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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001483

RESUMO

KRAS G12C inhibitors have shown promise in KRAS G12C mutant lung cancer but intrinsic and acquired resistance are common. Co-treatment with inhibitors of the protein phosphatase SHP2 can abrogate the adaptive response of cancer cells to KRAS inhibitors resulting in greater suppression of MAPK signaling and enhanced tumor growth inhibition.

2.
J Pathol ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003459

RESUMO

A commentary on our manuscript 'Genomic landscape of inverted urothelial papilloma and urothelial papilloma of the bladder' was recently published in the Journal of Pathology. In their manuscript, the authors highlighted the major findings of our study including the distinct genetic profiles of inverted urothelial papilloma and urothelial papilloma compared to urothelial carcinoma. They also pointed to a lack of comparison in our study between inverted urothelial papilloma (IUP) and noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with inverted growth (iUC). In this letter, we address this point and provide data to support that the genetic profiles of iUC are distinct from that of IUP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited information on germline mutations in biliary tract cancers, this study performed somatic and germline testing for patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with known biliary tract carcinoma with the aim of determining the frequency and range of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs). METHODS: Patients with biliary tract carcinoma were consented for somatic tumor and matched blood testing of up to 468 genes via the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets next-generation sequencing platform. A germline variant analysis was performed on a panel of up to 88 genes associated with an increased predisposition for cancer. Demographic and diagnostic details were collected. RESULTS: Germline mutations were tested in 131 patients. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most common cancer (63.4%), and it was followed by gallbladder adenocarcinoma (16.8%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (16%), and otherwise unspecified biliary tract cancer (3.8%). Known and likely PGAs were present in 21 patients (16.0%), with 9.9% harboring a PGA in a high/moderate-penetrance cancer predisposition gene. Among high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, PGAs were most commonly observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (33.3%), which made up 5.3% of the entire cohort, and they were followed by PALB2, BAP1, and PMS2. Mutations in ATM, MITF, and NBN, moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, were identified in 1 patient each. There was no observed difference in the types of mutations among the subtypes of biliary tract cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PGAs found was comparable to existing data on the prevalence of germline mutations in other solid tumor types with matched tumor analysis. This provides support for the role of the BRCA1/2, ATM, and BAP1 genes in biliary tract cancer susceptibility.

6.
Oncologist ; 25(1): e68-e74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is critical to gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis. Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor targeting angiogenic and stromal receptor tyrosine kinases. We evaluated whether regorafenib augments the antitumor effect of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic esophagogastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with previously untreated metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma received 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) every 14 days and regorafenib 160 mg daily on days 4 to 10 of each 14-day cycle. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS). To identify predictive biomarkers of outcome, we examined correlations between genomic characteristics of sequenced pretreatment tumors and PFS. RESULTS: Between August 2013 and November 2014, 36 patients with metastatic esophagogastric cancer were accrued to this single-center phase II study (NCT01913639). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (36%), leucopenia (11%) and hypertension (8%). The 6-month PFS was 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-71%), the objective response rate was 54% (95% CI, 37%-70%), and the disease control rate was 77% (95% CI, 67%-94%). Next-generation sequencing did not identify any genomic alterations significantly correlated with response, and there was no association between homologous recombination deficiency and PFS with platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Regorafenib (one week on-one week off schedule) is well tolerated in combination with first-line FOLFOX but does not improve 6-month PFS relative to historical control. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Prognosis for metastatic esophagogastric cancer remains poor despite modern systemic therapy regimens. This phase II trial indicates that the combination of regorafenib and FOLFOX is well tolerated but does not add to the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic esophagogastric cancer. Notably, recently reported data suggest potential synergy between regorafenib and the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab. As this study demonstrates that regorafenib plus FOLFOX is safe, and combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy show favorable toxicity profiles, future studies combining immunotherapy with regorafenib and chemotherapy may be feasible.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901395, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urothelial cancers (UCs) have a substantial hereditary component, but, other than their association with Lynch syndrome, the contribution of genetic risk factors to UC pathogenesis has not been systematically defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in patients with UC and identify associated clinical factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 586 patients with UC underwent prospective, matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Seventy-seven genes associated with cancer predisposition were analyzed; allele frequencies were compared with publicly available database. RESULTS: P/LP germline variants were identified in 80 (14%) of 586 individuals with UC. The most common P/LP variants in high- or moderate-penetrance genes were BRCA2 (n = 9; 1.5%), MSH2 (n = 8; 1.4%), BRCA1 (n = 8; 1.4%), CHEK2 (n = 6; 1.0%), ERCC3 (n = 4; 0.7%), and NBN and RAD50 (n = 3; 0.5% each). Sixty-six patients (83%) had germline P/LP variants in DNA-damage repair (DDR) genes, of which 28 (42%) had biallelic inactivation. Patients with P/LP variants were more commonly diagnosed at an early age (22% v 6% in those without variants; P = .01). BRCA2 and MSH2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio, 3.7 [P = .004] and 4.6 [P = .001], respectively). Current clinical guidelines for referral for genetic testing failed to identify 6 (26%) patients with high-penetrance variants. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant P/LP germline variants in DDR genes frequently are present in patients with advanced UC. The presence of DDR germline variants could guide cancer screening for patients and their families and serve as predictive biomarkers of response to targeted or immunotherapies. Family history-based criteria to identify patients with hereditary UC susceptibility are insensitive. Broader germline testing in UC, particularly in those of young ages, should be considered.

8.
Cancer Discov ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806627

RESUMO

HER2 mutations define a subset of metastatic breast cancers with a unique mechanism of oncogenic addiction to HER2 signaling. We explored activity of the irreversible pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib, alone or with fulvestrant, in 81 patients with HER2-mutant metastatic breast cancer. Overall response rate was similar with or without estrogen receptor (ER) blockade. By comparison, progression-free survival and duration of response appeared longer in ER+ patients receiving combination therapy, although the study was not designed for direct comparison. Preexistent concurrent activating HER2 or HER3 alterations were associated with poor treatment outcome. Similarly, acquisition of multiple HER2-activating events, as well as gatekeeper alterations, were observed at disease progression in a high proportion of patients deriving clinical benefit from neratinib. Collectively, these data define HER2 mutations as a therapeutic target in breast cancer and suggest that coexistence of additional HER signaling alterations may promote both de novo and acquired resistance to neratinib. SIGNIFICANCE: HER2 mutations define a targetable breast cancer subset, although sensitivity to irreversible HER kinase inhibition appears to be modified by the presence of concurrent activating genomic events in the pathway. These findings have implications for potential future combinatorial approaches and broader therapeutic development for this genomically defined subset of breast cancer.

9.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1928-1937, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768066

RESUMO

Accurate identification of tumor-derived somatic variants in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) requires understanding of the various biological compartments contributing to the cfDNA pool. We sought to define the technical feasibility of a high-intensity sequencing assay of cfDNA and matched white blood cell DNA covering a large genomic region (508 genes; 2 megabases; >60,000× raw depth) in a prospective study of 124 patients with metastatic cancer, with contemporaneous matched tumor tissue biopsies, and 47 controls without cancer. The assay displayed high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for de novo detection of tumor-derived mutations and inference of tumor mutational burden, microsatellite instability, mutational signatures and sources of somatic mutations identified in cfDNA. The vast majority of cfDNA mutations (81.6% in controls and 53.2% in patients with cancer) had features consistent with clonal hematopoiesis. This cfDNA sequencing approach revealed that clonal hematopoiesis constitutes a pervasive biological phenomenon, emphasizing the importance of matched cfDNA-white blood cell sequencing for accurate variant interpretation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Genômica , Neoplasias/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate genomic correlates underlying extremes of survivorship in metastatic colorectal cancer and their applicability in informing survival in distinct subsets of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined differences in oncogenic somatic alterations between metastatic colorectal cancer cohorts demonstrating extremes of survivorship following complete metastasectomy: ≤2-year (n = 17) and ≥10-year (n = 18) survivors. Relevant genomic findings, and their association with overall survival (OS), were validated in two independent datasets of 935 stage IV and 443 resected stage I-IV patients. RESULTS: In the extremes-of-survivorship cohort, significant co-occurrence of KRAS hotspot mutations and TP53 alterations was observed in ≤2-year survivors (P < 0.001). When validating these findings in the independent cohort of 935 stage IV patients, incorporation of the cumulative effect of any oncogenic Ras/B-raf (i.e., either KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF) and TP53 alteration generated three prognostic clusters: (i) TP53-altered alone (median OS, 132 months); (ii) Ras/B-raf-altered alone (65 months) or Ras/B-raf- and TP53 pan-wild-type (60 months); and (iii) coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 (40 months; P < 0.0001). Coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 was independently associated with mortality (HR, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-3.21; P < 0.001). This molecular profile predicted survival in the second independent cohort of 443 resected stage I-IV patients. Coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 was associated with worse OS in patients with liver (n = 490) and lung (n = 172) but not peritoneal surface (n = 149) metastases. Moreover, coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 tumors were significantly more likely to involve extrahepatic metastatic sites with limited salvage options. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic analysis of extremes of survivorship following colorectal cancer metastasectomy identifies a prognostic role for coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 and its association with distinct patterns of colorectal cancer metastasis.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725847

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnosing the site of origin for cancer is a pillar of disease classification that has directed clinical care for more than a century. Even in an era of precision oncologic practice, in which treatment is increasingly informed by the presence or absence of mutant genes responsible for cancer growth and progression, tumor origin remains a critical factor in tumor biologic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity. Objective: To evaluate whether data derived from routine clinical DNA sequencing of tumors could complement conventional approaches to enable improved diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A machine learning approach was developed to predict tumor type from targeted panel DNA sequence data obtained at the point of care, incorporating both discrete molecular alterations and inferred features such as mutational signatures. This algorithm was trained on 7791 tumors representing 22 cancer types selected from a prospectively sequenced cohort of patients with advanced cancer. Results: The correct tumor type was predicted for 5748 of the 7791 patients (73.8%) in the training set as well as 8623 of 11 644 patients (74.1%) in an independent cohort. Predictions were assigned probabilities that reflected empirical accuracy, with 3388 cases (43.5%) representing high-confidence predictions (>95% probability). Informative molecular features and feature categories varied widely by tumor type. Genomic analysis of plasma cell-free DNA yielded accurate predictions in 45 of 60 cases (75.0%), suggesting that this approach may be applied in diverse clinical settings including as an adjunct to cancer screening. Likely tissues of origin were predicted from targeted tumor sequencing in 95 of 141 patients (67.4%) with cancers of unknown primary site. Applying this method prospectively to patients under active care enabled genome-directed reassessment of diagnosis in 2 patients initially presumed to have metastatic breast cancer, leading to the selection of more appropriate treatments, which elicited clinical responses. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that the application of artificial intelligence to predict tissue of origin in oncologic practice can act as a useful complement to conventional histologic review to provide integrated pathologic diagnoses, often with important therapeutic implications.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7381-7387, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether FDG PET can expand eligibility in biomarker-selected clinical trials by providing a means to quantitate response in patients with non-assessable disease by RECIST. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: SUMMIT (NCT01953926) is a multicenter phase II "basket" trial of the Pan-HER kinase inhibitor, neratinib. Patients had advanced ERBB2 (HER2)-mutant solid tumors, ≥1 measurable lesion, preferably defined unidimensionally by RECIST v1.1, or alternatively metabolically by PET Response Criteria (PRC). The primary aim was to determine the proportion of additional breast cancer patients accrued using PRC who would have otherwise been ineligible based on RECIST criteria alone. The secondary aim was to determine the concordance of response versus non-response between RECIST and PRC. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients with HER2-mutant metastatic breast cancer were accrued; 77 were evaluable for response by RECIST and/or PRC. 63 (82%) were RECIST-evaluable and 14 (18%) were accrued using PRC alone. Bone-only disease (n = 11; 79%) was the most common reason for classification as non-measurable by RECIST. Twenty-nine patients were accrued and followed using both criteria, of which 25 (86%; 95% confidence interval, 68%-96%) were concordant for response versus non-response as defined by RECIST and PRC. CONCLUSIONS: PRC allowed patients with non-RECIST measurable disease access to therapy and facilitated more rapid accrual of patients to this trial of a rare biomarker. PRC and RECIST both provided methods of response assessment and were generally concordant. Thus, PRC was useful as a supplement to RECIST criteria. This provides a rationale for including FDG PET measurements in future clinical trials involving rare tumors or rare genomically defined subpopulations of more common cancers.

14.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552290

RESUMO

Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of combining phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors with endocrine therapies in hormone therapy-refractory breast cancer. However, biomarkers of PI3K pathway dependence in ER+ breast cancer have not been fully established. Hotspot mutations in the alpha isoform of PI3K (PIK3CA) are frequent in ER+ disease and may identify tumors that respond to PI3K inhibitors. It is unclear whether PIK3CA mutations are the only biomarker to suggest pathway dependence and response to therapy. We performed correlative molecular characterization of primary and metastatic tissue from patients enrolled in a phase Ib study combining buparlisib (NVP-BKM-120), a pan-PI3K inhibitor, with letrozole in ER+, human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative, metastatic breast cancer. Activating mutations in PIK3CA and inactivating MAP3K1 mutations marked tumors from patients with clinical benefit (≥6 months of stable disease). Patients harboring mutations in both genes exhibited the greatest likelihood of clinical benefit. In ER+ breast cancer cell lines, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MAP3K1 did not affect the response to buparlisib. In a subset of patients treated with buparlisib or the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib each with letrozole where PAM50 analysis was performed, nearly all tumors from patients with clinical benefit had a luminal A subtype. Mutations in MAP3K1 in ER+ breast cancer may be associated with clinical benefit from combined inhibition of PI3K and ER, but we could not ascribe direct biological function therein, suggesting they may be a surrogate for luminal A status. We posit that luminal A tumors may be a target population for this therapeutic combination.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4276-4289, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483290

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDAdenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising in salivary glands and other sites, characterized by high rates of relapse and distant spread. Recurrent/metastatic (R/M) ACCs are generally incurable, due to a lack of active systemic therapies. To improve outcomes, deeper understanding of genetic alterations and vulnerabilities in R/M tumors is needed.METHODSAn integrated genomic analysis of 1,045 ACCs (177 primary, 868 R/M) was performed to identify alterations associated with advanced and metastatic tumors. Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, germline mutations, and therapeutic actionability were assessed.RESULTSCompared with primary tumors, R/M tumors were enriched for alterations in key Notch (NOTCH1, 26.3% vs. 8.5%; NOTCH2, 4.6% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH3, 5.7% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH4, 3.6% vs. 0.6%) and chromatin-remodeling (KDM6A, 15.2% vs. 3.4%; KMT2C/MLL3, 14.3% vs. 4.0%; ARID1B, 14.1% vs. 4.0%) genes. TERT promoter mutations (13.1% of R/M cases) were mutually exclusive with both NOTCH1 mutations (q = 3.3 × 10-4) and MYB/MYBL1 fusions (q = 5.6 × 10-3), suggesting discrete, alternative mechanisms of tumorigenesis. This network of alterations defined 4 distinct ACC subgroups: MYB+NOTCH1+, MYB+/other, MYBWTNOTCH1+, and MYBWTTERT+. Despite low mutational load, we identified numerous samples with marked intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, including branching evolution across multiregion sequencing.CONCLUSIONThese observations collectively redefine the molecular underpinnings of ACC progression and identify further targets for precision therapies.FUNDINGAdenoid Cystic Carcinoma Research Foundation, Pershing Square Sohn Cancer Research grant, the PaineWebber Chair, Stand Up 2 Cancer, NIH R01 CA205426, the STARR Cancer Consortium, NCI R35 CA232097, the Frederick Adler Chair, Cycle for Survival, the Jayme Flowers Fund, The Sebastian Nativo Fund, NIH K08 DE024774 and R01 DE027738, and MSKCC through NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA008748).

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7475-7484, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of broad-panel tumor genomic profiling has used a gene-centric approach, although much of that data is unused in clinical decision making. We hypothesized that a pathway-centric approach using next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with conventional clinicopathologic features, may better predict disease-free survival (DFS) in early stage lung adenocarcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing our prospectively maintained database, we analyzed 492 patients with primary, untreated, completely surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Ten canonical pathways were analyzed using broad-panel NGS. The correlations of DFS and number (and type) of pathway (NPA) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Associations between altered pathways and clinicopathologic variables, as well as identification of actionable therapeutic strategies were explored. RESULTS: Median NPA for the cohort was two (range, 0-5). Smoking status, solid morphologic appearance on preoperative CT, maximal standardized uptake value, pathologic tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype, lymphovascular invasion, visceral pleural invasion, and positive lymph nodes were significantly associated with NPA (P < 0.05). Of 543 actionable genetic alterations identified, 455 (84%) were within the RTK/RAS pathway. A total of 86 tumors had actionable therapeutic genomic alterations in >1 pathway. On multivariable analysis, higher NPA was significantly associated with worse DFS (HR, 1.31; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: NPA and specific pathway alterations are associated with clinicopathologic features in patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Cell cycle, Hippo, TGFß, and p53 pathway alterations are associated with poor DFS. Finally, NPA is an independent risk factor for poor DFS in our cohort.See related commentary by Blakely, p. 7269.

17.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4380-4387, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ERBB2) are found in approximately 2% of lung adenocarcinomas. The frequency and clinical course of brain metastases in this oncogenic subset are ill defined. METHODS: Baseline and subsequent development of brain metastases was evaluated in consecutive patients with HER2-mutant (n = 98), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant (n = 200), and KRAS-mutant lung cancers (n = 200). RESULTS: At metastatic diagnosis, the odds ratio (ORs) for brain metastases was similar for patients whose tumors harbored HER2 mutations (19%) in comparison with patients with KRAS mutations (24%; OR for HER2 vs KRAS, 0.7; P = .33) but lower compared to patients with EGFR mutations (31%; OR for HER2 vs EGFR, 0.5; P = .03). Patients with lung cancer and HER2 mutations developed more brain metastases on treatment than patients with KRAS mutations (28% vs 8%; hazard ratio [HR], 5.2; P < .001) and trended more than patients with EGFR mutations (28% vs 16%; HR, 1.7; P = .06). Patients with HER2 YVMA mutations also developed more brain metastases on treatment than patients with KRAS mutations (HR, 5.9; P < .001). The median overall survival (OS) was shorter for patients with HER2-mutant (1.6 years; P < .001) or KRAS-mutant lung cancers (1.1 years; P < .001) than patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers (3.0 years). Brain metastases occurred in 47% of patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers, which imparted shorter OS (HR, 2.7; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a framework for brain imaging surveillance in patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers and underpin the need to develop HER2-targeted agents with central nervous system activity.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(20): 6160-6169, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are effective in only a minority of patients with esophagogastric cancer (EGC). Here, we aimed to identify predictors of durable clinical benefit to ICI in EGC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced EGC treated with ICIs at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) were identified. Clinicopathologic variables were assessed. In patients profiled by MSK-IMPACT-targeted sequencing, outcomes were correlated with tumor genomic features. RESULTS: One-hundred sixty-one patients were treated with ICIs (110 with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and 51 with anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.7 and 4.9 months, respectively. Greater number of disease sites (≥3), liver metastases, treatment with ≥3 prior therapies and ECOG performance status ≥2 were associated with poorer PFS and OS. Patients treated with combination ICI and those with PD-L1-positive tumors had improved outcomes. There was no difference in outcomes between patients treated with antibiotics during or in the 2 months preceding ICI treatment versus those who were not. Occurrence of irAEs was associated with improved OS. In genomically profiled tumors (n = 89), survival was associated with increasing tumor mutation burden (TMB). However, in multivariable analyses and when microsatellite unstable (MSI) patients were excluded, a significant association was no longer observed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced EGC, heavily pretreated patients, those with high-volume disease and/or poor PS were less likely to benefit from ICI. irAEs were associated with improved OS. TMB correlated with improved survival, but this association was not observed when MSI-high patients were excluded.

19.
Nature ; 571(7766): 576-579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292550

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to certain cancers1-3, and disease-specific screening and preventative strategies have reduced cancer mortality in affected patients4,5. These classical tumour-suppressor genes have tumorigenic effects associated with somatic biallelic inactivation, although haploinsufficiency may also promote the formation and progression of tumours6,7. Moreover, BRCA1/2-mutant tumours are often deficient in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination8-13, and consequently exhibit increased therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-containing therapy and inhibitors of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP)14,15. However, the phenotypic and therapeutic relevance of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains poorly defined in most cancer types. Here we show that in the 2.7% and 1.8% of patients with advanced-stage cancer and germline pathogenic or somatic loss-of-function alterations in BRCA1/2, respectively, selective pressure for biallelic inactivation, zygosity-dependent phenotype penetrance, and sensitivity to PARP inhibition were observed only in tumour types associated with increased heritable cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers (BRCA-associated cancer types). Conversely, among patients with non-BRCA-associated cancer types, most carriers of these BRCA1/2 mutation types had evidence for tumour pathogenesis that was independent of mutant BRCA1/2. Overall, mutant BRCA is an indispensable founding event for some tumours, but in a considerable proportion of other cancers, it appears to be biologically neutral-a difference predominantly conditioned by tumour lineage-with implications for disease pathogenesis, screening, design of clinical trials and therapeutic decision-making.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5537-5547, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The genomic landscape of gliomas has been characterized and now contributes to disease classification, yet the relationship between molecular profile and disease progression and treatment response remain poorly understood.Experimental Design: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing of 1,004 primary and recurrent tumors from 923 glioma patients with clinical and treatment phenotypes. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of glioma patients harbored a pathogenic germline variant, including a subset associated with heritable genetic syndromes and variants mediating DNA repair dysfunctions (29% of the total) that were associated with somatic biallelic inactivation and mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes. In astrocytomas, genomic alterations in effectors of cell-cycle progression correlated with aggressive disease independent of IDH mutation status, arose preferentially in enhancing tumors (44% vs. 8%, P < 0.001), were associated with rapid disease progression following tumor recurrence (HR = 2.6, P = 0.02), and likely preceded the acquisition of alkylating therapy-associated somatic hypermutation. Thirty-two percent of patients harbored a potentially therapeutically actionable lesion, of whom 11% received targeted therapies. In BRAF-mutant gliomas, response to agents targeting the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling axis was influenced by the type of mutation, its clonality, and its cellular and genomic context. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal genomic correlates of disease progression and treatment response in diverse types of glioma and highlight the potential utility of incorporating genomic information into the clinical decision-making for patients with glioma.

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