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1.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155879

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against sarcopenia but there are no studies on this topic from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we assessed this association among older adults from six LMICs. Community-based cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. Quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption were created based on the number of servings consumed on a typical day. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 14,585 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.4) years; 55% females). Adjusted analyses showed that overall, compared to the lowest quintile (Q1), the highest quintile (Q5) of fruit consumption was associated with a 40% lower odds for sarcopenia (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.84) but this association was largely driven by the strong association among females (e.g., Q5 vs. Q1 OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.24-0.73), with no significant associations found among males. Vegetable consumption was not significantly associated with sarcopenia. Future studies of longitudinal design may shed light on whether increasing fruit consumption among older females in LMICs may reduce risk for sarcopenia.

2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We summarized and compared meta-analyses of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions targeting physical health outcomes among people with dementia. DESIGN: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: People with dementia, confirmed through validated assessment measures. METHODS: Major databases were searched until October 21, 2019. Effect sizes [standardized mean difference (SMD)/Hedges g or risk ratio (RR)] were compared separately. RESULTS: Of 3773 search engine hits, 4 meta-analyses were included, representing 31 meta-analyzed trials and 10,054 study participants. Although meta-analyses were generally of adequate high quality, meta-analyzed studies were less so. Nutritional supplements were the only one to show a weight-increasing effect [SMD 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.68, ie, medium effect; N = 12, n = 748]. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are associated with an increased risk for weight loss (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5‒3.0; N = 9, n = 7010). For the treatment of pain, sensory stimulation has a medium effect (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.17; N = 6, n = 199), whereas physical activity has a small effect (SMD -0.24, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.59; N = 2, n = 75). When exploring the characteristics of the psychosocial interventions, group-based interventions demonstrated a medium (SMD -0.55, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.09; N = 6, n = 157) and individual psychosocial interventions a small effect (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.53; N = 2, n = 55). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Despite frequent physical comorbidities, the current evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions in people with dementia to prevent and treat these conditions is still in its infancy, and larger trials targeting a wide range of physical health outcomes are urgently needed. Based on the SMDs and RRs, nutritional supplements can be recommended as an intervention to treat malnutrition. Clinicians should be careful in treating patients with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as it shows medium weight reducing effects. For the treatment of comorbid pain, sensory stimulation and psychosocial interventions are recommended.

3.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e4, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND.: Stigma is one of the most important barriers to help-seeking and to personal recovery for people suffering from mental disorders. Stigmatizing attitudes are present among mental health professionals with negative effects on the quality of health care. METHODS.: Network and moderator analysis were used to identify what path determines stigma, considering demographic and professional variables, personality traits, and burnout dimensions in a sample of mental health professionals (n = 318) from six Community Mental Health Services. The survey included the Attribution Questionnaire-9, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. RESULTS.: The personality trait of openness to new experiences resulted to determine lower levels of stigma. Burnout (personal accomplishment) interacted with emotional stability in predicting stigma, and specifically, for subjects with lower emotional stability lower levels of personal accomplishment were associated with higher levels of stigma. CONCLUSIONS.: Some personality traits may be accompanied by better empathic and communication skills, and may have a protective role against stigma. Moreover, burnout can increase stigma, in particular in subjects with specific personality traits. Assessing personality and burnout levels could help in identifying mental health professionals at higher risk of developing stigma. Future studies should determine whether targeted interventions in mental health professionals at risk of developing stigma may be effective in stigma prevention.

4.
Depress Anxiety ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown mixed results for depression treatment. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials using tDCS to improve depressive symptoms. METHODS: A systematic review was performed from the first date available to January 06, 2020 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and additional sources. We included randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) enrolling participants with an acute depressive episode and compared the efficacy of active versus sham tDCS, including association with other interventions. The primary outcome was the Hedges' g for continuous depression scores; secondary outcomes included odds ratios (ORs) and number needed to treat (NNT) for response, remission, and acceptability. Random effects models were employed. Sources of heterogeneity were explored via metaregression, sensitivity analyses, subgroup analyses, and bias assessment. RESULTS: We included 23 RCTs (25 datasets, 1,092 participants), most (57%) presenting a low risk of bias. Active tDCS was superior to sham regarding endpoint depression scores (k = 25, g = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.70), and also achieved superior response (k = 18, 33.3% vs. 16.56%, OR = 2.28 [1.52-3.42], NNT = 6) and remission (k = 18, 19.12% vs. 9.78%, OR = 2.12 [1.42-3.16], NNT = 10.7) rates. Moreover, active tDCS was as acceptable as sham. No risk of publication bias was identified. Cumulative meta-analysis showed that effect sizes are basically unchanged since total sample reached 439 participants. CONCLUSIONS: TDCS is modestly effective in treating depressive episodes. Further well-designed, large-scale RCTs are warranted.

5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13203, 2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer risk has been associated with certain gene variations in microRNA (miRNA), but conflicting evidence warrants re-assessing of significant results in meta-analyses. We summarized published meta-analyses that assess the associations between miRNA polymorphism and cancers to show the validity of the findings. METHOD: We searched PubMed and investigated the results of meta-analyses published through November 2018. We re-assessed the results based on false-positive report probability (FPRP) to test the noteworthiness of the associations. RESULTS: Sixty-eight miRNA polymorphisms in 45 meta-analyses associated with cancer were included. Four (7.4%) and sixteen (25.0%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were noteworthy (FPRP < 0.2) at a prior probability of 0.001 for interesting candidate genes and a statistical power to detect an odds ratio (OR) of 1.1 and 1.5, respectively. The four miRNA SNPs noteworthy at an OR of 1.1 were as follows: miR-146a/rs2910164 Cvs.G; miR-27a/rs895819 Cvs.T; miR-423/rs6505162 Cvs.A; and miR-605/rs2043556 Cvs.T. The 16 SNPs noteworthy at an OR of 1.5 include the four genotype comparisons at an OR of 1.1, and the additional 12 genotype comparisons were as follows: miR-196a2/rs11614913 Tvs.C; miR-27a/rs895819 GGvs.AA + AG; miR-196a2/rs11614913 C vs.T; miR-146a/rs2910164 Gvs.C; miR-196a2/rs11614913 Tvs.C; miR-146a/rs2910164 Cvs.G; miR-499/rs3746444 homozygous model; miR-146a/rs2910164 CCvs.GG + GC; miR-499/rs3746444 TCvs.TT; miR-499/rs3746444 GAvs.AA; miR-146a/rs2910164 CCvs.GG; and miR-499/rs3746444 Gvs.A. No association was noteworthy at a prior probability of 0.000001. CONCLUSION: Out of 68 published associations of miRNA polymorphisms with cancer, sixteen have shown noteworthiness in our re-assessing meta-analysis. Our findings summarize the results of meta-analyses on the association of cancer with SNPs and underline the importance of interpreting results with caution.

6.
Psychosom Med ; 82(1): 39-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that handgrip strength (a proxy for muscular fitness) is associated with better cognitive performance in people with major depressive disorder (MDD). The underlying processes are unclear, although hippocampal volume (HCV) reductions and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been implicated. Therefore, we investigated the associations between handgrip strength and various brain region volumes and WMHs in MDD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of handgrip strength and neuroimaging data from the UK Biobank. Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between grip strength and gray matter, white matter, total brain volume, left and right hippocampus volume, and WMHs in MDD and HCs, adjusting for age, sex, education, and body weight. RESULTS: The sample included 527 people with MDD (54.3 ± 7.3 years, 37.2% male) and 1764 HCs (56.6 ± 7.2 years, 53% male). In MDD, stronger handgrip was significantly associated with increased left (coefficient ± SE = 108.1 ± 27.6, t = 3.92) and right (76.8 ± 30.4, t = 2.53) HCV. In HCs, only right HCV related to handgrip strength (44.8 ± 18.1, t = 2.47). Interaction analyses found stronger associations between grip strength and HCV in MDD compared with HCs, for both hippocampal regions. Stronger handgrip was associated with reduced WMHs in people with MDD (-0.24 ± 0.07, t = -3.24) and HCs (-0.11 ± 0.04, t = -2.47). Maximal handgrip strength was not associated with gray matter, white matter, or total brain volumes in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Stronger grip strength is associated with greater left and right HCV and reduced WMHs in MDD. Future research should investigate directionality and consider if interventions targeting strength/muscular fitness can improve brain health and reduce the neurocognitive abnormalities associated with MDD.

7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(1): 76-92, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uncertainty surrounds the risks of lithium use during pregnancy in women with bipolar disorder. The authors sought to provide a critical appraisal of the evidence related to the efficacy and safety of lithium treatment during the peripartum period, focusing on women with bipolar disorder and their offspring. METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis assessing case-control, cohort, and interventional studies reporting on the safety (primary outcome, any congenital anomaly) or efficacy (primary outcome, mood relapse prevention) of lithium treatment during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tools were used to assess the quality of available PubMed and Scopus records through October 2018. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in the analyses (20 studies were of good quality, and six were of poor quality; one study had an unclear risk of bias, and two had a high risk of bias). Thirteen of the 29 studies could be included in the quantitative analysis. Lithium prescribed during pregnancy was associated with higher odds of any congenital anomaly (N=23,300, k=11; prevalence=4.1%, k=11; odds ratio=1.81, 95% CI=1.35-2.41; number needed to harm (NNH)=33, 95% CI=22-77) and of cardiac anomalies (N=1,348,475, k=12; prevalence=1.2%, k=9; odds ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.16-2.96; NNH=71, 95% CI=48-167). Lithium exposure during the first trimester was associated with higher odds of spontaneous abortion (N=1,289, k=3, prevalence=8.1%; odds ratio=3.77, 95% CI=1.15-12.39; NNH=15, 95% CI=8-111). Comparing lithium-exposed with unexposed pregnancies, significance remained for any malformation (exposure during any pregnancy period or the first trimester) and cardiac malformations (exposure during the first trimester), but not for spontaneous abortion (exposure during the first trimester) and cardiac malformations (exposure during any pregnancy period). Lithium was more effective than no lithium in preventing postpartum relapse (N=48, k=2; odds ratio=0.16, 95% CI=0.03-0.89; number needed to treat=3, 95% CI=1-12). The qualitative synthesis showed that mothers with serum lithium levels <0.64 mEq/L and dosages <600 mg/day had more reactive newborns without an increased risk of cardiac malformations. CONCLUSIONS: The risk associated with lithium exposure at any time during pregnancy is low, and the risk is higher for first-trimester or higher-dosage exposure. Ideally, pregnancy should be planned during remission from bipolar disorder and lithium prescribed within the lowest therapeutic range throughout pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester and the days immediately preceding delivery, balancing the safety and efficacy profile for the individual patient.

8.
Sports Med ; 50(1): 151-170, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise may improve neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in people with mental disorders, but the totality of the evidence is unclear. We conducted a meta-review of exercise in (1) serious mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum, bipolar disorder and major depression (MDD)); (2) anxiety and stress disorders; (3) alcohol and substance use disorders; (4) eating disorders (anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorders, and (5) other mental disorders (including ADHD, pre/post-natal depression). METHODS: Systematic searches of major databases from inception until 1/10/2018 were undertaken to identify meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise in people with clinically diagnosed mental disorders. In the absence of available meta-analyses for a mental disorder, we identified systematic reviews of exercise interventions in people with elevated mental health symptoms that included non-RCTs. Meta-analysis quality was assessed with the AMSTAR/+. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 27 systematic reviews (including 16 meta-analyses representing 152 RCTs). Among those with MDD, we found consistent evidence (meta-analyses = 8) that exercise reduced depression in children, adults and older adults. Evidence also indicates that exercise was more effective than control conditions in reducing anxiety symptoms (meta-analyses = 3), and as an adjunctive treatment for reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia (meta-analyses = 2). Regarding neurocognitive effects, exercise improved global cognition in schizophrenia (meta-analyses = 1), children with ADHD (meta-analyses = 1), but not in MDD (meta-analyses = 1). Among those with elevated symptoms, positive mental health benefits were observed for exercise in people with pre/post-natal depression, anorexia nervosa/bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders/substance use disorders. Adverse events were sparsely reported. CONCLUSION: Our panoramic meta-overview suggests that exercise can be an effective adjunctive treatment for improving symptoms across a broad range of mental disorders.

9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(1): 52-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since people with mental illness are more likely to die from cancer, we assessed whether people with mental illness undergo less cancer screening compared with the general population. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO, without a language restriction, and hand-searched the reference lists of included studies and previous reviews for observational studies from database inception until May 5, 2019. We included all published studies focusing on any type of cancer screening in patients with mental illness; and studies that reported prevalence of cancer screening in patients, or comparative measures between patients and the general population. The primary outcome was odds ratio (OR) of cancer screening in people with mental illness versus the general population. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality and I2 to assess study heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018114781. FINDINGS: 47 publications provided data from 46 samples including 4 717 839 individuals (501 559 patients with mental illness, and 4 216 280 controls), of whom 69·85% were women, for screening for breast cancer (k=35; 296 699 individuals with mental illness, 1 023 288 in the general population), cervical cancer (k=29; 295 688 with mental illness, 3 540 408 in general population), colorectal cancer (k=12; 153 283 with mental illness, 2 228 966 in general population), lung and gastric cancer (both k=1; 420 with mental illness, none in general population), ovarian cancer (k=1; 37 with mental illness, none in general population), and prostate cancer (k=6; 52 803 with mental illness, 2 038 916 in general population). Median quality of the included studies was high at 7 (IQR 6-8). Screening was significantly less frequent in people with any mental disease compared with the general population for any cancer (k=37; OR 0·76 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]; I2=98·53% with publication bias of Egger's p value=0·025), breast cancer (k=27; 0·65 [0·60-0·71]; I2=97·58% and no publication bias), cervical cancer (k=23; 0·89 [0·84-0·95]; I2=98·47% and no publication bias), and prostate cancer (k=4; 0·78 [0·70-0·86]; I2=79·68% and no publication bias), but not for colorectal cancer (k=8; 1·02 [0·90-1·15]; I2=97·84% and no publication bias). INTERPRETATION: Despite the increased mortality from cancer in people with mental illness, this population receives less cancer screening compared with that of the general population. Specific approaches should be developed to assist people with mental illness to undergo appropriate cancer screening, especially women with schizophrenia. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
10.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(1): 263-272, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To map and grade all health outcomes associated with magnesium (Mg) intake and supplementation using an umbrella review. METHODS: Umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using placebo/no intervention as control group. We assessed meta-analyses of observational studies based on random-effect summary effect sizes and their p values, 95% prediction intervals, heterogeneity, small-study effects and excess significance. For meta-analyses of RCTs, outcomes with a random-effect p value < 0.005 and a high-GRADE assessment were classified as strong evidence. RESULTS: From 2048 abstracts, 16 meta-analyses and 55 independent outcomes were included (36 in RCTs and 19 in observational studies). In RCTs of Mg versus placebo/no active treatment, 12 over 36 outcomes reported significant results (p < 0.05). A strong evidence for decreased need for hospitalization in pregnancy and for decreased risk of frequency and intensity of migraine relapses in people with migraine was observed using the GRADE assessment. In observational studies, 9/19 outcomes were significant (p < 0.05). However, only one outcome presented highly suggestive evidence (lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with higher Mg intake at baseline) and one suggestive (lower incidence of stroke associated with higher Mg intake at baseline). CONCLUSION: Strong evidence according to the GRADE suggests that Mg supplementation can decrease the risk of hospitalization in pregnant women and reduce the intensity/frequency of migraine. Higher Mg intake is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and stroke with highly suggestive and suggestive evidence, respectively, in observational studies.

11.
Brain Behav ; 10(2): e01491, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Metabolic-Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge Questionnaire (M-BACK) was developed to determine the barriers, attitudes, confidence, and knowledge of mental health practitioners regarding the metabolic health of patients in order to determine the efficacy of targeted training interventions. This study aimed to validate the Italian version of M-BACK questionnaire (M-BACK-IT) and to determine the test-retest reliability. METHODS: The M-BACK questionnaire was translated into Italian and back-translated using an established protocol. In order to determine the test-retest reliability of the instrument, mental health professionals were recruited from a private psychiatric hospital located in northeast Italy and completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, seven days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the total score, as well as each of the four M-BACK domains. RESULTS: Thirty mental health professionals (4 psychiatrists, 9 psychologists, 12 nurses, and 5 exercise specialists) completed the M-BACK-IT. ICCs ranged from 0.58 to 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: The test-retest reliability of the M-BACK-IT demonstrated comparable results to the English version. The M-BACK-IT is a reliable measure to assess key elements of practitioners' perceptions of the barriers, their knowledge, attitudes, and confidence regarding metabolic monitoring and intervention in people with mental illness.

12.
Am J Mens Health ; 13(6): 1557988319892464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795801

RESUMO

Globally, there is increasing usage and legalization of cannabis. In addition to its reported therapeutic effects, cannabis has several health risks which are not clearly defined. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual disorder and there are plausible mechanisms linking cannabis use to ED. No attempt has been made to collate the literature on this topic. The aim of this review was to summarize the prevalence and risk of ED in cannabis users compared to controls. A systematic review of major databases from inception to January 1, 2019, without language restriction, was undertaken to identify studies investigating cannabis use and presence of ED. The analysis compared the prevalence of ED in cannabis users versus controls. Consequently, the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated, applying a random-effect model. Five case-control studies were included with data from 3,395 healthy men, 1,035 using cannabis (smoking) and 2,360 nonusers. The overall prevalence of ED in cannabis users was 69.1% (95% CI: 38.0-89.1), whilst the correspondent figure in controls was 34.7% (95% CI: 20.3-52.7). The OR of ED in cannabis users was almost four times that of controls (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.30-11.28; p = .02), even if characterized by high heterogeneity (I2 = 90%) and the prediction intervals overlapped 1.00 (95% CI: 0.35-7.26). Data suggest that ED is twice as high in cannabis users compared to controls. Future longitudinal research is needed to confirm/refute this and explore if a dose-response relationship between cannabis and ED may be evident.

13.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829040

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to assess the associations between dynapenia and the onset and persistence of depression and anxiety among older adults.Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled community-living older adults (N = 5271; 51.1% females) aged ≥ 50 years (mean age = 63.2, standard deviation = 9.0) from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (TILDA), Ireland. At baseline, participants completed a handgrip assessment. Depression was defined by a score ≥ 16 in the Center of Epidemiology Studies Depression (CES-D) tool and anxiety was considered when participants scored ≥ 8 on the anxiety section of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Outcomes were incident and persistent depression and anxiety at two years follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each outcome.Results: After controlling for age, sex, education, marital status, employment status, smoking, body mass index, number of chronic conditions, physical activity, and cognitive function, low handgrip strength indicative of dyapenia (< 30 Kg for men and < 20 Kg for women) was associated with a greater likelihood for incident depressive (OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.08-1.92) as well as for persistent depressive (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01-2.58) and anxiety (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20-2.14) symptoms.Conclusions: Dynapenia was associated with a higher odds of developing depressive symptoms as well as a greater likelihood to persistent depressive and anxiety symptoms among older adults. Our data suggest that interventions targeting muscle strength may prevent the onset of late-life depression and also may hold promise as novel therapeutic opportunities for depression and anxiety in later life.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876391

RESUMO

AIM: One of the main obstacles with prevention in psychiatry is low detection of young subjects at risk for psychosis. The aim of the present work is to test whether general practitioners' (GP) offices are a possible setting for prevention of mental illness. METHODS: We used an Electronic Health Record database (Datanet) representing South-London (Lambeth), where frequency of GP visits were available for each registered subject. RESULTS: We show that in 2018 out of almost 175 000 subjects aged 12 to 35, almost six out of ten people were seen by their General practitioner at least once in 2018, and considering those subjects with at least one medical condition, around nine subjects out of ten did the same. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of adolescents and young adults are seen by GPs at least once per year. GP offices should be tested as possible setting for detection of subjects at risk for mental illness, in particular in subjects with risk factors for mental illness.

15.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1056, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680805

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that anorexia nervosa (AN) symptoms emerge from failures in the relationships between spatially distributed networks that support different cognitive, emotional, and somatosensory functions. The 5-HTTLPR genotype has been shown to modulate all these abilities in AN, as well as the connectivity patterns between brain regions that support their functioning. This study aims at exploring the presence of any difference in functional connectome properties between AN patients and healthy controls (HC) by means of graph theory tools. The effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on regional and global network characteristics in AN and HC was also explored. Methods: A sample of 74 subjects (38 HC, 36 AN) underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and was genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Comparisons of network properties were made between the AN and HC groups and, within each group, between 5-HTTLPR carriers of low-functioning alleles and carriers of the long-long genotype. Results: Patients with AN displayed lower network clustering than HC (p = 0.04 at Mann-Whitney U test). Based on both degree and betweenness, a different distribution of network hubs emerged in the two groups. In particular, the anterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex was a hub only in the patient group. A correlation emerged between differences in brain volumes between patients and HC and differences in degree values of basal ganglia, nodes in the insula, and those in the parietal cortex. Carriers of the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were characterized by lower small-world properties (p = 0.027) and modularity (p = 0.031) in the patient group, and a trend toward higher modularity (p = 0.033) and small-world values (p = 0.123) in the HC group. Discussion: Patients with AN showed differences in hubs distribution, providing evidence of the presence of a different functional architectural backbone in this group. Since some correlation emerged between different degree values of nodes and differences in volumes, further longitudinal studies are warranted to better understand the role of malnutrition on brain network architecture. The opposite effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on global network characteristics in the two groups suggest an interaction of the short allele and malnutrition in modulating brain network properties.

16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107584, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis legalization and use are increasing globally, however, little is known about associations between cannabis use and other health behaviors, such as physical activity (PA). Importantly, the extent to which cannabis use is associated with PA in adolescents is yet to be explored in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there may be unique sociodemographic and environmental characteristics compared with high-income countries. Therefore, this study examined the association between PA and cannabis use among adolescents in 21 LMICs using data from the 2010-2016 Global School-based Student Health Survey. METHODS: A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed among a final sample of 89,777 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 12-15 years with a mean (SD) age of 13.7 (0.9) years. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of past (i.e., in lifetime but not in past 30 days) and current (in past 30 days) cannabis use were 1.0% and 2.9% respectively, while the prevalence of adequate PA in the past week (7 days/week of 60 min of PA) was 16.6%. The prevalence of adequate levels of PA in past and current cannabis use was 7.3% and 6.9%, respectively. Current and past cannabis use (vs. never) were associated with a significant 0.62 (95% CI = 0.41-0.94) and 0.43 (95%CI = 0.30-0.63) times lower odds for achieving adequate levels of PA, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results underscore the high prevalence of low PA among adolescents in LMICs, and emphasize the need to understand behavioral factors that may affect PA levels, such as cannabis use, when designing interventions to improve health.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the threshold of statistical significance should shift from P-value < 0.05 to P-value < 0.005, but there is concern that this move may dismiss effective, useful interventions. We aimed to assess how often medical interventions are recommended although their evidence in meta-analyses of randomized trials lies between P-value = 0.05 and P-value = 0.005. METHODS: We included Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) published from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2014 that had at least one meta-analysis with GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) assessment and at least one primary outcome having favourable results for efficacy at P-value < 0.05. Only comparisons of randomized trials between active versus no treatment/placebo were included. We then assessed the respective UpToDate recommendations for clinical practice from 22 May 2018 to 5 October 2018 and recorded how many treatments were recommended and what were the P-values in their meta-analysis evidence. The primary analysis was based on the first-listed outcomes. RESULTS: Of 608 screened SRs with GRADE assessment, 113 SRs were eligible, including 143 comparisons of which 128 comparisons had first-listed primary outcomes with UpToDate coverage. Altogether, 60% (58/97) of interventions with P-values < 0.005 for their evidence were recommended versus 32% (10/31) of those with P-value 0.005-0.05. Therefore, most (58/68, 85.2%) of the recommended interventions had P-values < 0.005 for the first-listed primary outcome. Of the 10 exceptions, 4 had other primary outcomes with P-values < 0.005 and another 4 had additional extensive evidence for similar indications that would allow extrapolation for practice recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions are recommended without their evidence from meta-analyses of randomized trials reaching P-value < 0.005.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577342

RESUMO

Importance: Antidepressant use is increasing worldwide. Yet, contrasting evidence on the safety of antidepressants is available from meta-analyses, and the credibility of these findings has not been quantified. Objective: To grade the evidence from published meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed the association between antidepressant use or exposure and adverse health outcomes. Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to April 5, 2019. Evidence Review: Only meta-analyses of observational studies with a cohort or case-control study design were eligible. Two independent reviewers recorded the data and assessed the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses. Evidence of association was ranked according to established criteria as follows: convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or not significant. Results: Forty-five meta-analyses (17.9%) from 4471 studies identified and 252 full-text articles scrutinized were selected that described 120 associations, including data from 1012 individual effect size estimates. Seventy-four (61.7%) of the 120 associations were nominally statistically significant at P ≤ .05 using random-effects models. Fifty-two associations (43.4%) had large heterogeneity (I2 > 50%), whereas small-study effects were found for 17 associations (14.2%) and excess significance bias was found for 9 associations (7.5%). Convincing evidence emerged from both main and sensitivity analyses for the association between antidepressant use and risk of suicide attempt or completion among children and adolescents, autism spectrum disorders with antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy, preterm birth, and low Apgar scores. None of these associations remained supported by convincing evidence after sensitivity analysis, which adjusted for confounding by indication. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that most putative adverse health outcomes associated with antidepressant use may not be supported by convincing evidence, and confounding by indication may alter the few associations with convincing evidence. Antidepressant use appears to be safe for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, but more studies matching for underlying disease are needed to clarify the degree of confounding by indication and other biases. No absolute contraindication to antidepressants emerged from this umbrella review.

19.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(11): 1237-1250, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by white matter abnormalities in neuroimaging studies. Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) index that is considered an instrument for the evaluation of white matter alterations. However, the literature has recently pointed out the role of the partial volume effect (PVE) as a confounding factor for the identification of juxtaposed tissues. Our goal was to review the DTI literature in AN and evaluate possible confounding factors linked to the reported results. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify Diffusion Tensor Imaging studies of individuals with AN and, subsequently, an anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed on studies published before March 18, 2019. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies (AN = 517, controls = 542) were included in the qualitative systematic review of the literature. Ten published studies underwent the ALE-analysis (AN = 210, controls = 229), plus data from an unpublished cohort (AN = 38, controls = 38). Two clusters of decreased FA were identified, namely in the left corona radiata, and in the left thalamus. Only one article took the PVE correction analysis into account. CONCLUSIONS: The alterations identified must be considered within the limits of a possible methodological bias regarding PVE and free water and re-analysis of the data may be recommended. The preliminary data showed that the alteration of white matter pathways between the limbic structures and brain cortex may be linked to the processing of somatosensory information that could play a key role in the psychopathology of the disorder.


Assuntos
Anisotropia , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos
20.
World Psychiatry ; 18(3): 308-324, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496103

RESUMO

The role of nutrition in mental health is becoming increasingly acknowledged. Along with dietary intake, nutrition can also be obtained from "nutrient supplements", such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, amino acids and pre/probiotic supplements. Recently, a large number of meta-analyses have emerged examining nutrient supplements in the treatment of mental disorders. To produce a meta-review of this top-tier evidence, we identified, synthesized and appraised all meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the efficacy and safety of nutrient supplements in common and severe mental disorders. Our systematic search identified 33 meta-analyses of placebo-controlled RCTs, with primary analyses including outcome data from 10,951 individuals. The strongest evidence was found for PUFAs (particularly as eicosapentaenoic acid) as an adjunctive treatment for depression. More nascent evidence suggested that PUFAs may also be beneficial for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas there was no evidence for schizophrenia. Folate-based supplements were widely researched as adjunctive treatments for depression and schizophrenia, with positive effects from RCTs of high-dose methylfolate in major depressive disorder. There was emergent evidence for N-acetylcysteine as a useful adjunctive treatment in mood disorders and schizophrenia. All nutrient supplements had good safety profiles, with no evidence of serious adverse effects or contraindications with psychiatric medications. In conclusion, clinicians should be informed of the nutrient supplements with established efficacy for certain conditions (such as eicosapentaenoic acid in depression), but also made aware of those currently lacking evidentiary support. Future research should aim to determine which individuals may benefit most from evidence-based supplements, to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

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