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1.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2694-2699, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875471

RESUMO

To accelerate development of innovative materials, their modelings and predictions with useful functionalities are of vital importance. Here, based on a recently developed crystal structure prediction method, we find a new family of stable two-dimensional crystals with an open-channel tetrahedral bonding network, rendering a potential prototype for electronic and energy applications. The proposed structural prototype with a space group of Cmme hosts at least 13 different freestanding T3 X compounds with group IV ( T = C, Si, Ge, Sn) and VI ( X = O, S, Se, Te) elements. Moreover, the proposed materials display diverse electronic properties ranging from direct band gap semiconductor to topological insulator at their pristine forms, which are further tunable by mechanical strain.

2.
Nature ; 565(7737): 32-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602743
3.
Nat Mater ; 17(11): 1005-1012, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353088

RESUMO

Graphene and other two-dimensional materials possess desirable mechanical, electrical and chemical properties for incorporation into or onto colloidal particles, potentially granting them unique electronic functions. However, this application has not yet been realized, because conventional top-down lithography scales poorly for producing colloidal solutions. Here, we develop an 'autoperforation' technique that provides a means of spontaneous assembly for surfaces composed of two-dimensional molecular scaffolds. Chemical vapour deposited two-dimensional sheets can autoperforate into circular envelopes when sandwiching a microprinted polymer composite disk of nanoparticle ink, allowing liftoff into solution and simultaneous assembly. The resulting colloidal microparticles have two independently addressable, external Janus faces that we show can function as an intraparticle array of vertically aligned, two-terminal electronic devices. Such particles demonstrate remarkable chemical and mechanical stability and form the basis of particulate electronic devices capable of collecting and storing information about their surroundings, extending nanoelectronics into previously inaccessible environments.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(9): 819-827, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038369

RESUMO

A previously unexplored property of two-dimensional electronic materials is their ability to graft electronic functionality onto colloidal particles to access local hydrodynamics in fluids to impart mobility and enter spaces inaccessible to larger electronic systems. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of fully autonomous state machines built onto SU-8 particles powered by a two-dimensional material-based photodiode. The on-board circuit connects a chemiresistor circuit element and a memristor element, enabling the detection and storage of information after aerosolization, hydrodynamic propulsion to targets over 0.6 m away, and large-area surface sensing of triethylamine, ammonia and aerosolized soot in inaccessible locations. An incorporated retroreflector design allows for facile position location using laser-scanning optical detection. Such state machines may find widespread application as probes in confined environments, such as the human digestive tract, oil and gas conduits, chemical and biosynthetic reactors, and autonomous environmental sensors.

5.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 4748-4754, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979881

RESUMO

Thermoelectric device is a promising next-generation energy solution owing to its capability to transform waste heat into useful electric energy, which can be realized in materials with high electric conductivities and low thermal conductivities. A recently synthesized silicon allotrope of Si24 features highly anisotropic crystal structure with nanometer-sized regular pores. Here, based on first-principles study without any empirical parameter we show that the slightly doped Si24 can provide an order-of-magnitude enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit at room temperature, compared with the cubic diamond phase of silicon. We ascribe the enhancement to the intrinsic nanostructure formed by the nanopore array, which effectively hinders heat conduction while electric conductivity is maintained. This can be a viable option to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit without further forming an extrinsic nanostructure. In addition, we propose a practical strategy to further diminish the thermal conductivity without affecting electric conductivity by confining rattling guest atoms in the pores.

6.
Science ; 361(6404): 782-786, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954987

RESUMO

Quantum states of quasiparticles in solids are dictated by symmetry. We have experimentally demonstrated quantum states of Dirac electrons in a two-dimensional quasicrystal without translational symmetry. A dodecagonal quasicrystalline order was realized by epitaxial growth of twisted bilayer graphene rotated exactly 30°. We grew the graphene quasicrystal up to a millimeter scale on a silicon carbide surface while maintaining the single rotation angle over an entire sample and successfully isolated the quasicrystal from a substrate, demonstrating its structural and chemical stability under ambient conditions. Multiple Dirac cones replicated with the 12-fold rotational symmetry were observed in angle-resolved photoemission spectra, which revealed anomalous strong interlayer coupling with quasi-periodicity. Our study provides a way to explore physical properties of relativistic fermions with controllable quasicrystalline orders.

7.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1370, 2017 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118317

RESUMO

Layered materials such as graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides have extremely anisotropic mechanical properties owing to orders of magnitude difference between in-plane and out-of-plane interatomic interaction strengths. Although effects of mechanical perturbations on either intralayer or interlayer interactions have been extensively investigated, mutual correlations between them have rarely been addressed. Here, we show that layered materials have an inevitable coupling between in-plane uniaxial strain and interlayer shear. Because of this, the uniaxial in-plane strain induces an anomalous splitting of the degenerate interlayer shear phonon modes such that the split shear mode along the tensile strain is not softened but hardened contrary to the case of intralayer phonon modes. We confirm the effect by measuring Raman shifts of shear modes of bilayer MoS2 under strain. Moreover, by analyzing the splitting, we obtain an unexplored off-diagonal elastic constant, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy can determine almost all mechanical constants of layered materials.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(1): 016804, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27419583

RESUMO

We study by first-principles calculations a densely packed island of organic molecules (F_{4}TCNQ) adsorbed on graphene. We find that with electron doping the island naturally forms a p-n junction in the graphene sheet. For example, a doping level of ∼3×10^{13} electrons per cm^{2} results in a p-n junction with an 800 meV electrostatic potential barrier. Unlike in a conventional p-n junction in graphene, in the case of the junction formed by an adsorbed organic molecular island we expect that the Klein tunneling is inhibited, even without an applied external magnetic field. Here Klein tunneling is inhibited by the ferromagnetic order that spontaneously occurs in the molecular island upon doping. We estimate that the magnetic barrier in the graphene sheet is around 10 mT.

9.
Nano Lett ; 16(6): 3571-7, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27120519

RESUMO

In the pursuit of two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene, enormous advances have been made in exploring the exciting and useful properties of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as a permanent band gap in the visible range and the transition from indirect to direct band gap due to 2D quantum confinement, and their potential for a wide range of device applications. In particular, recent success in the synthesis of seamless monolayer lateral heterostructures of different TMDCs via chemical vapor deposition methods has provided an effective solution to producing an in-plane p-n junction, which is a critical component in electronic and optoelectronic device applications. However, spatial variation of the electronic and optoelectonic properties of the synthesized heterojunction crystals throughout the homogeneous as well as the lateral junction region and the charge carrier transport behavior at their nanoscale junctions with metals remain unaddressed. In this work, we use photocurrent spectral atomic force microscopy to image the current and photocurrent generated between a biased PtIr tip and a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructure. Current measurements in the dark in both forward and reverse bias reveal an opposite characteristic diode behavior for WSe2 and MoS2, owing to the formation of a Schottky barrier of dissimilar properties. Notably, by changing the polarity and magnitude of the tip voltage applied, pixels that show the photoresponse of the heterostructure are observed to be selectively switched on and off, allowing for the realization of a hyper-resolution array of the switchable photodiode pixels. This experimental approach has significant implications toward the development of novel optoelectronic technologies for regioselective photodetection and imaging at nanoscale resolutions. Comparative 2D Fourier analysis of physical height and current images shows high spatial frequency variations in substrate/MoS2 (or WSe2) contact that exceed the frequencies imposed by the underlying substrates. These results should provide important insights in the design and understanding of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on quantum confined atomically thin 2D lateral heterostructures.

10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10956, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26961788

RESUMO

Electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions are two major driving forces that stabilize various charge-ordered phases of matter. In layered compound 1T-TaS2, the intricate interplay between the two generates a Mott-insulating ground state with a peculiar charge-density-wave (CDW) order. The delicate balance also makes it possible to use external perturbations to create and manipulate novel phases in this material. Here, we study a mosaic CDW phase induced by voltage pulses, and find that the new phase exhibits electronic structures entirely different from that of the original Mott ground state. The mosaic phase consists of nanometre-sized domains characterized by well-defined phase shifts of the CDW order parameter in the topmost layer, and by altered stacking relative to the layers underneath. We discover that the nature of the new phase is dictated by the stacking order, and our results shed fresh light on the origin of the Mott phase in 1T-TaS2.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Fônons , Sulfetos/química , Tantálio/química , Eletrônica , Transição de Fase , Temperatura
11.
Nano Lett ; 16(2): 1161-72, 2016 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26760228

RESUMO

Nanoparticles offer clear advantages for both passive and active penetration into biologically important membranes. However, the uptake and localization mechanism of nanoparticles within living plants, plant cells, and organelles has yet to be elucidated.1 Here, we examine the subcellular uptake and kinetic trapping of a wide range of nanoparticles for the first time, using the plant chloroplast as a model system, but validated in vivo in living plants. Confocal visible and near-infrared fluorescent microscopy and single particle tracking of gold-cysteine-AF405 (GNP-Cys-AF405), streptavidin-quantum dot (SA-QD), dextran and poly(acrylic acid) nanoceria, and various polymer-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), including lipid-PEG-SWCNT, chitosan-SWCNT and 30-base (dAdT) sequence of ssDNA (AT)15 wrapped SWCNTs (hereafter referred to as ss(AT)15-SWCNT), are used to demonstrate that particle size and the magnitude, but not the sign, of the zeta potential are key in determining whether a particle is spontaneously and kinetically trapped within the organelle, despite the negative zeta potential of the envelope. We develop a mathematical model of this lipid exchange envelope and penetration (LEEP) mechanism, which agrees well with observations of this size and zeta potential dependence. The theory predicts a critical particle size below which the mechanism fails at all zeta potentials, explaining why nanoparticles are critical for this process. LEEP constitutes a powerful particulate transport and localization mechanism for nanoparticles within the plant system.

12.
ACS Nano ; 9(12): 11509-39, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26544756

RESUMO

The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

13.
ACS Nano ; 9(12): 12168-73, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482218

RESUMO

We report a scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy study of close-packed 2D islands of tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) molecules at the surface of a graphene layer supported by boron nitride. While F4TCNQ molecules are known to form cohesive 3D solids, the intermolecular interactions that are attractive for F4TCNQ in 3D are repulsive in 2D. Our experimental observation of cohesive molecular behavior for F4TCNQ on graphene is thus unexpected. This self-assembly behavior can be explained by a novel solid formation mechanism that occurs when charged molecules are placed in a poorly screened environment. As negatively charged molecules coalesce, the local work function increases, causing electrons to flow into the coalescing molecular island and increase its cohesive binding energy.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(37): 11514-8, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324891

RESUMO

Because topological surface states of a single-crystal topological insulator can exist on all surfaces with different crystal orientations enclosing the crystal, mutual interactions among those states contiguous to each other through edges can lead to unique phenomena inconceivable in normal insulators. Here we show, based on a first-principles approach, that the difference in the work function between adjacent surfaces with different crystal-face orientations generates a built-in electric field around facet edges of a prototypical topological insulator such as Bi2Se3. Owing to the topological magnetoelectric coupling for a given broken time-reversal symmetry in the crystal, the electric field, in turn, forces effective magnetic dipoles to accumulate along the edges, realizing the facet-edge magnetic ordering. We demonstrate that the predicted magnetic ordering is in fact a manifestation of the axion electrodynamics in real solids.

15.
ACS Nano ; 9(3): 2843-55, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25704152

RESUMO

Atomically thin MoS2 is of great interest for electronic and optoelectronic applications because of its unique two-dimensional (2D) quantum confinement; however, the scaling of optoelectronic properties of MoS2 and its junctions with metals as a function of layer number as well the spatial variation of these properties remain unaddressed. In this work, we use photocurrent spectral atomic force microscopy (PCS-AFM) to image the current (in the dark) and photocurrent (under illumination) generated between a biased PtIr tip and MoS2 nanosheets with thickness ranging between n = 1 to 20 layers. Dark current measurements in both forward and reverse bias reveal characteristic diode behavior well-described by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling with a monolayer barrier energy of 0.61 eV and an effective barrier scaling linearly with layer number. Under illumination at 600 nm, the photocurrent response shows a marked decrease for layers up to n = 4 but increasing thereafter, which we describe using a model that accounts for the linear barrier increase at low n, but increased light absorption at larger n creating a minimum at n = 4. Comparative 2D Fourier analysis of physical height and photocurrent images shows high spatial frequency spatial variations in substrate/MoS2 contact that exceed the frequencies imposed by the underlying substrates. These results should aid in the design and understanding of optoelectronic devices based on quantum confined atomically thin MoS2.

16.
Nanoscale ; 7(7): 3229-36, 2015 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25620555

RESUMO

The resonance effects on the Raman spectra from 5 to 900 cm(-1) of few-layered MoS2 thin films up to 14-layers were investigated by using six excitation energies. For the main first-order Raman peaks, the intensity maximum occurs at ∼2.8 eV for single layered and at ∼2.5 eV for few-layered MoS2, which correspond to the band-gap energy. At the excitation energy of 1.96 eV, several anomalous behaviors are observed. Many second-order peaks are anomalously enhanced even though the main first-order peaks are not enhanced. In the low-frequency region (<100 cm(-1)), a broad peak centered at ∼38 cm(-1) and its second order peak at 76 cm(-1) appear for the excitation energy of 1.96 eV. These anomalous resonance effects are interpreted as occuring due to the strong resonance with excitons or exciton-polaritons.

17.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 10(3): 270-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25622230

RESUMO

The ability to tune material properties using gating by electric fields is at the heart of modern electronic technology. It is also a driving force behind recent advances in two-dimensional systems, such as the observation of gate electric-field-induced superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Here, we describe an ionic field-effect transistor (termed an iFET), in which gate-controlled Li ion intercalation modulates the material properties of layered crystals of 1T-TaS2. The strong charge doping induced by the tunable ion intercalation alters the energetics of various charge-ordered states in 1T-TaS2 and produces a series of phase transitions in thin-flake samples with reduced dimensionality. We find that the charge-density wave states in 1T-TaS2 collapse in the two-dimensional limit at critical thicknesses. Meanwhile, at low temperatures, the ionic gating induces multiple phase transitions from Mott-insulator to metal in 1T-TaS2 thin flakes, with five orders of magnitude modulation in resistance, and superconductivity emerges in a textured charge-density wave state induced by ionic gating. Our method of gate-controlled intercalation opens up possibilities in searching for novel states of matter in the extreme charge-carrier-concentration limit.

18.
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci ; 471(2177): 20140765, 2015 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27547090

RESUMO

We reveal new stripe states in deformed hexagonal array of photonic wave guides when the array is terminated to have a ribbon-shaped geometry. Unlike the well-known zero energy edge modes of honeycomb ribbon, the new one-dimensional states are shown to originate from high-energy saddle-shaped photonic bands of the ribbon's two-dimensional counterpart. We find that the strain field deforming the ribbon generates pseudo-electric fields in contrast to pseudo-magnetic fields in other hexagonal crystals. Thus, the stripe states experience Bloch oscillation without any actual electric field so that the spatial distributions of stripes have a singular dependence on the strength of the field. The resulting stripe states are located inside the bulk and their positions depend on their energies.

19.
Sci Rep ; 4: 7263, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434431

RESUMO

Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

20.
ACS Nano ; 8(6): 5790-8, 2014 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24824139

RESUMO

Field-effect transistor (FET) devices composed of a MoS2-graphene heterostructure can combine the advantages of high carrier mobility in graphene with the permanent band gap of MoS2 for digital applications. Herein, we investigate the electron transfer, photoluminescence, and gate-controlled carrier transport in such a heterostructure. We show that the junction is a Schottky barrier, whose height can be artificially controlled by gating or doping graphene. When the applied gate voltage (or the doping level) is zero, the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in monolayer MoS2 can be split by the heterojunction, significantly reducing the photoluminescence. By applying negative gate voltage (or p-doping) in graphene, the interlayer impedance formed between MoS2 and graphene exhibits an 100-fold increase. For the first time, we show that the gate-controlled interlayer Schottky impedance can be utilized to modulate carrier transport in graphene, significantly depleting the hole transport, but preserving the electron transport. Accordingly, we demonstrate a new type of FET device, which enables a controllable transition from NMOS digital to bipolar characteristics. In the NMOS digital regime, we report a very high room temperature on/off current ratio (ION/IOFF ∼ 36) in comparison to graphene-based FET devices without sacrificing the field-effect electron mobilities in graphene. By engineering the source/drain contact area, we further estimate that a higher value of ION/IOFF up to 100 can be obtained in the device architecture considered. The device architecture presented here may enable semiconducting behavior in graphene for digital and analogue electronics.

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