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1.
Int J Oncol ; 48(3): 983-97, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26717964

RESUMO

Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan component of the extracellular matrix in either normal or malignant tissues and it may affect proliferation, motility and differentiation of various cell types. Three isoforms of plasma membrane-bound hyaluronan synthases (HAS 1, 2 and 3) secrete and simultaneously bind pericellular HA. HAS enzymes are subjects of post-translational protein phosphorylation which is believed to regulate their enzymatic activity. In this study, we investigated the HA homeostasis of normal human epidermal melanocytes, HT168 and WM35 human melanoma cell lines and melanoma metastases. HAS2 and HAS3 were detected in all the samples, while the expression of HAS1 was not detectable in any case. Malignant tissue samples and melanoma cell lines contained extra- and intracellular HA abundantly but not normal melanocytes. Applying HA as a chemoattractant facilitated the migration of melanoma cells in Boyden chamber. The amount of HA was reduced upon the inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine A (CsA), while the inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD098059 elevated it in both cell lines. The signals of Ser/Thr phosphoproteins at 57 kD were stronger after CsA treatment, while a markedly weaker signal was detected upon inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Our results suggest opposing effects of the two investigated enzymes on the HA homeostasis of melanoma cells. We propose that the dephosphorylation of HAS enzymes targeted by PP2B augments HA production, while their phosphorylation by the activity of MAPK pathway reduces HA synthesis. As the expression of the HA receptor RHAMM was also significantly enhanced by PD098059, the MAPK pathway exerted a complex attenuating effect on HA signalling in the investigated melanoma cells. This observation suggests that the application of MAPK-ERK pathway inhibitors requires a careful therapeutic design in melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Hialurônico/biossíntese , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ciclosporina/química , Flavonoides/química , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Hialuronan Sintases , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(8): 18412-38, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26262612

RESUMO

Mature and developing chondrocytes exist in a microenvironment where mechanical load, changes of temperature, osmolarity and acidic pH may influence cellular metabolism. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) receptors are environmental sensors mediating responses through activation of linked intracellular signalling pathways. In chondrogenic high density cultures established from limb buds of chicken and mouse embryos, we identified TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPV6 mRNA expression with RT-PCR. In both cultures, a switch in the expression pattern of TRPVs was observed during cartilage formation. The inhibition of TRPVs with the non-selective calcium channel blocker ruthenium red diminished chondrogenesis and caused significant inhibition of proliferation. Incubating cell cultures at 41 °C elevated the expression of TRPV1, and increased cartilage matrix production. When chondrogenic cells were exposed to mechanical load at the time of their differentiation into matrix producing chondrocytes, we detected increased mRNA levels of TRPV3. Our results demonstrate that developing chondrocytes express a full palette of TRPV channels and the switch in the expression pattern suggests differentiation stage-dependent roles of TRPVs during cartilage formation. As TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression was altered by thermal and mechanical stimuli, respectively, these are candidate channels that contribute to the transduction of environmental stimuli in chondrogenic cells.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrogênese , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Cartilagem/citologia , Cartilagem/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Transcriptoma , Suporte de Carga
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(8): 17344-67, 2015 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230691

RESUMO

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/genética , Receptores Tipo II de Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/genética , Receptores Tipo II de Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Polipeptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Polipeptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco
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