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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598806

RESUMO

The most recent updated classification of inborn errors of immunity/primary immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee, was published in January 2020. Within days of completing this report, it was already out of date, evidenced by the frequent publication of genetic variants proposed to cause novel inborn errors of immunity. As the next formal report from the IUIS Expert Committee will not be published until 2022, we felt it important to provide the community with a brief update of recent contributions to the field of inborn errors of immunity. Herein, we highlight studies that have identified 26 additional monogenic gene defects that reach the threshold to represent novel causes of immune defects.

2.
Immunol Res ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599911

RESUMO

Genetic diagnostic tools including whole-exome sequencing (WES) have advanced our understanding in human diseases and become common practice in diagnosing patients with suspected primary immune deficiencies. Establishing a genetic diagnosis is of paramount importance for tailoring adequate therapeutic regimens, including identifying the need for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and genetic-based therapies. Here, we genetically studied two adult patients who were clinically diagnosed during infancy with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two unrelated patients, both of consanguineous kindred, underwent WES in adulthood, 2 decades after their initial clinical manifestations. Upon clinical presentation, immunological workup was performed, which led to a diagnosis of SCID. The patients presented during infancy with failure to thrive, generalized erythematous rash, and recurrent gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, including episodes of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection and Candida albicans fungemia. Hypogammaglobulinemia and T-cell lymphopenia were detected. Both patients were treated with a 10/10 HLA matched sibling donor unconditioned HSCT. Retrospective genetic workup revealed homozygous bi-allelic mutations in IL7RA in one patient and in RAG2 in the other. Our study exemplifies the impact of retrospectively establishing a genetic diagnosis. Pinpointing the genetic cause raises several issues including optimized surveillance and treatment, understanding disease mechanisms and outcomes, future family planning, and social and psychological considerations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538950

RESUMO

A disease-specific, patient-reported outcome instrument suitable for evaluation of prodromes and attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a clinical unmet need. We constructed such instrument and examined its validity, acceptability, and discriminative ability. Sixty-six patients participated in a survey addressing their demographics, social, and medical status. Discriminant content validity involved: (1) construct definition by in-depth cognitive debriefing interviews, (2) item selection identifying relevant categories, and (3) judgment of the format whereby questionnaires were tested on experienced patients and its content/reliability was validated. Prodromes and attacks affecting certain body systems (domains) were organized in "clusters". Internal consistency, content, and convergent validities were analyzed. Analyses of variance and regression models were used to evaluate the discriminative ability of the instrument to differentiate between attacks and prodromes. The study demonstrates very high internal consistency (Cronbach's α: attacks 0.88-0.98, prodromes 0.78-0.98). Analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between all dimensions and in pre-defined clusters (F (4, 61) = 45.74, p < 0.001, Eta2 = 0.77). Significant correlations were found between dimensions of prodromes and attacks. Prodromes are associated but differentiated from attacks. Correlations in severity were high for all domains. Interactions were found between prodromes and patients' experience in illness. In conclusion, the new Prodrome-Attack Evaluation questionnaire (HAE-EPA) is capable of distinguishing attacks and prodromes of HAE, as well as determining associations between the two interrelated phenomena. The new instrument achieves the required discriminative ability, acceptability, and content validity/reliability and therefore can be used as a reliable tool for the investigation of prodromes, attacks, and their relationships.

4.
Immunol Res ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484432

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP70) gene cause combined immunodeficiency (CID). Neonatal screening for severe CID in Israel is implemented since 2015. We report on clinical, flow cytometry, and genetic data of an unusual ZAP70 deficiency patient. A 10-week-old Bedouin female presented with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) negative packed cell therapy was given without improvement; indexes of hemolysis worsened. At this time, thrombocytopenia was noted. The patient was treated with single dose of 1 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin with rapid resolution of hemolysis. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were normal; flow cytometry revealed severe CD8 lymphocytopenia. Lymphocyte proliferation test demonstrated reduced response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. Gated T cells were negative for intracellular ZAP70. A genetic analysis revealed a missense homozygous c.1388C > T (p.A463V) mutation, confirming the diagnosis of ZAP70 deficiency. She later on developed urinary tract infection due to ESBL producing E. coli treated with amikacin and severe CMV infection that partially responded to ganciclovir therapy and at 7 months of age, she successfully underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Neonatal screening by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) for SCID was normal, yet very low TRECs were recorded at the time of CID diagnosis. Normal neonatal screening for SCID does not rule out the diagnosis of CID due to ZAP70 deficiency. This type of CID can present with autoimmunity as the sole initial manifestation of the disease.

5.
J Exp Med ; 218(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231617

RESUMO

The T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway is an ensemble of numerous proteins that are crucial for an adequate immune response. Disruption of any protein involved in this pathway leads to severe immunodeficiency and unfavorable clinical outcomes. Here, we describe an infant with severe immunodeficiency who was found to have novel biallelic mutations in SLP76. SLP76 is a key protein involved in TCR signaling and in other hematopoietic pathways. Previous studies of this protein were performed using Jurkat-derived human leukemic T cell lines and SLP76-deficient mice. Our current study links this gene, for the first time, to a human immunodeficiency characterized by early-onset life-threatening infections, combined T and B cell immunodeficiency, severe neutrophil defects, and impaired platelet aggregation. Hereby, we characterized aspects of the patient's immune phenotype, modeled them with an SLP76-deficient Jurkat-derived T cell line, and rescued some consequences using ectopic expression of wild-type SLP76. Understanding human diseases due to SLP76 deficiency is helpful in explaining the mixed T cell and neutrophil defects, providing a guide for exploring human SLP76 biology.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147779

RESUMO

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS), resulting from ANTXR2 mutations, is an ultra-rare disease that causes intestinal lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). The mechanisms leading to the gastrointestinal phenotype in these patients are not well defined. We present two patients with congenital diarrhea, severe PLE and unique clinical features resulting from deleterious ANTXR2 mutations. Intestinal organoids were generated from one of the patients, along with CRISPR-Cas9 ANTXR2 knockout, and compared with organoids from two healthy controls. The ANTXR2-deficient organoids displayed normal growth and polarity, compared to controls. Using an anthrax-toxin assay we showed that the c.155C>T mutation causes loss-of-function of ANTXR2 protein. An intrinsic defect of monolayer formation in patient-derived or ANTXR2KO organoids was not apparent, suggesting normal epithelial function. However, electron microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging showed abnormal collagen deposition in duodenal samples of these patients. Specifically, collagen VI, which is known to bind ANTXR2, was highly expressed in the duodenum of these patients. In conclusion, despite resistance to anthrax-toxin, epithelial cell function, and specifically monolayer formation, is intact in patients with HFS. Nevertheless, loss of ANTXR2-mediated signaling leads to collagen VI accumulation in the duodenum and abnormal extracellular matrix composition, which likely plays a role in development of PLE.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013830

RESUMO

Background: More than 50 different monogenic disorders have been identified as directly causing inflammatory bowel diseases, typically manifesting in the first years of life. We present the clinical course and immunological work-up of an adult patient who presented in adolescent years with an atypical gastrointestinal phenotype and was diagnosed more than two decades later with a monogenic disorder with important therapeutic implications. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed in a 37-years-old patient with a history of diarrhea since adolescence. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the suspected variant. Mass cytometry (CyTOF) and flow cytometry were conducted on peripheral blood mononuclear cells for deep immunophenotyping. Next-generation sequencing of the TCRB and IgH was performed for global immune repertoire analysis of circulating lymphocytes. Results: We identified a novel deleterious c.1455C>A (p.Y485X) mutation in LRBA. CyTOF studies demonstrated significant changes in immune landscape in the LRBA-deficient patient, including an increase in myeloid derived suppressor cells and double-negative T cells, decreased B cells, low ratio of naïve:memory T cells, and reduced capacity of T cells to secrete various cytokines following stimulation, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, this patient exhibited low frequency of regulatory T cells, with a reduction in their CTLA4 expression and interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. Finally, we show marked oligoclonal expansion of specific B- and T-cell clones in the peripheral blood of the LRBA-deficient patient. Conclusions: LRBA deficiency is characterized by marked immunological changes in innate and adaptive immune cells. This case highlights the importance of advanced genetic studies in patients with a unique phenotype, regardless of their age at presentation.

8.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features, therapeutic interventions, and patient outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage in individuals with a telomere biology disorder, including dyskeratosis congenita, Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, Revesz syndrome, and Coats plus. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical Care Consortium for Telomere Associated Ailments members were invited to contribute data on individuals with telomere biology disorders at their institutions who experienced GI bleeding. Patient demographic, laboratory, imaging, procedural, and treatment information and outcomes were extracted from the medical record. RESULTS: Sixteen patients who experienced GI hemorrhage were identified at 11 centers. Among 14 patients who underwent genetic testing, 8 had mutations in TINF2, 4 had mutations in CTC1 or STN1, and 1 patient each had a mutation in TERC and RTEL1. Ten patients had a history of hematopoietic cell transplantation. The patients with Coats plus and those without Coats plus had similar clinical features and courses. Angiodysplasia of the stomach and/or small bowel was described in 8 of the 12 patients who underwent endoscopy; only 4 had esophageal varices. Various medical interventions were trialed. No single intervention was uniformly associated with cessation of bleeding, although 1 patient had a sustained response to treatment with bevacizumab. Recurrence was common, and the overall long-term outcome for affected patients was poor. CONCLUSIONS: GI bleeding in patients with telomere biology disorders is associated with significant morbidity and with vascular ectasias rather than varices.

9.
Genes Immun ; 21(5): 326-334, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921793

RESUMO

Mutations in the common gamma chain of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL2RG) or the associated downstream signaling enzyme Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) genes are typically characterized by a T cell-negative, B cell-positive, natural killer (NK) cell-negative (T-B+NK-) severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) immune phenotype. We report clinical course, immunological, genetic and proteomic work-up of two patients with different novel mutations in the IL-2-JAK3 pathway with a rare atypical presentation of T-B+NK- SCID. Lymphocyte subpopulation revealed significant T cells lymphopenia, normal B cells, and NK cells counts (T-B+NK+SCID). Despite the presence of B cells, IgG levels were low and IgA and IgM levels were undetectable. T-cell proliferation in response to mitogens in patient 1 was very low and T-cell receptor V-beta chain repertoire in patient 2 was polyclonal. Whole-exome sequencing revealed novel mutations in both patients (patient 1-c.923delC frame-shift mutation in the IL2RG gene, patient 2-c.G172A a homozygous missense mutation in the JAK3 gene). Bioinformatic analysis of the JAK3 mutation indicated deleterious effect and 3D protein modeling located the mutation to a surface exposed alpha-helix structure. Our findings help to link between genotype and phenotype, which is a key factor for the diagnosis and treatment of SCID patients.

10.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960813

RESUMO

Inborn errors of TLR3-dependent IFN-α/ß- and -λ-mediated immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) can underlie herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). The respective contributions of IFN-α/ß and -λ are unknown. We report a child homozygous for a genomic deletion of the entire coding sequence and part of the 3'UTR of the last exon of IFNAR1, who died from HSE at the age of two years. An older cousin died following vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at 12 months of age, and another 17-year-old cousin homozygous for the same variant has had other, less severe viral illnesses. The encoded IFNAR1 protein is expressed on the cell surface but is truncated and cannot interact with the tyrosine kinase TYK2. The patient's fibroblasts and EBV-B cells did not respond to IFN-α2b or IFN-ß, in terms of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, or the genome-wide induction of IFN-stimulated genes. The patient's fibroblasts were susceptible to viruses, including HSV-1, even in the presence of exogenous IFN-α2b or IFN-ß. HSE is therefore a consequence of inherited complete IFNAR1 deficiency. This viral disease occurred in natural conditions, unlike those previously reported in other patients with IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency. This experiment of Nature indicates that IFN-α/ß are essential for anti-HSV-1 immunity in the CNS.

11.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(7): 1010-1019, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: More than 50 different monogenic disorders causing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been identified. Our goal was to characterize the clinical phenotype, genetic workup, and immunologic alterations in an Ashkenazi Jewish patient that presented during infancy with ulcerative colitis and unique clinical manifestations. METHODS: Immune workup and whole-exome sequencing were performed, along with Sanger sequencing for confirmation. Next-generation sequencing of the TCRB and IgH was conducted for immune repertoire analysis. Telomere length was evaluated by in-gel hybridization assay. Mass cytometry was performed on patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and compared with control subjects and patients with UC. RESULTS: The patient presented in infancy with failure to thrive and dysmorphic features, consistent with a diagnosis of dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. Severe ulcerative colitis manifested in the first year of life and proceeded to the development of a primary immunodeficiency, presenting as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Genetic studies identified a deleterious homozygous C.3791G>A missense mutation in the helicase regulator of telomere elongation 1 (RTEL1), leading to short telomeres in the index patient. Immune repertoire studies showed polyclonal T and B cell receptor distribution, while mass cytometry analysis demonstrated marked immunological alterations, including a predominance of naïve T cells, paucity of B cells, and a decrease in various innate immune subsets. CONCLUSIONS: RTEL1 mutations are associated with significant alterations in immune landscape and can manifest with infantile-onset IBD. A high index of suspicion is required in Ashkenazi Jewish families where the carriage rate of the C.3791G>A variant is high.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) may excrete poliovirus for extended periods and remain a major reservoir for polio after eradication. Poliovirus can spread by fecal-oral or oral-oral transmission. In middle- and high-income countries, oral-oral transmission may be more prevalent than fecal-oral transmission of polioviruses where PIDs patients survive longer. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of prolonged or persistent oropharyngeal poliovirus infections in PIDs. METHODS: We performed a literature search for reports of prolonged (excreting poliovirus for ≥6 months and ≤5 years) or persistent (excreting poliovirus for >5 years) poliovirus infections in PIDs. RESULTS: There were 140 PID cases with prolonged or persistent poliovirus infections. All had poliovirus-positive stools. Testing of oropharyngeal mucosa was only reported for 6 cases, 4 of which were positive. Molecular analyses demonstrated independent evolution of poliovirus in the gut and oropharyngeal mucosa in 2 cases. Seven PIDs had multiple lineages of the same poliovirus serotype in stools without information about polioviruses in oropharyngeal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Testing for persistence of poliovirus in oropharyngeal mucosa of PID patients is rare, with virus recovered in 4 of 5 cases in whom stools were positive. Multiple lineages or serotypes in 7 additional PID cases may indicate separate foci of infection, some of which might be in oropharyngeal mucosa. We recommend screening throat swabs in addition to stools for poliovirus in PID patients. Containment protocols for reducing both oral-oral and fecal-oral transmission from PID patients must be formulated for hospitals and community settings.

14.
Harefuah ; 159(5): 315-319, 2020 May.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431118

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recent outbreak of COVID-19 which began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide evolving into a pandemic, poses a global health emergency. As of mid-April over 2 million people have been infected with over 145 thousand casualties. The disease is more severe in the older population, whereas in children lower infection rates and milder symptoms are more common. Severe symptoms in the pediatric population, although uncommon, have been reported mainly in infants younger than 1 year of age. Perinatal transmission is infrequent and associated with a relatively mild illness in the newborn.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
16.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for infections and autoimmune disorders. Although several immunological abnormalities were previously found, differences in T cell receptor repertoire have never been shown. Thus we compared the T cell receptor gamma (TRG) repertoire in DS and non-syndromic pediatric patients by next-generation sequencing, in addition to other immunological markers. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from thymuses of pediatric patients who underwent heart surgery, where six were with DS and six were non-syndromic patients. Peripheral blood counts, T cell subpopulations, thymus TCR excision circles (TRECs), spectratyping, and next-generation sequencing for TRG were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 7 months and the mean lymphocyte count was slightly lower in patients with DS, whereas thymus TREC results were similar to non-syndromic patients (p = 0.197). The TRG repertoire analysis showed that patients with DS had a significantly larger number of unique TRG sequences, together with decreased clonal expansion. Lastly, the V and J gene usages in the thymus were similar in DS and non-syndromic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DS showed increased TRG repertoire diversity with decreased clonal expansion compared to non-syndromic patients. IMPACT: Alterations in T cell receptor gamma repertoire were found in patients with Down syndrome using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. Patients showed increased repertoire diversity and decreased clonal expansion compared to controls. These findings add to previous reports on abnormalities of other immune system components in patients with Down syndrome. NGS technique may point out differences not seen by previous methods. Repertoire abnormalities may contribute to those patients' predisposition to infections and autoimmune diseases.

17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(6): e28237, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SRP54 (signal recognition protein 54) is a conserved component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates cotranslational targeting and translocation of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. In 2017, mutations in the gene have been described as a cause of congenital neutropenia with or without pancreatic insufficiency, and since then, only limited cases were added to the literature. METHODS: Two patients with neutropenia underwent hematological, immunological, and genetic work-up, including lymphocyte phenotyping, immunoglobulins, and complement levels, antineutrophil and antinuclear antibodies, bone marrow FISH panel for myelodysplastic syndrome, whole-exome sequencing, and in silico proteomic analysis. RESULTS: Clinical findings in the two families revealed a wide spectrum of immunological and clinical manifestations, ranging from mild asymptomatic neutropenia during febrile illnesses to severe neutropenia and life-threatening infection requiring leg amputation. Immunological and hematological work-up showed isolated neutropenia with normal lymphocyte subpopulations, immunoglobulin and complement levels, and negative autoimmune tests. Bone marrow aspirations showed variability ranging from normal myelopoiesis to myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocytic stage, with normal FISH panel for myelodysplastic syndrome. Genetic analysis identified a novel, de novo, in-frame deletion in the SRP54 gene, c.342-344delAAC, p.T115del. In silico proteomic analysis suggested impaired SRP54 protein function due to reduced GTP activity and stability. CONCLUSIONS: We describe congenital neutropenia with variable clinical presentation in novel mutation of the SRP54 gene.


Assuntos
Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Neutropenia/patologia , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Proteômica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Clin Immunol ; 214: 108376, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135276

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of monogenic inborn errors of immunity. The genetic causes of these diseases can be identified using whole exome sequencing (WES). Here, DNA samples from 106 patients with a clinical suspicion of PID were subjected to WES in order to test the diagnostic yield of this test in a highly consanguineous community. A likely genetic diagnosis was achieved in 70% of patients. Several factors were considered to possibly influence the diagnostic rate of WES among our cohort including early age, presence of consanguinity, family history suggestive of PID, the number of family members who underwent WES and the clinical phenotype of the patient. The highest diagnostic rate was in patients with combined immunodeficiency or with a syndrome. Notably, WES findings altered the clinical management in 39% (41/106) of patients in our cohort. Our findings support the use of WES as an important diagnostic tool in patients with suspected PID, especially in highly consanguineous communities.


Assuntos
Mutação , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consanguinidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117262

RESUMO

Patients with loss-of-function mutations in IL10 or IL10 receptor (IL10R) genes develop severe, medical-refractory, infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have previously reported significant alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses in these patients. Next generation sequencing platforms enable a comprehensive assessment of T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire patterns. We aimed to characterize TCR and BCR features in peripheral blood of patients with deleterious IL10 signaling defects. DNA was isolated from blood of seven patients with IL10R mutations and one with an IL10 mutation, along with eight controls, and subjected to next generation sequencing of TRB and IgH loci. A significant increase in clonality was observed in both TCR and BCR repertoires in circulating lymphocytes of IL10/IL10R-deficient patients, but to a much greater extent in T cells. Furthermore, short CDR3ß length and altered hydrophobicity were demonstrated in T cells of patients, but not in B cells, secondary to lower rates of insertions of nucleotides, but not deletions, at the V-, D-, or J-junctions. We were unable to observe specific T or B clones that were limited only to the patients or among controls. Moreover, the expanded T cells clones were unique to each patient. In conclusion, next generation sequencing of the TCR and BCR is a powerful tool for characterizing the adaptive immune cell phenotype and function in immune-mediated disorders. The oligoclonality observed among IL10/IL10R-deficient patients may suggest specialization of unique clones that likely have a role in mediating tissue damage. Nevertheless, the lack of shared clones between patients provides another piece of evidence that the adaptive immune response in IBD is not triggered against common antigens. Additional studies are required to define the specific antigens that interact with the expanded IL10/IL10R-deficient clones.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1031, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098969

RESUMO

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is critical for internalisation of molecules across cell membranes. The FCH domain only 1 (FCHO1) protein is key molecule involved in the early stages of CME formation. The consequences of mutations in FCHO1 in humans were unknown. We identify ten unrelated patients with variable T and B cell lymphopenia, who are homozygous for six distinct mutations in FCHO1. We demonstrate that these mutations either lead to mislocalisation of the protein or prevent its interaction with binding partners. Live-cell imaging of cells expressing mutant variants of FCHO1 provide evidence of impaired formation of clathrin coated pits (CCP). Patient T cells are unresponsive to T cell receptor (TCR) triggering. Internalisation of the TCR receptor is severely perturbed in FCHO1-deficient Jurkat T cells but can be rescued by expression of wild-type FCHO1. Thus, we discovered a previously unrecognised critical role of FCHO1 and CME during T-cell development and function in humans.


Assuntos
Endocitose/fisiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Linfopenia/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Linfopenia/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Linhagem , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia
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