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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134239

RESUMO

Control of forward and inverse reactions between perovskites and precursor materials is key to attaining high-quality perovskite materials. Many techniques focus on synthesizing nanostructured CsPbX3 materials (e.g., nanowires) via a forward reaction (CsX + PbX2 → CsPbX3). However, low solubility of inorganic perovskites and complex phase transition make it difficult to realize the precise control of composition and length of nanowires using the conventional forward approach. Herein, we report the self-assembly inverse growth of CsPbBr3 micronanowires (MWs) (CsPb2Br5 → CsPbBr3 + PbBr2↑) by controlling phase transition from CsPb2Br5 to CsPbBr3. The two-dimensional (2D) structure of CsPb2Br5 serves as nucleation sites to induce initial CsPbBr3 MW growth. Also, phase transition allows crystal rearrangement and slows down crystal growth, which facilitates the MW growth of CsPbBr3 crystals along the 2D planes of CsPb2Br5. A CsPbBr3 MW photodetector constructed based on the inverse growth shows a high responsivity of 6.44 A W-1 and detectivity of ∼1012 Jones. Large grain size, high crystallinity, and large thickness can effectively alleviate decomposition/degradation of perovskites, which leads to storage stability for over 60 days in humid environment (relative humidity = 45%) and operational stability for over 3000 min under illumination (wavelength = 400 nm, light intensity = 20.06 mW cm-2).

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 818-823, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933374

RESUMO

All-inorganic halide perovskites are promising materials for optoelectronic applications. The surface or interface structure of the perovskites plays a crucial role in determining the optoelectronic conversion efficiency, as well as the material stability. A thorough understanding of surface atomic structures of the inorganic perovskites and their contributions to their optoelectronic properties and stability is lacking. Here we show a scanning tunneling microscopy investigation on the atomic and electronic structure of CsPbBr3 perovskite. Two different surface structures with a stripe and an armchair domain are identified, which originates from a complex interplay between Cs cations and Br anions. Our findings are further supported and correlated with density functional theory calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements. The stability evaluation of photovoltaic devices indicates a higher stability for CsPbBr3 in comparison with MAPbBr3, which is closely related to the low volatility of Cs from the perovskite surface.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(37): 33835-33843, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436403

RESUMO

Various noble metal-free electrocatalysts have been explored to enhance the overall water splitting efficiency. Ni-based compounds have attracted substantial attention for achieving efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts. Here, we show superior electrocatalysts based on NiFe alloy electroformed by a roll-to-roll process. NiFe (oxy)hydroxide synthesized by an anodization method for the OER catalyst shows an overpotential of 250 mV at 10 mA cm-2, which is dramatically smaller than that of bare NiFe alloy with an overpotential of 380 mV at 10 mA cm-2. Electrodeposited NiMo films for the HER catalyst also exhibit a small overpotential of 100 mV at 10 mA cm-2 compared with that of bare NiFe alloy (550 mV at 10 mA cm-2). A combined spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis reveals a clear relationship between the surface chemistry of NiFe (oxy)hydroxide and the water splitting properties. These outstanding fully solution-processed catalysts facilitate superb overall water splitting properties due to enlarged active surfaces and highly active catalytic properties. We combined a solution-processed monolithic perovskite/Si tandem solar cell with MAPb(I0.85Br0.15)3 for the direct conversion of solar energy into hydrogen energy, leading to the high solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 17.52%. Based on the cost-effective solution processes, our photovoltaic-electrocatalysis (PV-EC) system has advantages over latest high-performance solar water splitting systems.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(8): 3515-3523, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646682

RESUMO

Increasing the stability of perovskites is essential for their integration in commercial photovoltaic devices. Halide mixing is suggested as a powerful strategy toward stable perovskite materials. However, the stabilizing effect of the halides critically depends on their distribution in the mixed compound, a topic that is currently under intense debate. Here we successfully determine the exact location of the I and Cl anions in the  CH3NH3PbBr3- yI y and CH3NH3PbBr3- zCl z mixed halide perovskite lattices and correlate it with the enhanced stability we find for the latter. By combining scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, we predict that, for low ratios, iodine and chlorine incorporation have different effects on the electronic properties and stability of the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite material. In addition, we determine the optimal Cl incorporation ratio for stability increase without detrimental band gap modification, providing an important direction for the fabrication of stable perovskite devices. The increased material stability induced by chlorine incorporation is verified by performing photoelectron spectroscopy on a half-cell device architecture. Our findings provide an answer to the current debate on halide incorporation and demonstrate their direct influence on device stability.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(4): 1358-1364, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300468

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskite is believed to be a potential candidate for high efficiency solar cells because power conversion efficiency (PCE) was certified to be more than 22%. Nevertheless, mismatch of PCE due to current density (J)-voltage (V) hysteresis in perovskite solar cells is an obstacle to overcome. There has been much lively debate on the origin of J-V hysteresis; however, effective methodology to solve the hysteric problem has not been developed. Here we report a universal approach for hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells via defect engineering. A severe hysteresis observed from the normal mesoscopic structure employing TiO2 and spiro-MeOTAD is almost removed or does not exist upon doping the pure perovskites, CH3NH3PbI3 and HC(NH2)2PbI3, and the mixed cation/anion perovskites, FA0.85MA0.15PbI2.55Br0.45 and FA0.85MA0.1Cs0.05PbI2.7Br0.3, with potassium iodide. Substantial reductions in low-frequency capacitance and bulk trap density are measured from the KI-doped perovskite, which is indicative of trap-hysteresis correlation. A series of experiments with alkali metal iodides of LiI, NaI, KI, RbI and CsI reveals that potassium ion is the right element for hysteresis-free perovskite. Theoretical studies suggest that the atomistic origin of the hysteresis of perovskite solar cells is not the migration of iodide vacancy but results from the formation of iodide Frenkel defect. Potassium ion is able to prevent the formation of Frenkel defect since K+ energetically prefers the interstitial site. A complete removal of hysteresis is more pronounced at mixed perovskite system as compared to pure perovskites, which is explained by lower formation energy of K interstitial (-0.65 V for CH3NH3PbI3 vs -1.17 V for mixed perovskite). The developed KI doping methodology is universally adapted for hysteresis-free perovskite regardless of perovskite composition and device structure.

6.
Nature ; 550(7674): 87-91, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980632

RESUMO

Medical X-ray imaging procedures require digital flat detectors operating at low doses to reduce radiation health risks. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have characteristics that make them good candidates for the photoconductive layer of such sensitive detectors. However, such detectors have not yet been built on thin-film transistor arrays because it has been difficult to prepare thick perovskite films (more than a few hundred micrometres) over large areas (a detector is typically 50 centimetres by 50 centimetres). We report here an all-solution-based (in contrast to conventional vacuum processing) synthetic route to producing printable polycrystalline perovskites with sharply faceted large grains having morphologies and optoelectronic properties comparable to those of single crystals. High sensitivities of up to 11 microcoulombs per air KERMA of milligray per square centimetre (µC mGyair-1 cm-2) are achieved under irradiation with a 100-kilovolt bremsstrahlung source, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than the sensitivities achieved with currently used amorphous selenium or thallium-doped cesium iodide detectors. We demonstrate X-ray imaging in a conventional thin-film transistor substrate by embedding an 830-micrometre-thick perovskite film and an additional two interlayers of polymer/perovskite composites to provide conformal interfaces between perovskite films and electrodes that control dark currents and temporal charge carrier transportation. Such an all-solution-based perovskite detector could enable low-dose X-ray imaging, and could also be used in photoconductive devices for radiation imaging, sensing and energy harvesting.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Óxidos/química , Impressão , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia/instrumentação , Radiografia/métodos , Titânio/química , Raios X , Césio/química , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Iodetos/química , Imagens de Fantasmas , Selênio/química , Tálio/química , Transistores Eletrônicos
7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(17): 3947-3953, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767259

RESUMO

For the first time, we intentionally deposit an ultrathin layer of excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) on top of a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite film. Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we investigate the role of excess MAI at the interface between perovskite and spiro-MeOTAD hole-transport layer in standard structure perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We found that interfacial, favorable, energy-level tuning of the MAPI film can be achieved by controlling the amount of excess MAI on top of the MAPI film. Our XPS results reveal that MAI dissociates at low thicknesses (<16 nm) when deposited on MAPbI3. It is not the MAI layer but the dissociated species that leads to the interfacial energy-level tuning. Optimized interface energetics were verified by solar cell device testing, leading to both an increase of 19% in average steady-state power conversion efficiency (PCE) and significantly improved reproducibility, which is represented by a much lower PCE standard deviation (from 15 ± 2% to 17.2 ± 0.4%).

8.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 31(1): 71-79, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243026

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the pattern of optic nerve enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help to differentiate between idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and multiple sclerosis (MS) in unilateral ON. METHODS: An MRI of the brain and orbits was obtained in patients with acute unilateral ON. Patients with ON were divided into three groups: NMO, MS, and idiopathic ON. The length and location of the abnormal optic nerve enhancement were compared for ON eyes with and without NMO or MS. The correlation between the pattern of optic nerve enhancement and the outcome of visual function was analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 36 patients with ON who underwent an MRI within 2 weeks of the onset, 19 were diagnosed with idiopathic ON, 9 with NMO, and 8 with MS. Enhancement of the optic nerve occurred in 21 patients (58.3%) and was limited to the orbital segment in 12 patients. Neither the length nor the location of the optic nerve enhancement was significantly correlated with visual functions other than contrast sensitivity or the diagnosis of idiopathic ON, MS, or NMO. Patients with greater extent of optic nerve sheath enhancement and more posterior segment involvement showed higher contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that the pattern of optic nerve enhancement was not associated with diagnosis of idiopathic ON, NMO, or MS in Korean patients with unilateral ON. We believe further studies that include different ethnic groups will lead to a more definitive answer on this subject.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia
9.
Retina ; 37(11): 2047-2055, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114175

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). RESULTS: Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P < 0.05). Within cleft group, the early-onset (<6 months) subgroup had even worse visual outcomes than the late-onset subgroup (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the incidence of prechoroidal cleft was positively correlated with having received intravitreal gas injection to displace a submacular hemorrhage and a diagnosis of retinal angiomatous proliferation and typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of retinal angiomatous proliferation and typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Corioide/patologia , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
10.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5756-63, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500375

RESUMO

Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

11.
Nanoscale ; 8(12): 6341-51, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26583830

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells with high power conversion efficiency usually employ mesoporous TiO2, however the role of the TiO2 layer has not been clearly resolved. Here we prepared MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3 to investigate the role of the mesoporous TiO2 layer. The Al2O3 content was varied from 0% (pure TiO2) to 100% (pure Al2O3) with nominal composition of (1 - x)TiO2 + xAl2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The photocurrent density and fill factor decreased as Al2O3 content increased, whereas the open-circuit voltage was hardly changed. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) was less quenched as the Al2O3 content increased due to its non-electron-injecting characteristics, where a decrease in PL intensity with increasing TiO2 content was correlated to an increase in photocurrent. Electron injection to TiO2 was also evidenced by time-resolved PL and time-limited photocurrent measurements, where interconnection of TiO2 particles played an important role in charge collection. The slight change in voltage with Al2O3 content was explained by balancing the Fermi position due to a trade-off between charge recombination and the Fermi level. The results observed from the admixture mesoporous layer comprising electron-injecting and electron-non-injecting oxides suggest that electron-injection characteristics play an important role in determining photovoltaic parameters.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(33): 18483-90, 2015 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26244752

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) has attracted tremendous attention as a high-capacity anode material for next generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs); unfortunately, it suffers from poor cyclic stability due to excessive volume expansion and reduced electrical conductivity after repeated cycles. To circumvent these issues, we propose that Si can be complexed with electrically conductive Ti2O3 to significantly enhance the reversible capacity and cyclic stability of Si-based anodes. We prepared a ternary nanocomposite of Si/Ti2O3/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using mechanical blending and subsequent thermal reduction of the Si, TiO2 nanoparticles, and rGO nanosheets. As a result, the obtained ternary nanocomposite exhibited a specific capacity of 985 mAh/g and a Coulombic efficiency of 98.4% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g. Furthermore, these ternary nanocomposite anodes exhibited outstanding rate capability characteristics, even with an increased current density of 10 A/g. This excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the improved electron and ion transport provided by the Ti2O3 phase within the Si domains and the structurally reinforced conductive framework comprised of the rGO nanosheets. Therefore, it is expected that our approach can also be applied to other anode materials to enable large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic stability, and good rate capability for high-performance LIBs.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(27): 8696-9, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26125203

RESUMO

High efficiency perovskite solar cells were fabricated reproducibly via Lewis base adduct of lead(II) iodide. PbI2 was dissolved in N,N-dimethyformamide with equimolar N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and CH3NH3I. Stretching vibration of S═O appeared at 1045 cm(-1) for bare DMSO, which was shifted to 1020 and 1015 cm(-1) upon reacting DMSO with PbI2 and PbI2 + CH3NH3I, respectively, indicative of forming the adduct of PbI2·DMSO and CH3NH3I·PbI2·DMSO due to interaction between Lewis base DMSO and/or iodide (I(-)) and Lewis acid PbI2. Spin-coating of a DMF solution containing PbI2, CH3NH3I, and DMSO (1:1:1 mol %) formed a transparent adduct film, which was converted to a dark brown film upon heating at low temperature of 65 °C for 1 min due to removal of the volatile DMSO from the adduct. The adduct-induced CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited high charge extraction characteristics with hole mobility as high as 3.9 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and slow recombination rate. Average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.3% was achieved from 41 cells and the best PCE of 19.7% was attained via adduct approach.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(23): 15193-200, 2015 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990302

RESUMO

To understand the role of the dye/oxide interface, a model system using a nanocrystalline SnO2 and 3-hexyl thiophene based MK-2 dye is proposed. A thin interfacial TiO2 blocking layer (IBL) is introduced in between SnO2 and MK-2 and its effects on photocurrent-voltage, electron transport-recombination, and density of states (DOS) are systematically investigated. Compared to the bare SnO2 film, the insertion of IBL leads to a 14-fold improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) despite little change in the dye adsorption amount, which is due to the 7-fold and 2-fold increase in the photocurrent density and voltage, respectively. The charge collection efficiency is substantially improved from 38% to 96% mainly due to the increase in the electron lifetime. The IBL is also found to enhance the dye regeneration efficiency as confirmed by the 15-fold faster dye bleaching recovery dynamics. The recombination resistance increases and the DOS decreases after surface modification of SnO2, which is responsible for the doubly increased voltage. This study suggests that the interfacial layer between the oxide and the dye plays a crucial role in retarding recombination, improving charge collection efficiency, increasing diffusion length, accelerating dye regeneration and narrowing the density of states.

15.
Sci Rep ; 3: 1050, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23308343

RESUMO

The reported photocurrent density (J(SC)) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm(2) despite the capability to generate 38 mA/cm(2), which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high J(SC) of 30 mA/cm(2). By Hg(2+) doping into PbS, J(SC) is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved J(SC) is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg(2+), which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high J(SC), power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(3): 1038-43, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331623

RESUMO

A hierarchical photoanode comprising a SnO(2) nanoparticle underlayer and a ZnO nanorod overlayer was prepared and its photovoltaic performance was compared to photoanodes consisting of SnO(2) nanoparticle only and ZnO nanorod only. The photoanode layer thickness was adjusted to about 7.6 µm to eliminate thickness effect. Ruthenium complex, coded N719, was used as a sensitizer. The photoanode composed of ZnO nanorod only showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as low as 0.54% with a short-circuit photocurrent density (J(SC)) of 2.04 mA/cm(2) and an open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) of 500 mV. The photoanode with SnO(2) nanoparticle only exhibited higher PCE (1.24%) because of higher J(SC) (6.64 mA/cm(2)), whereas V(OC) (340 mV) was lower than ZnO nanorod. Compared to SnO(2) nanoparticle and ZnO nanorod films, the bilayer structured film demonstrated much higher PCE (2.62%) because of both higher J(SC) (7.35 mA/cm(2)) and V(OC) (660 mV). Introduction of ZnO nanorod on the SnO(2) nanoparticle layer improved significantly electron transport and lifetime compared to the SnO(2) only film. One Order of magnitude slower charge recombination rate for the bilayer film than for the SnO(2) film was mainly responsible for the improved efficiency.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 10: 222, 2010 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20663229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to better assess the perceptions, motivating factors, and behaviors associated with the use of hand washing to prevent H1N1 influenza transmission during the peak pandemic period in Korea. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was completed by 942 students at a university campus in Suwon, Korea, between December 1 and 8, 2009. The survey included questions regarding individual perceptions, motivating factors, and behaviors associated with hand washing for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission. RESULTS: Compared to one year prior, 30.3% of participants reported increasing their hand washing frequency. Female students were more likely to practice more frequent hand washing. Women also perceived the effectiveness of hand washing to be lower, and illness severity and personal susceptibility to H1N1 infection to be higher. Study participants who were female (OR: 1.79-3.90) who perceived of hand washing to be effective (OR: 1.34-12.15) and illness severity to be greater (OR: 1.00-3.12) washed their hands more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Korean students increased their frequency of hand hygiene practices during the pandemic, with significant gender differences existing in the attitudes and behaviors related to the use of hand hygiene as a means of disease prevention. Here, the factors that affected hand washing behavior were similar to those identified at the beginning of the H1N1 or SARS pandemics, suggesting that public education campaigns regarding hand hygiene are effective in altering individual hand hygiene habits during the peak periods of influenza transmission.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comportamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coreia (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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