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2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 65-73, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate in-hospital outcomes among patients with a history of heart failure (HF) hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic comorbidities are common in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with HF may be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 complications. METHODS: The Premier Healthcare Database was used to identify patients with at least 1 HF hospitalization or 2 HF outpatient visits between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020, who were subsequently hospitalized between April and September 2020. Baseline characteristics, health care resource utilization, and mortality rates were compared between those hospitalized with COVID-19 and those hospitalized with other causes. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified in HF patients hospitalized with COVID-19 by using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1,212,153 patients with history of HF, 132,312 patients were hospitalized from April 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. A total of 23,843 patients (18.0%) were hospitalized with acute HF, 8,383 patients (6.4%) were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 100,068 patients (75.6%) were hospitalized with alternative reasons. Hospitalization with COVID-19 was associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality as compared with hospitalization with acute HF; 24.2% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 died in-hospital compared to 2.6% of those hospitalized with acute HF. This association was strongest in April (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 14.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]:12.25 to 17.12) than in subsequent months (adjusted OR: 10.11; 95% CI: 8.95 to 11.42; pinteraction <0.001). Among patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19, male sex (adjusted OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.40) and morbid obesity (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.46) were associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality, along with age (adjusted OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.42 per 10 years) and admission earlier in the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19 are at high risk for complications, with nearly 1 in 4 dying during hospitalization.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Clin Chem ; 67(1): 298-307, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac markers such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) are predictors of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization for surgery or revascularization. However, their associations with the long-term risk of AKI in the general population are uncharacterized. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 10 669 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (visit 4, 1996-1998, mean age, 63 years, 56% female, 22% black race) to examine the association of plasma concentrations of hs-cTnT and NTproBNP with the incident hospitalization with AKI. We used multivariable Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1907 participants had an incident hospitalization with AKI. Participants with higher concentrations of hs-cTnT had a higher risk of hospitalization with AKI in a graded fashion (adjusted HR, 1.88 [95%CI , 1.59-2.21] for ≥14 ng/L, 1.36 [1.18-1.57] for 9-13 ng/L, and 1.16 [1.03-1.30] for 5-8 ng/L compared to <5 ng/L). The graded association was also observed for NTproBNP (HR, 2.27 [1.93-2.68] for ≥272.7 pg/mL, 1.67 [1.45-1.93] for 142.4-272.6 pg/mL, and 1.31 [1.17-1.47] for 64.0-142.3 pg/mL compared to <64.0 pg/mL). The addition of hs-cTnT and NTproBNP to a model with established predictors significantly improved 10-year risk prediction for hospitalization with AKI (Δc-statistic, 0.015 [95%CI, 0.006-0.024]). CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged to older black and white adults in the community, higher concentrations of hs-cTnT and NTproBNP were robustly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with AKI. These results suggest the usefulness of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP to identify people at risk of AKI in the general population.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438360

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Patients with DM and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have higher levels of cardiac, profibrotic, and proinflammatory biomarkers relative to non-diabetics. Limited data are available regarding the biomarker profiles of HFpEF patients with diabetes (DM) vs. no diabetes (non-DM) and the impact of spironolactone on these biomarkers. This study aims to address such gaps in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biomarkers were measured at randomization and at 12 months in 248 patients enrolled in Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist's North American cohort. At baseline, DM patients had significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, pro-collagen type III amino-terminal peptide, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and galectin-3 levels than those without diabetes. There was a significantly larger 12 month increase in levels of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), a marker of myocyte death, in DM patients. Elevated pro-collagen type III amino-terminal peptide and galectin-3 levels were associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome (cardiovascular mortality, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) in DM patients, but not in those without diabetes. A statistically significant interaction between spironolactone and diabetes status was observed for hs-TnT and for TIMP-1, with greater biomarker reductions among those with diabetes treated with spironolactone. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of diabetes is associated with higher levels of cardiac, profibrotic, and proinflammatory biomarkers in HFpEF. Spironolactone appears to alter the determinants of extracellular matrix remodelling in an anti-fibrotic fashion in patients with diabetes, reflected by changes in hs-TnT and TIMP-1 levels over time.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 42(2): 178-188, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245749

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac microRNA-132-3p (miR-132) levels are increased in patients with heart failure (HF) and mechanistically drive cardiac remodelling processes. CDR132L, a specific antisense oligonucleotide, is a first-in-class miR-132 inhibitor that attenuates and even reverses HF in preclinical models. The aim of the current clinical Phase 1b study was to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, target engagement, and exploratory pharmacodynamic effects of CDR132L in patients on standard-of-care therapy for chronic ischaemic HF in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation study (NCT04045405). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients had left ventricular ejection fraction between ≥30% and <50% or amino terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) >125 ng/L at screening. Twenty-eight patients were randomized to receive CDR132L (0.32, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg body weight) or placebo (0.9% saline) in two intravenous infusions, 4 weeks apart in four cohorts of seven (five verum and two placebo) patients each. CDR132L was safe and well tolerated, without apparent dose-limiting toxicity. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic dose modelling approach suggested an effective dose level at ≥1 mg/kg CDR132L. CDR132L treatment resulted in a dose-dependent, sustained miR-132 reduction in plasma. Patients given CDR132L ≥1 mg/kg displayed a median 23.3% NT-proBNP reduction, vs. a 0.9% median increase in the control group. CDR132L treatment induced significant QRS narrowing and encouraging positive trends for relevant cardiac fibrosis biomarkers. CONCLUSION: This study is the first clinical trial of an antisense drug in HF patients. CDR132L was safe and well tolerated, confirmed linear plasma pharmacokinetics with no signs of accumulation, and suggests cardiac functional improvements. Although this study is limited by the small patient numbers, the indicative efficacy of this drug is very encouraging justifying additional clinical studies to confirm the beneficial CDR132L pharmacodynamic effects for the treatment of HF.

7.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 546-556, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356401

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness is increased with increasing age, and pulse pressure (PP), a marker of arterial stiffness, is a predictor of incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, the prognostic relevance of PP in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction has not been fully understood. We studied 4796 patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction from the PARAGON-HF trial. All patients underwent sequential run-in phases of valsartan and sacubitril/valsartan before randomization. We categorized patients by PP quartile and evaluated the influence of baseline PP on the PARAGON-HF primary end point (total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death). At screening, the median PP was 58 mm Hg (interquartile range, 50-69 mm Hg). There was a nonlinear, J-shaped association between PP and outcomes. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models showed that patients in the highest PP quartile had a higher risk of the primary end point (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.14-1.69]; P=0.001), total HF hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.15-1.79]; P=0.001), and myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.06-2.23]; P=0.022) compared with those in the second (lowest risk) PP quartile. Reductions in PP during sacubitril/valsartan run-in were associated with a decreased risk of the primary end point and total HF hospitalizations. One year after randomization, PP was significantly lower in the sacubitril/valsartan group compared with the valsartan group (3.0 mm Hg decrease [95% CI, 2.4-3.5]; P<0.001). In conclusion, PP was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction enrolled in PARAGON-HF. Sacubitril/valsartan lowered PP compared with valsartan.

8.
JAMA ; 325(1): 39-49, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275134

RESUMO

Importance: Influenza is temporally associated with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality among those with cardiovascular disease who may mount a less vigorous immune response to vaccination. Higher influenza vaccine dose has been associated with reduced risk of influenza illness. Objective: To evaluate whether high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine compared with standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine would reduce all-cause death or cardiopulmonary hospitalization in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pragmatic multicenter, double-blind, active comparator randomized clinical trial conducted in 5260 participants vaccinated for up to 3 influenza seasons in 157 sites in the US and Canada between September 21, 2016, and January 31, 2019. Patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction or heart failure hospitalization and at least 1 additional risk factor were eligible. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to receive high-dose trivalent (n = 2630) or standard-dose quadrivalent (n = 2630) inactivated influenza vaccine and could be revaccinated for up to 3 seasons. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the time to the composite of all-cause death or cardiopulmonary hospitalization during each enrolling season. The final date of follow-up was July 31, 2019. Vaccine-related adverse events were also assessed. Results: Among 5260 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [12.6] years; 3787 [72%] men; 3289 [63%] with heart failure) over 3 influenza seasons, there were 7154 total vaccinations administered and 5226 (99.4%) participants completed the trial. In the high-dose trivalent vaccine group, there were 975 primary outcome events (883 hospitalizations for cardiovascular or pulmonary causes and 92 deaths from any cause) among 884 participants during 3577 participant-seasons (event rate, 45 per 100 patient-years), whereas in the standard-dose quadrivalent vaccine group, there were 924 primary outcome events (846 hospitalizations for cardiovascular or pulmonary causes and 78 deaths from any cause) among 837 participants during 3577 participant-seasons (event rate, 42 per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.17]; P = .21). In the high-dose vs standard-dose groups, vaccine-related adverse reactions occurred in 1449 (40.5%) vs 1229 (34.4%) participants and severe adverse reactions occurred in 55 (2.1%) vs 44 (1.7%) participants. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with high-risk cardiovascular disease, high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, compared with standard-dose quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality or cardiopulmonary hospitalizations. Influenza vaccination remains strongly recommended in this population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02787044.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 42-51, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (EF) may improve patient-reported health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine timing and magnitude of change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ)-23 scores following initiation of sacubitril/valsartan and interaction with change in amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations. METHODS: From a single-arm, open-label study of patients initiated on sacubitril/valsartan, KCCQ-23 scores and NT-proBNP were obtained at baseline and follow-up through 12 months. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses evaluated magnitude and rate of change in KCCQ-23 scores and associations with NT-proBNP. Patient-level data from the randomized EVALUATE-HF study were used as historic controls. RESULTS: The analysis cohort (n = 678, age 64.7 years, 71.5% men, EF 28.9%) had a baseline KCCQ-23 overall score (OS) of 65.6. Following sacubitril/valsartan initiation, the majority (n = 412; 60.8%) of participants experienced a rise in KCCQ-23 OS ≥10 points; 26.0% increased by ≥20 points. Comparable improvement in KCCQ-23 scores was seen in various subgroups. Change in KCCQ-23 OS was inversely associated with change in circulating NT-proBNP concentrations. Among a control group of patients in EVALUATE-HF, linear rate of change in KCCQ-12 OS/14-day interval in the enalapril arm was 0.37 points (p = 0.06), whereas in the sacubitril/valsartan arm, scores increased at a rate of 1.19 points (p < 0.001), nearly identical to this dataset (1.08 points; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of heart failure with reduced EF with sacubitril/valsartan is associated with rapid and significant improvement in KCCQ-23 scores which was significantly related to change in NT-proBNP. (Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy on Biomarkers, Myocardial Remodeling and Outcomes [PROVE-HF]; NCT02887183).

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 13-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) according to background mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) therapy. BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend consideration of MRAs in selected patients with HFpEF. This study assessed cardiovascular outcomes, renal outcomes, and safety of sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan in patients with HFpEF according to background MRA treatment. METHODS: PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI [angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor] with ARB [angiotensin-receptor blockers] Global Outcomes in HF with Preserved Ejection Fraction) randomized 4,796 patients with HFpEF to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus valsartan was evaluated according to baseline MRA use on the primary study composite of total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death using semiparametric proportional rates methods, as well as the renal composite of ≥50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate, development of end-stage renal disease, or death from renal causes using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was analyzed with repeated-measures mixed-effect models. Key safety outcomes included incidence of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and elevations in serum creatinine above predefined thresholds. RESULTS: Patients treated with MRAs at baseline (n = 1,239, 26%), compared with MRA nonusers (n = 3,557, 74%), were younger (72 vs. 73 years), more often male (52% vs. 47%), had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (57% vs. 58%), and a higher proportion of prior HF hospitalization (59% vs. 44%) (all p < 0.001). Efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan with regard to the primary cardiovascular (for MRA users: rate ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56 to 0.95; vs. for MRA nonusers: rate ratio: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.11; pinteraction = 0.11) and renal endpoints (for MRA users: hazard ratio: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.76; vs. for MRA non-users: HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.95; pinteraction = 0.21) did not significantly vary by baseline MRA use. The incidence of key safety outcomes including hypotension and severe hyperkalemia (K > 6.0 mmol/l) did not vary by baseline MRA use. However, annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was less with the combination of MRA and sacubitril/valsartan (for MRA users: absolute difference favoring sacubitril/valsartan: +1.2 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year; 95% CI: 0.6 to 1.7; vs. for MRA nonusers: +0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.7; pinteraction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan with regard to predefined cardiorenal composite outcomes in PARAGON-HF was consistent in patients treated and not treated with MRA at baseline. Addition of sacubitril/valsartan rather than valsartan alone to MRA appears to be associated with a lesser decline in renal function and no increase in severe hyperkalemia. These data support possible added value of combination treatment with sacubitril/valsartan and MRA in patients with HFpEF. (Prospective Comparison of ARNI [angiotensin receptor -neprilysin inhibitor] with ARB [angiotensin-receptor blockers] Global Outcomes in HF with Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 1-12, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309582

RESUMO

The treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has changed considerably over time, particularly with the sequential development of therapies aimed at antagonism of maladaptive biologic pathways, including inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. The sequential nature of earlier HFrEF trials allowed the integration of new therapies tested against the background therapy of the time. More recently, multiple heart failure therapies are being evaluated simultaneously, and the number of therapeutic choices for treating HFrEF has grown considerably. In addition, implementation science has lagged behind discovery science in heart failure. Furthermore, given there are currently >200 ongoing clinical trials in heart failure, further complexities are anticipated. In an effort to provide a decision-making framework in the current era of expanding therapeutic options in HFrEF, the Heart Failure Collaboratory convened a multi-stakeholder group, including patients, clinicians, clinical investigators, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, industry, and payers who met at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration campus on March 6, 2020. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368858

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), associated with worse outcomes and often suboptimal treatment because of under-prescription of beta-blockers. Consequently, additional effective therapies are especially relevant in patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes related to COPD in a post hoc analysis of the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined whether the effects of dapagliflozin in DAPA-HF were modified by COPD status. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. Overall, 585 (12.3%) of the 4744 patients randomized had a history of COPD. Patients with COPD were more likely to be older men with a history of smoking, worse renal function, and higher baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and less likely to be treated with a beta-blocker or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. The incidence of the primary outcome was higher in patients with COPD than in those without [18.9 (95% confidence interval 16.0-22.2) vs. 13.0 (12.1-14.0) per 100 person-years; hazard ratio (HR) for COPD vs. no COPD 1.44 (1.21-1.72); P < 0.001]. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the primary outcome, was consistent in patients with [HR 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.93)] and without COPD [0.76 (0.65-0.87); interaction P-value 0.47]. CONCLUSIONS: In DAPA-HF, one in eight patients with HFrEF had concomitant COPD. Participants with COPD had a higher risk of the primary outcome. The benefit of dapagliflozin on all pre-specified outcomes was consistent in patients with and without COPD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03036124.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have similar reverse cardiac remodeling with sacubitril/valsartan as patients without T2DM. BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan promotes reverse cardiac remodeling and improves outcomes in patients with HFrEF. Patients with HFrEF with T2DM have worse prognosis than those without T2DM. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of PROVE-HF, we examined changes in N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), measures of cardiac remodeling, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary (KCCQ-OS) scores from baseline to 12 months following initiation of sacubitril/valsartan between patients with HFrEF with and without T2DM. Using latent growth curve modeling, we evaluated the longitudinal association between changes in NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction, and KCCQ-OS. RESULTS: Among 794 patients enrolled, 361 (45.5%) had T2DM. NT-proBNP concentrations were modestly higher at baseline among patients with T2DM but were reduced after initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. Cross-sectional improvement was observed in left ventricular ejection fraction (T2DM: 28.3% at baseline and 37% at 12 months vs. non-T2DM: 28.1% at baseline and 38.3% at 12 months) and KCCQ-OS (T2DM: 71 at baseline and 83 at 12 months vs. non-T2DM: 76 at baseline and 88 at 12 months). Similar changes were also observed for other echocardiographic measures. In longitudinal analyses, the average NT-proBNP change was similar in patients with T2DM (-5.6% vs. -7.1% per 90-day interval; p = 0.64), whereas improvements in KCCQ-OS scores were slightly smaller (2.1 vs. 3.46 per 90-day interval; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril/valsartan favorably affects natriuretic peptide levels, reverse cardiac remodeling, and health status in patients with HFrEF with and without T2DM. (Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy on Biomarkers, Myocardial Remodeling and Outcomes [PROVE-HF]; NCT02887183).

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337478

RESUMO

AIMS: This meta-analysis provides summary odds ratio (OR) estimates for associations between treatment with (vs. without) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) severity (including case-fatality) in patients with hypertension, and in all patients (irrespective of hypertension). METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, medRxiv and SSRN were searched (May 02, 2020 to August 12, 2020) for non-randomised observational CoViD-19 studies. Event/patient numbers were extracted, comparing ACE inhibitor/ARB treatment (and each separately), to treatment with neither drug, for the outcomes: (a) Likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection; (b) CoViD-19 severity (including hospitalisation, Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU), ventilation); (c) Case-fatality. Risk of bias was assessed (ROBINS-I). Random-effects meta-analysis estimates were pooled. Eighty six studies including 459,755 patients (103,317 with hypertension), were analysed. In patients with hypertension, ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment was not associated with a greater likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 60,141 patients (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14), hospitalisation in 5,925 patients (OR 0.90, 0.62-1.31), ITU in 7,218 patients (OR 1.06, 0.73-1.56), ventilation (or ITU/ventilation/death) in 13,163 patients (OR 0.91, 0.72-1.15) or case-fatality in 18,735 patients with 2,893 deaths (OR 0.75, 0.61-0.92). CONCLUSION: ACE inhibitors and ARBs appear safe in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and should not be discontinued. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020186996.

15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden death (SD) and pump failure death (PFD) are leading modes of death in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Risk stratification for mode-specific death may aid in patient enrichment for new device trials in HFpEF. METHODS: Models were derived in 4116 patients in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction trial (I-Preserve), using competing risks regression analysis. A series of models were built in a stepwise manner, and were validated in the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM)-Preserved and Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) trials. RESULTS: The clinical model for SD included older age, men, lower LVEF, higher heart rate, history of diabetes or myocardial infarction, and HF hospitalization within previous 6 months, all of which were associated with a higher SD risk. The clinical model predicting PFD included older age, men, lower LVEF or diastolic blood pressure, higher heart rate, and history of diabetes or atrial fibrillation, all for a higher PFD risk, and dyslipidaemia for a lower risk of PFD. In each model, the observed and predicted incidences were similar in each risk subgroup, suggesting good calibration. Model discrimination was good for SD and excellent for PFD with Harrell's C of 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.75) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.82), respectively. Both models were robust in external validation. Adding ECG and biochemical parameters, model performance improved little in the derivation cohort but decreased in validation. Including NT-proBNP substantially increased discrimination of the SD model, and simplified the PFD model with marginal increase in discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical models can predict risks for SD and PFD separately with good discrimination and calibration in HFpEF and are robust in external validation. Adding NT-proBNP further improved model performance. These models may help to identify high-risk individuals for device intervention in future trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: I-Preserve: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00095238; TOPCAT: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00094302; CHARM-Preserved: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00634712.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e018399, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289449

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for cognitive decline, possibly from silent brain infarction. Left atrial changes in structure or function (atrial cardiopathy) can lead to AF but may impact cognition independently. It is unknown if AF or atrial cardiopathy also acts on Alzheimer disease-specific mechanisms, such as deposition of ß-amyloid. Methods and Results A total of 316 dementia-free participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study underwent florbetapir positron emission tomography, electrocardiography, and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Atrial cardiopathy was defined as ≥1: (1) left atrial volume index >34 mL/m2; (2) P-wave terminal force >5000 µV×ms; and (3) serum NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) >250 pg/mL. Cross-sectional associations between global cortical ß-amyloid (>1.2 standardized uptake value ratio) and adjudicated history of AF and atrial cardiopathy, each, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Participants (mean age, 76 years) were 56% women and 42% Black individuals. Odds of elevated florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio were significantly increased among those with atrial cardiopathy (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.02-3.22) and doubled for those with enlarged left atrial volume index after adjustment for demographics/risk factors (95% CI, 1.04-4.61). There was no association between P-wave terminal force or NT-proBNP and elevated florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio, nor between AF and elevated standardized uptake value ratio. Conclusions Among healthy, nondemented community-dwelling older individuals, we report an association between atrial cardiopathy, left atrial volume index, and elevated brain amyloid, by positron emission tomography, without a similar association in individuals with AF. Potential limitations include reverse causation and survival bias. Ongoing work will help determine if changes in cardiac structure and function precede or occur simultaneously with amyloid deposition.

17.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 403, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the overlapping clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza, parallels are often drawn between the two diseases. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at a higher risk for severe manifestations of both illnesses. Considering the high transmission rate of COVID-19 and with the seasonal influenza approaching in late 2020, the dual epidemics of COVID-19 and influenza pose serious cardiovascular implications. This review highlights the similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19 and the potential risks associated with coincident pandemics. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 has a higher mortality compared to influenza with case fatality rate almost 15 times more than that of influenza. Additionally, a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes has been noted in patients with CVD, with ~ 15 to 70% of COVID-19 related deaths having an underlying CVD. The critical care need have ranged from 5 to 79% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, a proportion substantially higher than with influenza. Similarly, the frequency of vascular thrombosis including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is markedly higher in COVID-19 patients compared with influenza in which vascular complications are rarely seen. Unexpectedly, while peak influenza season is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations, a decrease of ~ 50% in cardiovascular hospitalizations has been observed since the first diagnosed case of COVID-19, owing in part to deferred care. CONCLUSION: In the coming months, increasing efforts towards evaluating new interventions will be vital to curb COVID-19, especially as peak influenza season approaches. Currently, not enough data exist regarding co-infection of COVID-19 with influenza or how it would progress clinically, though it may cause a significant burden on an already struggling health care system. Until an effective COVID-19 vaccination is available, high coverage of influenza vaccination should be of utmost priority.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular mortality and worsening heart failure in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. This report explores the effect of dapagliflozin on incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the cohort without diabetes enrolled in the trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subgroup of 2,605 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), no prior history of diabetes, and an HbA1c of <6.5% at baseline was randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. In this exploratory analysis, surveillance for new-onset diabetes was accomplished through periodic HbA1c testing as part of the study protocol and comparison between the treatment groups assessed through a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean HbA1c was 5.8%. At 8 months, there were minimal changes, with a placebo-adjusted change in the dapagliflozin group of -0.04%. Over a median follow-up of 18 months, diabetes developed in 93 of 1,307 patients (7.1%) in the placebo group and 64 of 1,298 (4.9%) in the dapagliflozin group. Dapagliflozin led to a 32% reduction in diabetes incidence (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.94; P = 0.019). More than 95% of the participants who developed T2D had prediabetes at baseline (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%). Participants who developed diabetes in DAPA-HF had a higher subsequent mortality than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis among patients with HFrEF, treatment with dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of new diabetes. This potential benefit needs confirmation in trials of longer duration and in people without heart failure.

20.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess associations between longitudinal change in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and reverse cardiac remodeling following initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: Neprilysin inhibition results in an increase of several vasoactive peptides that may mediate the beneficial effects of sacubitril/valsartan, including ANP. METHODS: In a prospective study of initiation and titration of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with HFrEF, blood was collected at scheduled time points into tubes containing protease inhibitors. This pre-specified exploratory analysis included patients in whom ANP was measured at baseline and serially through 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Among 144 participants (mean age: 64.5 years; left ventricular ejection fraction: 30.8%), following initiation of sacubitril/valsartan, there was an early and significant increase in ANP, with the majority of rise from 99 pg/ml at baseline to 156 pg/ml at day 14 (p < 0.001). There was a further trend toward a second increase from day 30 to day 45 (p = 0.07). At maximal rise, ANP had doubled. In longitudinal analyses, early rise in ANP was followed by a subsequent increase in urinary cycle guanosine monophosphate. Larger early increase in ANP was associated with larger later improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrial volume index (p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of ANP doubled after initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with HFrEF. Larger early increases in ANP were associated with a greater magnitude of subsequent reverse cardiac remodeling. (Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy on Biomarkers, Myocardial Remodeling and Outcomes [PROVE-HF]; NCT02887183).

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