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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512619

RESUMO

Diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction (DRCD) is a serious complication induced by diabetes. However, there are currently no specific remedies for DRCD. Here, we show that streptozotocin-induced DRCD can be prevented without causing side effects through oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Pantoea agglomerans. Oral administration of LPS (OAL) prevented the cerebral cortex atrophy and tau phosphorylation induced by DRCD. Moreover, we observed that neuroprotective transformation of microglia (brain tissue-resident macrophages) is important for preventing DRCD through OAL. These findings are contrary to the general recognition of LPS as an inflammatory agent when injected systemically. Furthermore, our results strongly suggest that OAL promotes membrane-bound colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) expression on peripheral leukocytes, which activates the CSF1 receptor on microglia, leading to their transformation to the neuroprotective phenotype. Taken together, the present study indicates that controlling innate immune modulation through the simple and safe strategy of OAL can be an innovative prophylaxis for intractable neurological diseases such as DRCD. In a sense, for modern people living in an LPS-depleted environment, OAL is like a time machine that returns microglia to the good old LPS-abundant era.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Pantoea/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 4053-4059, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia. However, no radical preventive method for diabetes-associated dementia has yet been developed. Our previous study revealed that oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevents high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment. Therefore, we investigated here whether oral administration of LPS (OAL) could also prevent diabetes-associated dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic mice were produced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ), and then mice were orally administered LPS. Cognitive ability was evaluated using the Morris water maze, and gene expression was analyzed in isolated microglia. RESULTS: OAL prevented STZ-induced diabetic cognitive impairment, but did not affect blood glucose levels. Moreover, OAL promoted the expression of neuroprotective genes in microglia, such as heat shock protein family 40 (HSP40) and chemokine CCL7. CONCLUSION: OAL prevents diabetes-associated dementia, potentially via promotion of HSP40 and CCL7 expression in microglia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL7/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
3.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328201

RESUMO

Diabetes­associated neuronal dysfunction (DAND) is one of the serious complications of diabetes, but there is currently no remedy for it. Streptozotocin [2­deoxy­2­(3­methy1­3­nitrosoureido) D­glucopyranose; STZ] is one of the most well­established diabetes inducers and has been used in vivo and in vitro DAND models. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that C8­B4 microglia transformed by the stimulus of repetitive low­dose lipopolysaccharide (LPSx3­microglia) prevent STZ­induced Neuro­2a neuronal cell death in vitro. The ELISA results showed that neurotrophin­4/5 (NT­4/5) secretion was promoted in LPSx3­microglia and the cell viability assay with trypan blue staining revealed that the culture supernatant of LPSx3­microglia prevented STZ­induced neuronal cell death. In addition, reverse transcription­quantitative PCR showed that neurons treated with the culture supernatant of LPSx3­microglia promoted the gene expression of B­cell lymphoma­extra large and glucose­dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor. Furthermore, the inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor B, a receptor of NT­4/5, suppressed the neuroprotective effect of LPSx3­microglia. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that LPSx3­microglia prevent STZ­induced neuronal death and that NT­4/5 may be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of LPSx3­microglia.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/genética , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Proteína bcl-X/genética
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4457-4464, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Our previous studies suggested that oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulates the progression of various diseases via transformation of tissue-resident macrophages (MΦ). Recently, we characterized microglia transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-microglia) in vitro, and this response was similar to that observed in response to oral administration of LPS in vivo. Here, we examined the characteristics of peritoneal tissue-resident MΦ (pMΦ) transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-pMΦ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary pMΦ were treated with low-dose LPS (1 ng/ml) three times; subsequently, phagocytic activity and gene expression were evaluated. RESULTS: REPELL-pMΦ exhibited high phagocytic activity and elevated expression of Arg1, Gipr, Gdnf, and Fpr2. The gene expression profiles observed in REPELL-pMΦ were distinct from those of REPELL-microglia. CONCLUSION: REPELL-pMΦ have the potential to promote clearance of xenobiotics and to suppress inflammation. The present study also demonstrates the diversity of tissue-resident MΦ transformation that reflect their tissue origin.


Assuntos
Arginase/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Regulação para Cima
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4711-4717, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the phagocytic ability of macrophages, which is useful for preventing various diseases. Here, we attempted to create an in vitro model of continuous administration of LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS three times every 24 h (repeated stimulation), and phagocytic ability and inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)] production were measured. RESULTS: The phagocytic ability was increased by a single stimulation with LPS and was maintained by repeated stimulation. IL6 production increased with a single stimulation with LPS; however, IL6 production by repeated stimulation with LPS was comparable to that of non-stimulation with LPS. On the other hand, the amount of TNFα was significantly increased by single and repeated stimulation with LPS. CONCLUSION: Repeated stimulation with LPS in RAW264.7 cells triggered a phenotype that was similar to that of macrophages after continuous oral administration of LPS. This suggests that this study model may reproduce the enhancement of macrophage phagocytosis, an effect afforded by continuous oral administration of LPS.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4719-4727, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated whether mastication affects microglia, whose activity is thought to be associated with cognition and brain tumor progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We kept mice by feeding either a hard or soft diet for 2, 4 or 8 months. After each period, we removed the whole brains and isolated microglia. The total RNA extracted from each brain's microglia was subjected to DNA microarray analysis. RESULTS: Many genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between hard- and soft-diet-fed mice in each group of the same feeding period. The expression of several genes involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton was down-regulated in the soft-diet-fed mice. CONCLUSION: Mastication may affect microglia's roles in cognition as well as their neuroimmune activity through their activity of patrolling the brain.


Assuntos
Mastigação/fisiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8945, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488176

RESUMO

Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is regarded as an inducer of inflammation, previous studies have suggested that repetitive low-dose LPS has neuroprotective effects via immunomodulation of microglia, resident macrophages of brain. However, microglia transformed by the stimulus of repetitive low-dose LPS (REPELL-microglia) are not well characterized, whereas microglia transformed by repetitive high-dose LPS are well studied as an endotoxin tolerance model in which the induction of pro-inflammatory molecules is suppressed. In this study, to characterize REPELL-microglia, the gene expression and phagocytic activity of REPELL-microglia were analyzed with the murine C8-B4 microglia cell line. The REPELL-microglia were characterized by a high expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (Nos2, Ccl1, IL-12B, and CD86), anti-inflammatory molecules (IL-10, Arg1, Il13ra2, and Mrc1), and neuroprotective molecules (Ntf5, Ccl7, and Gipr). In addition, the phagocytic activity of REPELL-microglia was promoted as high as that of microglia transformed by single low-dose LPS. These results suggest the potential of REPELL-microglia for inflammatory regulation, neuroprotection, and phagocytic clearance. Moreover, this study revealed that gene expression of REPELL-microglia was distinct from that of microglia transformed by repetitive high-dose LPS treatment, suggesting the diversity of microglia transformation by different doses of LPS.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4503-4509, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Oral administration of Pantoea agglomerans-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPSp) has been reported to have a preventive effect against various lifestyle-related diseases. Therefore, we examined the preventive effect on high blood pressure, which is a kind of reserve arm for lifestyle-related diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and WKY rat were bred from 6 to 16 weeks of age. SHR were orally administered 100 µg/kg LPSp and 0.1% NaCl, and blood pressure was measured at 6, 10, 13 and 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks of age, blood biochemical markers were measured and microbial community composition was analyzed. RESULTS: SHRs developed hypertension with age, which was exacerbated by salt loading. Although there was almost no reduction in blood pressure in SHRs that received LPSp. It was suppressed at 13-16 weeks of age in those with salt loading. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of LPSp showed a preventive effect on salt-loaded hypertension.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Pantoea/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Masculino , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sais/toxicidade
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4511-4516, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Gluconacetobacter hansenii (G. hansenii) is an acetic acid bacterium of vinegar production. Its anti-allergic effect on mice upon oral administration was examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The amount of LPS was measured by the Limulus reaction. Mice were sensitized by peritoneal and intranasal administration of cedar pollen and alum followed by oral administration of 30 or 150 mg/kg of heated G. hansenii cells. Pollen was administered intranasally to evaluate nasal symptoms, and at 8 weeks, IgE and IL-10 levels in blood were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The amount of LPS in dried bacterial cells was 10.4±3.3 mg/g. In the cedar pollinosis model of mice, a significant reduction was observed in nose scratching of both groups administered with the bacterial cells (30, 150 mg/kg). CONCLUSION: G. hansenii contains LPS, and its oral administration showed an anti-allergic effect by a significant mitigation of the symptoms in a pollen allergy mouse model.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Gluconacetobacter/imunologia , Pólen/efeitos adversos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/química , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antialérgicos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Camundongos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/microbiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
10.
In Vivo ; 33(1): 109-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recently, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased in developed countries. This study aimed to examine the usefulness of a moisturizing cream containing lipopolysaccharide derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) in patients with mild AD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A moisturizing cream containing LPSp or its placebo was randomly assigned and continuously used for 4 weeks in patients with mild AD. AD severity was evaluated in a double-blind manner by a dermatologist using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score and by the patients' self-evaluation of itching and skin condition using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Although there was no difference in the EASI score between the two groups, the VAS scores showed significantly greater symptom alleviation in the LPSp group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: A moisturizing cream containing LPSp may be effective for routine skin care and could help alleviate symptoms of mild AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Adulto , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Anticancer Res ; 38(7): 4289-4294, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A system is being developed that can be used to easily evaluate the health condition of an individual with the help of trace amounts of a blood sample by focusing on xenobiotics. The system is called "Multimodal homeostasis evaluation system" (measurement of neutrophil activity, phagocytic activity of phagocytes and quantification of oxidized LDL (OxLDL)). To elucidate the possibility of using this system as an evaluation system for the health condition of an individual, clearly explaining the changes in various diseases is essential. In this study, evaluations were carried out using hypertensive model animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive model rats SHR/NCrlCrlj and control rats WKY/NCrlCrlj were raised for 10 weeks from 6 to 16 weeks of age and their blood pressure was measured over time. Blood neutrophil activity (superoxide anion (O2•-) generation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity) and phagocytic activity of phagocytes was measured by our developed apparatus (a simple prototype device under development). OxLDL was measured by an ELISA kit, and biochemical markers were measured using the blood sample. RESULTS: Compared to WKY rats of the control group, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure of SHR rats increased significantly with age. In SHR rats, there was a significant elevation in O2•- generation and MPO activity of neutrophils, alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides of blood, while phagocytic activity, OxLDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and total-bilirubin decreased. CONCLUSION: In the hypertensive model, biochemical markers were found to have a relationship with O2•- generation, MPO activity, phagocytic activity of phagocytes, and OxLDL. This system is expected to be useful for clinical monitoring of hypertension diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Neutrófilos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Fagocitose , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
12.
Anticancer Res ; 38(7): 4339-4345, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Dewaxed brown rice has macrophage activation ability via TLR4 and contains a high amount of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). It is expected that dewaxed brown rice can help prevent lifestyle diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of dewaxed brown rice was investigated using obese and diabetic model mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dewaxed brown rice and white rice were polished and powdered by Toyo Rice Co. Diet pellets were prepared (AIN-93) with 50% dewaxed brown rice or white rice powder and fed to type II diabetic model KK-Ay mice for 10 weeks. Weight and fasting blood glucose were measured every week, and whole blood and liver was collected on the final day for the evaluation of biochemical data. RESULTS: A 20% reduction in body weight was found in the dewaxed brown rice feed and white rice feed groups compared to the normal feed group. Fasting blood glucose increased in the normal-diet group, but on the other hand, the blood glucose in the white rice and the dewaxed brown rice feed group was almost constant. Dewaxed brown rice feed group of plasma ALT and AST, liver TG and T-CHO were significantly lower than that of the control and the white rice feed group. CONCLUSION: Dewaxed brown rice feed has an anti-obesity effect to suppress increasing body weight, fasting blood glucose, and an effect of suppressing fatty liver.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fígado Gorduroso , Obesidade , Oryza , Animais , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Camundongos , Oryza/química
13.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198493, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856882

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear, but an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides is known to play a critical role in AD progression. A promising preventative approach is to enhance the normal Aß clearance activity of brain phagocytes such as microglia. In mice, the intraperitoneal injection of Toll-like receptor 4 agonist was shown to enhance Aß clearance and exhibit a preventative effect on AD-related pathology. Our previous clinical study demonstrated that orally administered Pantoea agglomerans-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPSp) exhibited an LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-lowering effect in human volunteers with hyperlipidemia, a known risk factor for AD. In vitro studies have shown that LPSp treatment increases Aß phagocytosis by microglial cells; however it is still unclear whether orally administered LPSp exhibits a preventive effect on AD progression. We show here that in senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice fed a high-fat diet, oral administration of LPSp at 0.3 or 1 mg/kg body weight·day for 18 weeks significantly improved glucose metabolism and lipid profiles. The LPSp treatment also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and oxidative-burst activity in the peripheral blood. Moreover, LPSp significantly reduced brain Aß burden and memory impairment as seen in the water maze test, although we could not confirm a significant enhancement of Aß phagocytosis in microglia isolated from the brains after treatment. Taken together, our results show that LPSp holds promise as a preventative therapy for AD or AD-related diseases induced by impairment of metabolic functions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Pantoea/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Fagocitose
14.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0195008, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584779

RESUMO

Pantoea agglomerans (P. agglomerans) is a Gram-negative bacterium that grows symbiotically with various edible plants, and the oral or sublingual administration of lipopolysaccharide derived from P. agglomerans (LPSp) have been suggested to contribute to prevention of immune-related diseases. Our previous study indicated that orally administered LPSp was shown to exhibit an LDL-lowering effect in hyperlipidemic volunteers; however, a preventive effect of LPSp on atherosclerosis is unclear. The present study attempted to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effect by LPSp in a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis. For 16 weeks, apoE-deficient mice were fed an HFD and received drinking water containing LPSp (0.3 or 1 mg/kg body weight/day). The results showed that the orally administered LPSp decreased body weight. A significant reduction in atherosclerotic plaque deposition was observed even with the lower dose of LPSp. The biochemical analyses showed that LPSp markedly improved glucose tolerance and reduced plasma LDL and oxidized LDL levels. In addition, LPSp significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators including MCP-1 (in the plasma), TNF-α and IL-6 (in the colon), and decreased the oxidative burst activities in the peripheral blood sample. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility that oral administration of LPSp can effectively ameliorate HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and inflammatory/oxidative responses to prevent atherosclerosis and related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pantoea/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Placa Aterosclerótica/etiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
15.
Food Sci Nutr ; 6(1): 197-206, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387379

RESUMO

In this study, the effects on the maintenance of normal bloodstream by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated in the parallel-group randomized double-blind study using supplement containing Pantoea agglomerans LPS (201.5 µg/tablet as LPS). Screening was previously performed in the implementation of the study. Adult males and females with normal value to borderline (healthy subjects) in the hematologic parameters, for which reference values were given, were chosen in this study. The period of ingestion of the supplement was 3 months. As the result, a significant decrease in the rate of change (the ratio when the baseline was 1) of HbA1c, which is a glycative stress marker, was found in the group which ingested LPS supplement after 3 months. Also, a significant increase in the number of fingertip capillary vessels was found compared with the control group. From these results, the effects of the maintenance of bloodstream by ingestion of LPS were shown.

16.
Anticancer Res ; 37(7): 3897-3903, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Phagocytes recognize pathogens that enter the body as well as other abnormal and foreign materials that may exist within an organism (such as dead cells, oxidized lipids, and denatured proteins), and phagocytose and eliminate them to maintain a healthy state. In a previous study a simple prototype device was used, under development by Hamamatsu Photonics (Prototype), that detects fluorescence to determine the phagocytic activity of the murine macrophage cell line J774.1. The present study aimed to determine whether it was possible to detect phagocytic activity in a slight amount of human peripheral blood without using hemolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three microliters of human peripheral blood was drawn from the fingertip and mixed with 30 µg of pH-sensitive fluorescent particles. The fluorescence intensity of the human peripheral blood sample was then measured using the Prototype in development, cultured for 2 h at 37°C, and then re-measured. The phagocytes were observed under fluorescence microscopy and the phagocytosis rate of CD11b-positive cells was verified with a flow cytometer. RESULT: The phagocytic activity of non-hemolyzed human peripheral blood was measured using the Prototype under development; fluorescence after phagocytosis was detected. Furthermore, this was confirmed by both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The precision of the measurements of human peripheral blood phagocytic activity was verified with the Prototype using samples from three healthy individuals. The relationship between blood sugar levels and phagocytic activity before and after meal times was determined. Concerning exercise, phagocytic activity tended to decrease, although salivary amylase level increased in the healthy individual examined after exercise. CONCLUSION: The simple Prototype can measure phagocytic activity in a small amount of peripheral blood without hemolysis. The device allows for rapid and minimally-invasive detection of changes in phagocytic activity, which has conventionally been difficult. These findings provide promising evidence that assessment of individual phagocytic capacity can be made easier using this novel device.


Assuntos
Fluorometria/instrumentação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Hemólise , Humanos , Camundongos , Fagocitose
17.
Anticancer Res ; 37(7): 3917-3920, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent studies reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibits beneficial effects on prevention of immune-related diseases by activating macrophages. We previously demonstrated that pre-treatment with LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) activated amyloid ß (Aß) phagocytosis in mouse primary microglia. In the present study, we further examined the promotory effect on phagocytosis of phagocytic particles in the C8-B4 microglia cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phagocytic analysis of C8-B4 cells was evaluated using phagocytic particles (latex beads or HiLyte™ Fluor 488-conjugated Aß1-42). RESULTS: The phagocytic activity of latex beads was dependent on the concentration of beads and incubation time. LPSp, at as low as 100 pg/ml, significantly increased phagocytosis against the beads. In the experiment of Aß1-42 phagocytosis, LPSp significantly increased Aß phagocytic activity. CONCLUSION: LPSp treatment was confirmed to enhance Aß1-42 phagocytosis by mouse microglia. It is suggested that the use of LPSp may be a potential promising candidate for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pantoea/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fagocitose
18.
Carbohydr Res ; 449: 32-36, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686930

RESUMO

A polysaccharide fraction was isolated from the Pantoea agglomerans IG1 lipopolysaccharide (IP-PA1), and its O-antigenic polysaccharide was characterized by chemical analyses and 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide is composed of linear tetrasaccharide repeating units, consisting of glucose and rhamnose, where 40% of one of the rhamnose residues is substituted with glucose: →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→2)-[ß-d-Glcp-(1→3)]0.4-α-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→.


Assuntos
Antígenos O/química , Pantoea/química , Sequência de Carboidratos
19.
In Vivo ; 31(4): 573-577, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A decrease in gastrointestinal motility causing weakened lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling along with a decline in the number of enteric bacteria is known to be a cause of constipation due to the administration of antibiotics. A new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed, resulting in quick-cooking and tasty product, contains 100-times more LPS than polished white rice. In this study, the improvement effect on constipation due to intake of dewaxed brown rice was examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dewaxed brown rice was prepared at Toyo Rice from brown rice. Mice were given powdered feed to which powdered rice containing 0-50% of dewaxed brown rice was added. Antibiotics were administered for 10 or 27 days in drinking water containing vancomycin, metronidazole and neomycin. LPS, used as a control, was freely provided in drinking water. The defecation frequency, stool weight per hour and body weight were determined on the last day. RESULTS: Although the 10-day administration of antibiotics reduced the stool weight per hour to half, the dewaxed brown rice and LPS groups showed a trend towards improvement at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. The body weight significantly decreased after the 27-day administration of antibiotics but was improved in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. Though the defecation frequency and wet and dry stool weights per hour were reduced by as much as 50% in the group receiving antibiotics, a significant improvement in constipation was observed in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group. CONCLUSION: As the improvement effect of dewaxed brown rice on body weight loss and constipation caused by the long-term administration of antibiotics has been confirmed in animal experimentation, the introduction of dewaxed brown rice as a staple food to patients under long-term antibiotic treatment may improve constipation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Fezes , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Oryza/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem
20.
Anticancer Res ; 36(7): 3599-605, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27354629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Oral ingestion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to be effective in diseases' prevention. Brown rice contains large amounts of LPS not actively consumed because of bad taste. Recently, a new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed has been produced. In this report, we measured the LPS content of this dewaxed rice and evaluated the function of innate immune activation on macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dewaxed brown rice and polished rice were prepared using the Saika-style rice polishing process. LPS content extracted using hot water from this sample was evaluated by the Limulus reaction and the activation of macrophage RAW246.7 cells was evaluated by nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2-, 4- and 9-induced human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were used for the confirmation of the activated pathway. RESULTS: Mean LPS content in the 15 types of dewaxed brown rice was found to be 6.4±2.6 µg/g, while that of brown rice was 10.9±4.3 µg/g. The extract of dewaxed brown rice induced significant amounts of NO by RAW246.7 cells, while production was reduced to 1/6 by adding polymyxin B. The macrophage activating effect of dewaxed brown rice was 79- and 51-times higher than that of polished rice in TLR4- and 2-induced HEK 293 cells. CONCLUSION: LPS content in dewaxed brown rice was found to be able to activate macrophages. This rice activated macrophages mainly via the TLR4 and, to a lesser extent, TLR2 pathways. It is suggested that dewaxed brown rice can be considered effective in allergy and cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Cisplatino , Ifosfamida , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Mitomicina , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ceras/química
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