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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 255: 112779, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209388

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Asteris Radix et Rhizoma (AR) refers to the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus L., which is widely distributed throughout East Asia. AR has been consumed as a traditional medicine in Korea, Japan and China for the treatment of urologic symptoms. To date, however, the therapeutic effect of AR on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of AR on a testosterone-induced BPH rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced BPH to rats by subcutaneous injections (s.c) of testosterone propionate (TP) daily for four weeks. Rats were also administered daily oral gavage of AR (150 mg/kg) or vehicle. After four weeks of induction, all animals were euthanized humanely and their prostate glands were removed, weighed and processed for further analysis, including histopathological examination, real-time PCR, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Administration of AR to TP-induced BPH rats considerably reduced prostate weight and concentrations of serum testosterone and prostate dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Epithelial thickness and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were markedly suppressed by AR-treatment in the rats. Furthermore, the expression of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were reduced and expression of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) increased, resulting in significant reduction in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, AR decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were reduced by AR treatment in a TP-induced BPH rat model. CONCLUSIONS: AR alleviates BPH by promoting apoptosis and suppressing inflammation, indicating that AR may be used clinically to treat BPH accompanied by inflammation.

2.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084673

RESUMO

An ethanol extract complex of Descurainia sophia seeds and Peucedanum praeruptorum roots, called BP10A, has antitumor potential against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the 28-day oral toxicity and the genotoxicity of BP10A. The subacute toxicity test was done through oral administration to mice. ICR mice (n = 10) received daily oral BP10A doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. During administration, general clinical signs, food consumption, organ weights, and hematologic, biochemical and histopathological parameters in male and female mice were assessed. No significant adverse effects up to the highest dose (2000 mg/kg) were found. The genotoxicity was evaluated using a battery of tests, including an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, an in vivo micronucleus test using bone marrow cells in ICR mice and a chromosomal aberration test using CHL/IU cells. BP10A did not show any genotoxic signs in the Ames (up to 5000 µg/plate), micronucleus (up to 5000 mg/kg) and the chromosomal aberration tests (550-1750 µg/mL). Therefore, BP10A was considered safe based on the subacute toxicity and genotoxicity results, indicating that it is a useful pharmaceutical material with no adverse toxicity.

3.
Toxicol Lett ; 324: 75-85, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954868

RESUMO

With the increased distribution of microplastics in the environment, the potential for harmful effects on human health and ecosystems have become a global concern. Considering that polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) are among the most produced plastics worldwide, we administered PE-MPs (0.125, 0.5, 2 mg/day/mouse) by gavage to mice (10 mice/sex/dose) for 90 days. Compared to control, the body weight gain was significantly reduced in the male mice, and the proportion of neutrophils in the blood stream clearly increased in both sexes of mice. Persistence of a PE-MPs-like material and migration of granules to the mast cell membrane and accumulation of damaged organelles were observed in the stomachs and the spleens from the treated dams, respectively. Additionally, the IgA level in the blood stream was significantly elevated in the dams administered with PE-MPs compared to control, and the subpopulation of lymphocytes within the spleen was altered. Following, we performed an additional study to screen the effects of PE-MPs on reproduction and development (5 mice/sex/dose). Importantly, number of live births per dam, the sex ratio of pups, and body weight of pups was notably altered in groups treated with PE-MPs compared to the control group. Additionally, PE-MPs affected the subpopulation of lymphocytes within the spleen of the offspring, as did in the dams. Therefore, we propose that reproductive and developmental toxicity testing is warranted to evaluate the safety of microplastics. Additionally, we suggest that the IgA level may be used as a biomarker for harmful effects following exposure on microplastics.


Assuntos
Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Polietileno/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
4.
Arch Toxicol ; 94(2): 523-539, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797001

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in various fields but raise concerns regarding human health and environmental consequences. Among PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (SC PFCAs) are detectable in skin-contact consumer products and have dermal absorption potential. Here, we investigated the effects of dermal exposure to PFOA and SC PFCAs using in vitro and in vivo models. Human skin equivalents were topically treated with 0.25 mM and 2.5 mM PFOA and SC PFCAs (perfluoropentanoic acid, PFPeA; perfluorohexanoic acid, PFHxA; and perfluoroheptanoic acid, PFHpA) for 6 days, and cell viability, interleukin (IL)-1α, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA; and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), and histopathology were examined. MDA levels were significantly higher in the PFASs groups than in controls. Compared with SC PFCAs, 2.5 mM PFOA caused more IL-1α (p < 0.001) release, decreased skin thickness and microscopic abnormalities. To evaluate systemic effects, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were dermally treated with 250 and 1000 mg/kg PFHpA for 2 weeks and clinical and anatomic pathology were assessed. At 1000 mg/kg, 83% of the rats died, with severe ulcerative dermatitis at the application site. Adverse PFHpA-treated systemic changes were observed in the kidney, liver and testes, and histopathologic lesions such as renal tubular necrosis, hepatocellular necrosis, and germ cell degeneration were seen at 250 and 1000 mg/kg. Our study suggests that SC PFCAs have fewer effects on the skin than PFOA, but SC PFCAs can have adverse effects on major organs with systemic exposure at high concentrations.

5.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305169

RESUMO

A skin irritation test using in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models was established for hazard identification of irritant chemicals in accordance with UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) category. In this study, EpiDerm™ was used to assess skin irritation by oxybenzone and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), which are widely used sunscreen and insect repellent components, respectively. EpiDerm™ was applied with oxybenzone and DEET, combined and sequentially with each single dose. Epidermal morphology and differentiation/proliferation were examined microscopically. Oxybenzone and sequential administration groups were determined as nonirritant with cell viability >50% and the morphology was comparable to the human epidermis. Contrastingly, the DEET and coadministration groups exhibited cell viability <50% and poor epidermal morphology. Interleukin (IL)-1α release from substance-treated EpiDerm™ increased inversely to cell viability, suggesting the pro-inflammatory reaction was initiated by DEET. CK-10, E-cadherin, Ki-67, laminin, and ceramide were identified as relevant markers to assess oxybenzone- or DEET-induced epidermal injury. In conclusion, these results may indicate to be aware of the possible skin irritation by indiscriminate use of oxybenzone and DEET without animal testing.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175714

RESUMO

BACKGRUND: Magnesium deficiency common in obesity is known to promote chronic low-grade inflammation and aggravate asthma symptoms; however, the effects of magnesium supplementation in obese asthmatic patients have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of magnesium co-administration with dexamethasone on airway inflammation in obese mice. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic reactions, challenged with aerosolized OVA, and administered dexamethasone (3 mg/kg) with or without magnesium. Bronchial inflammation was analyzed based on the presence of inflammatory cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, total and OVA-specific IgE in serum, goblet cells ratios, bronchial wall thickness, and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. RESULTS: In obese mice, co-administration of magnesium and dexamethasone decreased IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and total and OVA-specific IgE in serum, and reduced α-smooth muscle actin-positive areas in the bronchi compared with mice treated with dexamethasone alone. However, no differences were observed in dexamethasone-treated normal-weight mice depending on magnesium supplementation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that magnesium increases immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone in airway inflammation aggravated by obesity, suggesting that magnesium supplementation may have a potential in alleviating asthma symptoms in obese patients with reduced responses to corticosteroids.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 406-414, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703490

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lithospermi radix has been prescribed in traditional folk medicine to treat diverse diseases like cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study assessed the sub-chronic oral toxicity of an aqueous extract of lithospermi radix (WLR) in Fischer 344 rats over a period of 13 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical compositions of WLR were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). WLR was daily administered to Fischer 344 rats at 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weights (bw) for 13 weeks via oral gavage. Changes in mortalities, body weights, and intakes of food and water were monitored during the WLR treatment period. Urine was collected and analyzed 12 h before necropsy. Organ weights, hematological parameters, and plasma biochemical parameters were determined along with histopathological examination. RESULTS: When compared with the normal control group, no remarkable toxic signs or parameter variations related with WLR treatment were observed in mortality, body weights, organ weights, food and water consumptions, urinalysis, hematological and plasma biochemical analyses, and histopathological examination. Mortalities observed in one male at 2000 mg/kg bw and three females at 1000 mg/kg bw were not related with WLR treatment because no gross findings of toxicity were observed in both morphological and histological examination. Some significant changes in clinical parameters or histological lesions observed in WLR-treated animals were not related with WLR treatment because the differences were marginal and did not show dose-dependent or directional changes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, the calculated no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in rats was higher than 2000 mg/kg bw.


Assuntos
Lithospermum/química , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 233: 115-122, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508623

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (UMH), of the family Ulmaceae, is a deciduous tree, widely distributed throughout Korea. UMH has been used as a traditional oriental medicine in Korea for the treatment of urological disorders, including bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), diuresis, and hematuria. To date, its possible protective effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been analyzed. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of UMH on the development of BPH using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP) for four weeks. UMH was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed, and their prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination, TUNEL assay, and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment of BPH-model rats with UMH significantly reduced prostate weight, serum testosterone concentration and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration in prostate tissue. TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were significantly attenuated in UMH-treated rats. In addition, UMH administration markedly induced the activation of caspases-3, - 8, and - 9 in prostate tissues of BPH rats, accompanied by upregulation of expression of Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), and Fas ligand (FasL) and a reduction in the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). CONCLUSIONS: UMH effectively inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of prostate cells, suggesting it may be useful for the treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Ulmus , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/fisiologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/sangue , Propionato de Testosterona
9.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(1): 1-9, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381617

RESUMO

Veratrum maackii (VM), a perennial plant in the Melanthiaceae family, has anti-hypertensive, anti-cholinergic, anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive, anti-fungal, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of VM on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in human normal prostate cell line (WPMY-1) and a testosterone propionate-induced BPH animal model. WPMY-1 cells were treated with VM (1-10 µg/mL) and testosterone propionate (100 nM). BPH in rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. VM (150 mg/kg) was administered daily for 4 weeks by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone propionate. All rats were sacrificed and the prostates were dissected, weighed, and subjected to histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical examinations. Immunoblotting experiments indicated that WPMY-1 cells treated testosterone propionate had increased expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR), and treatment with VM or finasteride blocked this effect. In rat model, VM significantly reduced prostate weight, prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and expression of proliferation markers such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1, but increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and the cleavage of caspase-3. VM administration also suppressed the testosterone propionate-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Our results indicate that VM effectively represses the development of testosterone propionate-induced BPH, suggesting it may be a useful treatment agent for BPH.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Propionato de Testosterona/toxicidade , Veratrum , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Toxicol Rep ; 5: 695-703, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003048

RESUMO

White-spotted flower chafer (Protaetia brevitarsis) is an edible insect and its larva was used as a traditional Asian medicine. It's a promising material as a novel food source because of its nutritional components. In this study, as part of the preclinical toxicity program, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder to develop a novel food material. In a single-dose oral toxicity study in rats, there were no changes in mortality, clinical observations, and body weight in rats administered 5000 mg/kg P. brevitarsis larva powder. In a 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study in rats, there were no adverse effects or changes in mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, clinical pathology, necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 300, 1000, and 3000 mg/kg/day. In identification of allergic reactions, P. brevitarsis larva powder induced no increases of serum immunoglobulin E and histamine concentrations over 13 weeks of oral administration in rats. In a genotoxicity assessment, P. brevitarsis larva powder didn't provoke bacterial reverse mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and micronucleated reticulocytes. Therefore, freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder shows no evidence of toxic and mutagenic changes under the experimental conditions of the present in vitro and in vivo studies.

11.
Lab Anim Res ; 34(1): 20-29, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628973

RESUMO

C57BL/6N mice are inbred strains widely used in biomedical research. Hence, a large amount of basic data has been accumulated. However, in the field of histopathology, spontaneous data for relatively younger mice that are used more frequently are not yet abundant, in contrast to data for older mice and their neoplastic lesions. To acquire the essential background data required by various research and toxicological assessments, 120 mice of the C57BL/6N strain (10 and 13 weeks of age) were collected from two institutions (From Korea and Japan) and subjected to histopathological analyses of the major organs (liver, spleen, kidney, thymus, heart, testis, epididymis). The results showed significantly higher incidence of sperm granulomas in the epididymides (10-56%) of these mice, compared with that in other strains or species of lab animals. Upon closer inspection, oligospermia/clear cell hyperplasia, cellular debris, and tubular vacuolation were also observed in the epididymides with sperm granulomas. Moreover, diseased organs were significantly heavier than healthy ones. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in the chromatic figures of cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases-3 (caspase-3) and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP), and damages to the tubule due to spontaneous apoptosis, which may have led to the sperms leaking out of the tubule, causing the granuloma. To conclude, spontaneous sperm granuloma can occur in 10- and 13-week-old C57BL/6N mice and may thus affect the results of various studies using these mice. Therefore, sperm granuloma in epididymis needs to be carefully considered as an important factor when design the study using C57BL/6N.

12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(12): 2125-2133, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943529

RESUMO

Quisqualis indica (QI) has been used for treating disorders such as stomach pain, constipation, and digestion problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of QI extract on treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line and a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. LNCaP cells were treated with QI plus testosterone propionate (TP), and androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression levels were assessed by Western blotting. To induce BPH, the rats were subjected to a daily subcutaneous injection of TP (3 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The rats in treatment group were orally gavaged with QI (150 mg/kg) together with the TP injection. In-vitro studies showed that TP-induced increases in AR and PSA expression in LNCaP cells were reduced by QI treatment. In BPH-model rats, the prostate weight, testosterone in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration and 5α-reductase type 2 mRNA expression in prostate tissue were significantly reduced following the treatment with QI. TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 were significantly attenuated in QI-treated rats. In addition, QI induced apoptosis by up-regulating caspase-3 and -9 activity and decreasing the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio in prostate tissues of BPH rats. Further investigation showed that TP-induced activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) was reduced by QI administration. Therefore, our findings suggest that QI attenuates the BPH state in rats through anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo , Propionato de Testosterona/toxicidade
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 49: 67-76, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28551494

RESUMO

Isoimperatorin (IMP), an active natural furocoumarin, has numerous pharmacologic effects, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, and anticancer activities. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive activity of IMP in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of asthma and to investigate its possible molecular mechanisms. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 via intraperitoneal injection of 20µg OVA. On days 21-23 after the initial sensitization, the mice received an airway challenge with OVA (1% w/v in PBS) for 1h; meanwhile, IMP (10 or 30mg/kg once daily) was administered by gavage on days 18-23. Our results revealed that IMP significantly lowered the productions of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and immunoglobulin (Ig)E in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), plasma, or lung tissues. Histological studies showed that IMP inhibited OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the respiratory tract. In addition, pretreatment with IMP suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Together, these results suggest that IMP effectively inhibits airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion by downregulating the levels of Th2 cytokines and inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK pathways.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Furocumarinas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Células Th2/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
15.
Arch Toxicol ; 91(1): 453-464, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27017489

RESUMO

The carcinogenic potential of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) was evaluated in a short-term carcinogenicity testing study using CB6F1 rasH2-Tg (rasH2-Tg) mice. 3-MCPD is found in many foods and food ingredients as a result of storage or processing and is regarded as a carcinogen since it is known to induce Leydig cell and kidney tumors in rats. Male and female rasH2-Tg mice were administered 3-MCPD once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for 26 weeks. As a positive control, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection (75 mg/kg). In 3-MCPD-treated mice, there was no increase in the incidence of neoplastic lesions compared to the incidence in vehicle control mice. However, 3-MCPD treatment resulted in an increased incidence of tubular basophilia in the kidneys and germ cell degeneration in the testes, with degenerative germ cell debris in the epididymides of males at 20 and 40 mg/kg bw per day. In 3-MCPD-treated females, vacuolation of the brain and spinal cord was observed at 40 mg/kg bw per day; however, only one incidence of vacuolation was observed in males. Forestomach and cutaneous papilloma and/or carcinoma and lymphoma were observed in most rasH2 mice receiving MNU treatment. We concluded that 3-MCPD did not show carcinogenic potential in the present study using rasH2-Tg mice. The findings of this study suggest that the carcinogenic potential of 3-MCPD is species specific.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Cloridrina/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Epididimo/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Medula Espinal/citologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Testículo/citologia , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Cloridrina/administração & dosagem
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 1473578, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563662

RESUMO

MicroRNA-122 (miRNA-122), also known as liver-specific miRNA, has recently been shown to be a potent biomarker in response to liver injury in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine its expression in response to toxicant treatment and acute liver damage, using the zebrafish system as an alternative model organism. For the hepatotoxicity assay, larval zebrafish were arrayed in 24-well plates. Adult zebrafish were also tested and arrayed in 200 mL cages. Animals were exposed to liver toxicants (tamoxifen or acetaminophen) at various doses, and miRNA-122 expression levels were analyzed using qRT-PCR in dissected liver, brain, heart, and intestine, separately. Our results showed no significant changes in miRNA-122 expression level in tamoxifen-treated larvae; however, miRNA-122 expression was highly induced in tamoxifen-treated adults in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, we observed a histological change in adult liver (0.5 µM) and cell death in larval liver (5 µM) at different doses of tamoxifen. These results indicated that miRNA-122 may be utilized as a liver-specific biomarker for acute liver toxicity in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , MicroRNAs/genética , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Tamoxifeno
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 31: 239-47, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26773771

RESUMO

meso-Dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA), which is a dibenzylbutane lignin isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Saururus chinensis, has various biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and neuroprotective effects. However, no report has examined the potential anti-asthmatic activity of MDGA. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of MDGA on asthmatic responses, particularly airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of asthma. Intragastric administration of MDGA significantly lowered the productions of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α), eotaxin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and immunoglobulin (Ig)E in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), plasma, or lung tissues. Histological studies showed that MDGA inhibited OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the respiratory tract. Moreover, MDGA markedly attenuated the OVA-induced activations of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Together, these results suggest that MDGA effectively inhibits airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion by downregulating the levels of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, and inhibiting the activations of NF-κB and MAPKs.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Saururaceae/imunologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Guaiacol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 30(6): 705-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25942587

RESUMO

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a prototypic T-cell-mediated cutaneous inflammatory response. In the present study we describe the anti-allergic effect of topically applied Scutellaria bacalensis aqueous extract (WSBE) in suppressing 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced ACD in BALB/c mice. Topically applied WSBE attenuated the epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration into the skin in DNCB-induced contact dermatitis. Furthermore, WSBE suppressed DNCB-induced production of serum IgE as well as IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the skin. Topical application of WSBE also ameliorated the significant decrease in dermal glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Moreover, present results demonstrated that the baicalin, bioactive compound of WSBE, was able to penetrate into the skin following topical application, which was confirmed by the HPLC analysis using rat model. Taken together, topical application of WSBE exerts beneficial effects in contact dermatitis model, suggesting that WSBE might be a candidate for the treatment of contact dermatitis.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 291: 38-45, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701066

RESUMO

Obesity increases the risk of chronic liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, alcohol-induced liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study, we investigated the effects of obesity in acute hepatic failure using a murine model of thioacetamide (TA)-induced liver injury. Genetically obese ob/ob mice, together with non-obese ob/+ littermates, were subjected to a single intraperitoneal injection of TA, and examined for signs of hepatic injury. ob/ob mice showed a significantly higher survival rate, lower levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and less hepatic necrosis and apoptosis, compared with ob/+ mice. In addition, ob/ob mice exhibited significantly lower levels of malondialdehyde and significantly higher levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with their ob/+ counterparts. Bioactivation analyses revealed reduced plasma clearance of TA and covalent binding of [(14)C]TA to liver macromolecules in ob/ob mice. Together, these data demonstrate that genetically obese mice are resistant to TA-induced acute liver injury through diminished bioactivation of TA and antioxidant effects.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/genética , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/metabolismo
20.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 39(2): 221-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26632199

RESUMO

Manassantin A, a neolignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, is a major phytochemical compound that has various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, neuroleptic, and human acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitory activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of manassantin A against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the manassantin A group were given oral doses of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or manassantin A (15 mg/kg), respectively, 1 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. Our examinations revealed that manassantin A pretreatment reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and epithelial cell loss in the gastric mucosa. Manassantin A pretreatment also attenuated the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, increased the mucosal glutathione (GSH) content, and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß were clearly decreased in the manassantin A-pretreated group. In addition, manassantin A pretreatment enhanced the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reduced the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) overproduction and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate that manassantin A protects the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, and suggest that these protective effects might be associated with COX/PGE2 stimulation, inhibition of iNOS production and NF-κB activation, and improvements in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Catalase , Etanol , Glutationa , Lignanas/química , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Estrutura Molecular , Omeprazol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saururaceae/química , Gastropatias/prevenção & controle , Superóxido Dismutase
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