrathvargasae, Y.tricolor Quicke, 1996. Y.woldai Quicke, 1996. The following new combinations are proposed: Neothlipsissmithi (Ashmead), new combination for Microdussmithi Ashmead, 1894; Neothlipsispygmaeus (Enderlein), new combination for Microduspygmaeus Enderlein, 1920; Neothlipsisunicinctus (Ashmead), new combination for Microdusunicinctus Ashmead, 1894; Therophilusanomalus (Bortoni and Penteado-Dias) new combination for Plesiocoelusanomalus Bortoni and Penteado-Dias, 2015; Aerophilusareolatus (Bortoni and Penteado-Dias) new combination for Plesiocoelusareolatus Bortoni and Penteado-Dias, 2015; Pneumagathiserythrogastra (Cameron) new combination for Agathiserythrogastra Cameron, 1905. Dolichozelecitreitarsis (Enderlein), new combination for Paniscozelecitreitarsis Enderlein, 1920. Dolichozelefuscivertex (Enderlein) new combination for Paniscozelefuscivertex Enderlein, 1920. Finally, Bassusbrooksi Sharkey, 1998 is synonymized with Agathiserythrogastra Cameron, 1905; Paniscozelegriseipes Enderlein, 1920 issynonymized with Dolichozelekoebelei Viereck, 1911; Paniscozelecarinifrons Enderlein, 1920 is synonymized with Dolichozelefuscivertex (Enderlein, 1920); and Paniscozelenigricauda Enderlein,1920 is synonymized with Dolichozelequaestor (Fabricius, 1804). (originally described as Ophionquaestor Fabricius, 1804).

5.
Zootaxa ; 4964(2): zootaxa.4964.2.2, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903516

RESUMO

We describe a new genus, Manitischeria Diskus Stonis, gen. nov., and five new species: Manitischeria selindica Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., M. namibiensis Stonis Diskus, sp. nov. from Africa, and M. brachiata Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., M. symbolica Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., and M. baryshnikovae Diskus Stonis, sp. nov. from South East Asia. We discuss the diagnostics of Manitischeria gen. nov. composed of these new species and others transferred from Tischeria Zeller. Species are mostly trophically associated with Malvaceae, but also Rhamnaceae and Betulaceae. We list 18 currently known species of Manitischeria gen. nov., including M. ptarmica (Meyrick), the type species, and provide 13 new combinations and the first documentation of genitalia of some, previously little-known species. New species are illustrated with photographs or drawings of the adults, genitalia, and the leaf mines when available. We briefly discuss the use of herbarium specimens to discover lepidopteran leaf mines, host plant, and distribution data.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/classificação , Folhas de Planta , Plantas/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Zootaxa ; 4933(3): zootaxa.4933.3.3, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756786

RESUMO

We provide diagnostics for eight species groups of Oriental Pseudopostega Kozlov (Lepidoptera: Opostegidae) and a pictorial key for their identification. We designate three new species groups, P. frigida and P. strigulata groups, and the P. auritella group for two Palaearctic species, and rename the P. nigrimaculella group as the P. matrona group. We assign P. euryntis (Meyrick), P. zelopa (Meyrick), and P. subviolaceae (Meyrick), three formerly unplaced species, to species groups based on re-examination of male and female genitalia. We list 22 currently known Oriental Pseudopostega species, and synonymize Pseudopostega spilodes (Meyrick), syn. nov., with P. machaerias (Meyrick). One new Mediterranean species with affiliations to the Oriental fauna, P. matrona Karsholt Remeikis, sp. nov., is described. The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults and male genitalia. Additionally, we provide a distribution map of the P. matrona group, now extralimital to the Oriental region.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Odonatos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
7.
Zootaxa ; 4942(2): zootaxa.4942.2.8, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757070

RESUMO

The world's smallest moths in Lepidoptera (Insecta) and the complexity in making such a determination are examined and discussed. The forewing length and wingspan of 650 species were measured and the same data were retrieved from published papers to determine which species and family have the smallest moths in the world. The minimal recorded forewing length was found to be around 1.2-1.3 mm and the wingspan around 2.6-2.8 mm in two families, the Gracillariidae and Nepticulidae. Among Lepidoptera, the following species have the smallest moths globally: the European Johanssoniella acetosae (Stainton), the Peruvian Simplimorpha kailai Stonis Diskus, the Mexican Stigmella maya Remeikis Stonis, the Mediterranean S. diniensis (Klimesh), the Mediterranean Parafomoria liguricella (Klimesh) (Nepticulidae), the South East Asian Porphyrosela alternata Kumata, and the Central African P. desmodivora De Prins (Gracillariidae). Additionally, in the Nepticulidae, we provide a measurement update for Stigmella maya Remeikis Stonis, one of the tiniest species with a forewing length of 1.3 mm and wingspan of 2.8 mm, and describe a new species, Stigmella incaica Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., with a forewing length of 1.75 to 1.95 mm and a wingspan of 3.8 to 4.3 mm.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais
8.
Zootaxa ; 4926(3): zootaxa.4926.3.3, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756739

RESUMO

Members of the Lamiaceae, or mint family, are used worldwide for medicinal, culinary and/or magical-religious purposes, as well as in pesticides and as ornamental plants. Very little is known about nepticulids, or pygmy moths, as leaf miners of Lamiaceae, but they may be an important component of South American diversity and potential pests of economically-important species of the mint family. In this paper, four new species of leaf-mining Nepticulidae are described from the equatorial Andes of Ecuador: S. mentholica Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., Stigmella aromatica Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., S. odora Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Minthostachys mollis (Benth.) Griseb., and S. tomentosella Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts. It is hypothesized that host-plant distribution ranges can provide clues to potential distribution ranges of these newly discovered, trophically specialized leaf miners. The leaf mines, adults, and the genitalia of the new species are illustrated with photographs.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália , Especificidade de Hospedeiro
9.
Zookeys ; 970: 117-158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024410

RESUMO

Seven new species of Tischeriidae are described from the Neotropics: Astrotischeria jociui Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (feeding on Wissadula excelsior (Cav.) C. Presl., Malvaceae), A. atlantica Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (feeding on Baccharis spicata (Lam.) Baill., Asteraceae), A. cornuata Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (host plant unknown), Paratischeria guarani Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (feeding on Elephantopus mollis Kunth, Asteraceae), P. mesoamericana Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (feeding on Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth., Asteraceae), P. suprafasciata Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (feeding on Allophyllus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss. & Cambess.) Hieron. ex Niederl., Sapindaceae), and P. braziliensis Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. (host plant unknown). Additionally, an updated distribution map of Paratischeria neotropicana (Diskus & Stonis, 2015), which currently has the broadest distribution range among the Neotropical Tischeriidae is provided along with new host-plant data, a list of all recorded host plants in the Neotropics, and a brief discussion on trophic relationships of Tischeriidae. It is hypothesized that host-plant distribution ranges can provide clues to potential distribution ranges of these specialized, monophagous or oligophagous, leaf miners. All new taxa are illustrated with photographs of the adults, their genitalia, and, if available, leaf mines.

10.
Zootaxa ; 4748(2): zootaxa.4748.2.1, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230072

RESUMO

We list all 56 currently known Acalyptris Meyrick species from North and South America, designate five new species groups, and provide pictorial diagnostics for all nine revised species groups of the American fauna. We describe seven new species: A. marmor Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. barbudo Stonis Remeikis, sp. nov., A. jareki Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. hilli Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. mortalis Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., A. hyacinthum Stonis Vargas, sp. nov., and A. extremus Stonis Diskus, sp. nov. We provide new data on morphology, biology or distribution for the following species: A. murex Diskus Stonis, A. hispidus Puplesis Robinson, A. trifidus Puplesis Robinson, A. bifidus Puplesis Robinson, A. terrificus Simkeviciute Stonis, and particularly A. yucatani Remeikis Stonis. We transfer Fomoria miranda Diskus Stonis to Acalyptris and provide the first photographic documentation of A. novenarius Puplesis Robinson, A. fortis Puplesis Robinson, A. martinheringi Puplesis Robinson, A. basihastatus Puplesis Diskus, A. pseudohastatus Puplesis Diskus, A. articulosus Puplesis Diskus, A. bovicorneus Puplesis Diskus, and A. insolentis Puplesis Diskus. We also comment on the re-deposition of some type series to the collection of the Zoological Museum of the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Estados Unidos
11.
Zootaxa ; 4521(2): 151-182, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486171

RESUMO

The genus Simplimorpha Scoble is recognized for the first time from South America. We describe a subgenus, Myrtinepticula Stonis Diskus, subgen. nov., for three new species from the southern Andes (Chile and Argentina): Simplimorpha (Myrtinepticula) cercaria Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., S. (M.) nielseni Remeikis Stonis, sp. nov., S. (M.) sapphirella Remeikis Stonis, sp. nov.; and one new species from the southwestern Amazon (Peru): S. (M.) kailai Stonis, sp. nov. We provide a pictorial differentiation scheme for Simplimorpha Scoble and Pectinivalva Scoble. We synonymize the recently erected, predominantly Australian Menurella Hoare, syn. nov. and Cosanovula Hoare, syn. nov. with Pectinivalva Scoble. We also revise the taxonomic status of the Australian Roscidotoga Hoare as a subgenus of Simplimorpha which now exhibits a Gondwanan distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, with the presence of a single species in the Mediterranean. All new taxa are illustrated with photographs of the adults and the genitalia; the leaf mines of Simplimorpha (Myrtinepticula) nielseni sp. nov. are also provided.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Argentina , Austrália , Chile , Peru
12.
Zootaxa ; 4483(1): 101-127, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313800

RESUMO

The identifications of known fossils currently placed in the lepidopteran superfamily Pyraloidea are critically re-examined. Of the eleven fossils examined, only three are confirmed to show morphological characters supporting placement in the superfamily. These fossils include a crambid larva in Baltic Amber, Baltianania yantarnia, Solis gen. n. et sp. n. and the oldest known fossil pyraloid, Eopyralis morsae Simonsen, gen. n. et sp. n. The third fossil, Glendotricha olgae Kusnezov, 1941, displays apomorphic characters for Pyraloidea, but is shown to be an inclusion in copal, not Baltic amber as had been reported. Seven fossil specimens lack reliable characters and cannot be assigned to Pyraloidea with certainty: Pyralites obscurus Heer, 1856; Pyralites preecei Jarzembowski, 1980; Petisca dryellina Martins-Neto, 1998; three fossil larvae tentatively identified as Pyralidae by Zeuner (1931); and Gallerites keleri Kernbach, 1967. A possible fossil pyraloid in Mizunami amber could not be located in museum collections and available literature does not provide details to assess the validity of the identification. We discuss the contribution of the reliably identified fossils towards better understanding the evolutionary history of Pyraloidea.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Lepidópteros , Animais , Cor , Fósseis , Larva
13.
Zootaxa ; 4338(3): 489-506, 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245714

RESUMO

We provide diagnostic characters for the genus Glaucolepis Braun, re-examine the type series of the type species of the North American G. saccharella Braun, describe two new species from Chile and Argentina (G. flagellata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. and G. pseudoflagellata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.), and provide the first photographic documentation of the central Andean G. aerifica (Meyrick). We synonymize Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, 2016, syn. nov. with Glaucolepis and provide one new combination for the south Andean G. gielisorum (van Nieukerken, 2016), comb. nov. All species treated in the paper are illustrated with drawings and (or) photographs of the adults and genitalia.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Genitália , Mariposas , Estados Unidos
14.
Ecol Evol ; 6(23): 8632-8644, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28031813

RESUMO

Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, sugarcane, and rice. Diatraea larvae were collected from these four host plants throughout the year in El Salvador and were reared on artificial diet until moths or parasitoids emerged. Adult moths were subsequently identified to species. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) were used to examine whether or not there was genetic divergence of D. lineolata or D. saccharalis populations on the four host plants. Percent parasitism was also determined for each moth on its host plants. D. lineolata was collected from corn in the rainy season and sorghum in the dry season. D. saccharalis was most abundant on sugarcane in the rainy season and sorghum in the dry season. The AFLP analysis found two genetically divergent populations of both D. lineolata and D. saccharalis. Both moths had high levels of parasitism on their dominant host plant in the rainy season, yet had low levels of parasitism on sorghum in the dry season. The presence of two genotypes of both Diatraea spp. on sorghum suggest that host-associated differentiation is occurring on this novel introduced crop plant.

15.
Zootaxa ; 4136(1): 101-28, 2016 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395706

RESUMO

We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diskus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented.


Assuntos
Baccharis/parasitologia , Mariposas/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , América do Sul
16.
Zookeys ; (565): 73-121, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27081337

RESUMO

The genus Diatraea Guilding is one of the most economically important groups of moths in the Western Hemisphere. The larvae are stem borers that feed on species of Poaceae, or grasses, such as sugarcane, corn, rice, and sorghum, as well as many other native grasses. Interest in this group has risen considerably since sugarcane and other grasses have been utilized and/or investigated as biofuels. This is the first modern study to treat all 41 valid described species. Most type specimens were examined and we provide a checklist with 19 new synonyms. We provide keys for the identification of most species in this genus based on morphology of the male and female genitalia and modern illustrations of male and female genitalia. We also provide an updated table of species distribution by country.

17.
Zookeys ; (535): 1-136, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26668552

RESUMO

An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data and/or commentary to all changes since 1983 for easy and future reference. In addition, this list proposes seven new generic combinations, the transfer of a phycitine species, Salebria nigricans (Hulst), to Epipaschiinae and its syn. n. with Pococera fuscolotella (Ragonot), and three new records for the United States. Purposefully, no new taxa are described here, but we found a gradual increase of 10% in the number of species described since 1983. Finally, we also include a list of thirteen species not included or removed from the MONA list. Many higher-level changes have occurred since 1983 and the classification is updated to reflect research over the last 30 years, including exclusion of Thyrididae and Hyblaeidae from the superfamily and recognition of Crambidae and Pyralidae as separate families. The list includes multiple changes to subfamilies based on morphology such as the synonymization of the Dichogamini with the Glaphyriinae, but also incorporating recent molecular phylogenetic results such as the synonymization of the Evergestinae with the Glaphyriinae.

18.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e110036, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25337705

RESUMO

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/genética , Filogeografia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Florida , Espécies Introduzidas , Louisiana , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mariposas/classificação , Filogenia , Saccharum/parasitologia , Texas
19.
Zookeys ; (383): 1-565, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24624021

RESUMO

More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica - including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai, cinthiabarrantesae, ciriloumanai, cristianalemani, cynthiacorderoae, deifiliadavilae, dickyui, didiguadamuzi, diegoalpizari, diegotorresi, diniamartinezae, duniagarciae, duvalierbricenoi, edgarjimenezi, edithlopezae, eduardoramirezi, edwinapui, eldarayae, erickduartei, esthercentenoae, eugeniaphilipsae, eulogiosequeira, felipechavarriai, felixcarmonai, fernandochavarriai, flormoralesae, franciscopizarroi, franciscoramirezi, freddyquesadai, freddysalazari, gabrielagutierrezae, garygibsoni, gerardobandoi, gerardosandovali, gladysrojasae, glenriverai, gloriasihezarae, guadaluperodriguezae, guillermopereirai, juanmatai, harryramirezi, hectorsolisi, humbertolopezi, inesolisae, irenecarrilloae, isaacbermudezi, isidrochaconi, isidrovillegasi, ivonnetranae, jairomoyai, javiercontrerasi, javierobandoi, javiersihezari, jesusbrenesi, jesusugaldei, jimmychevezi, johanvargasi, jorgecortesi, jorgehernandezi, josecalvoi, josecortesi, josediazi, josejaramilloi, josemonteroi, joseperezi, joserasi, juanapui, juancarrilloi, juangazoi, juanhernandezi, juanlopezi, juanvictori, juliodiazi, juniorlopezi, keineraragoni, laurahuberae, laurenmoralesae, leninguadamuzi, leonelgarayi, lilliammenae, lisabearssae, luciariosae, luisbrizuelai, luiscanalesi, luiscantillanoi, luisgarciai, luisgaritai, luishernandezi, luislopezi, luisvargasi, manuelarayai, manuelpereirai, manuelriosi, manuelzumbadoi, marcobustosi, marcogonzalezi, marcovenicioi, mariachavarriae mariaguevarae, marialuisariasae, mariamendezae, marianopereirai, mariatorrentesae, sigifredomarini, marisolarroyoae, marisolnavarroae, marvinmendozai, mauriciogurdiani, milenagutierrezae, monicachavarriae, oscarchavesi, osvaldoespinozai, pablotranai, pabloumanai, pablovasquezi, paulaixcamparijae, luzmariaromeroae, petronariosae, randallgarciai, randallmartinezi, raulacevedoi, raulsolorsanoi, wadyobandoi, ricardocaleroi, robertmontanoi, robertoespinozai, robertovargasi, rodrigogamezi, rogerblancoi, rolandoramosi, rolandovegai, ronaldcastroi, ronaldgutierrezi, ronaldmurilloi, ronaldnavarroi, ronaldquirosi, ronaldzunigai, rosibelelizondoae, ruthfrancoae, sergiocascantei, sergioriosi, tiboshartae, vannesabrenesae, minornavarroi, victorbarrantesi, waldymedinai, wilbertharayai, williamcamposi, yeissonchavesi, yilbertalvaradoi, yolandarojasae, hazelcambroneroae, zeneidabolanosae.

20.
Zookeys ; (344): 55-71, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24194660

RESUMO

A Ph.D. dissertation completed by E.D. Cashatt in 1968 entitled "Revision of the Chrysauginae of North America" does not meet the criteria of publication so the new taxa described therein are not available per the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. In order to validate the taxa proposed in that document we formally describe and illustrate the following: Arta brevivalvalis Cashatt, sp. n., Heliades lindae Cashatt, sp. n., Paragalasa Cashatt, gen. n., Paragalasa exospinalis Cashatt, sp. n., and Penthesilea sacculalis baboquivariensis Cashatt, subsp. n. We summarize other taxonomic actions proposed in the dissertation and those proposed by subsequent authors. We provide the current nomenclatural status with the literature citation of the paper in which the current status was proposed. A lectotype is designated for Clydonopteran tecomae. Adult holotypes and associated labels, and genitalia of paratypes are newly illustrated.

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