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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, functionality and acceptability of a mobile application (app), the World Health Organization (WHO) Postpartum Family Planning (PPFP) Compendium, in clinical care. METHOD: This prospective qualitative study was conducted among family planning providers routinely delivering PPFP care in Accra, Ghana. We conducted in-depth interviews at baseline and 3 months after app introduction. We elicited expected technological, psychological and environmental barriers to use, actual use in clinical settings, and feedback for app improvement. With inter-coder reliability, we analyzed the content of interview transcripts. RESULTS: Twenty providers participated in baseline interviews, and 19 participated in follow-up interviews. At baseline, providers did not have significant technological barriers to its use and felt the app was acceptable, but were concerned about the appropriateness of using an app during clinical care. At 3-month follow-up, 18 out of 19 participants reported using the app weekly, and found the app acceptable for use in clinical care. Providers recommended expanding clinical content and including similar guidance relevant to times outside the postpartum period. CONCLUSION: Use of a PPFP counseling app to aid family planning providers in clinical care delivery is feasible and acceptable. Providers recommended inclusion of similar guidance relevant to times outside the postpartum period.

3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between race and depression symptoms among participants in an early pregnancy loss clinical trial. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of a randomized trial by comparing treatments for medical management of early pregnancy loss. We hypothesized that Black participants would have higher odds of risk for major depression (measured with the CES-D [Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression] scale) 30 days after early pregnancy loss treatment when compared with non-Black participants. We analyzed the data as a cohort, with the primary exposure being race and secondary exposure being high adverse childhood experience scores (measured with the Adverse Childhood Experience scale). Our primary outcome was risk for major depression (score of 21 or higher on the CES-D scale) 30 days after early pregnancy loss treatment. RESULTS: Three hundred participants diagnosed with a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy from 5 to 12 weeks of gestation were randomized as part of the original trial from May 2014 to April 2017. Of 275 respondents included in this analysis, 120 [44%] self-identified as Black and 155 [56%] self-identified as non-Black. After early pregnancy loss treatment, 65 [24%] participants were at risk for major depression. Black participants had an increased risk for major depression (57%) after early pregnancy loss treatment compared with non-Black participants (43%; odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.15-3.55). After adjustment for risk for baseline depression, adverse childhood experience score, and parity, the odds of risk for major depression 30 days after pregnancy loss treatment remained higher for Black participants when compared with non-Black participants (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.15-3.55; adjusted OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.28-4.81). CONCLUSION: Overall, approximately one quarter of women who experience an early pregnancy loss are at an increased risk for major depression 30 days after treatment. This risk is about twice as high for Black women compared with non-Black women. There is a need for appropriate mental health resources for women undergoing early pregnancy loss care. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02012491.

4.
Contracept X ; 2: 100040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196037

RESUMO

Objective: The objective was to describe the sonographic position of copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) 6 months after insertion during cesarean delivery. Study design: This prospective, observational study followed participants who received a copper IUD during cesarean delivery. We performed pelvic examination at 6 weeks and 6 months and sonography at 6 months to determine IUD position. Patients had additional examinations as needed to address complications. Results: Sixty-nine participants provided outcomes through 6 months: 41 (59%) had correctly positioned IUDs, 21 (30%) had malpositioned intrauterine IUDs, 5 experienced expulsion (3 partial, 2 complete), and 2 had elective removal; 52 (75%) had missing strings. Missing strings at 6 weeks predicted an incorrect IUD position in 22 of 52 participants (positive predictive value 42%), and visible or palpable strings predicted a correct IUD position in 7 of 12 participants (negative predictive value 58%). Conclusion: Although 59% of copper IUDs placed during cesarean were correctly positioned at 6 months, nearly one third were malpositioned. Implications: Ultrasound may be indicated for patients receiving a copper IUD during cesarean delivery as checking IUD strings alone does not assure correct placement. Providers offering postpartum IUDs should ensure that appropriate processes for the evaluation and management of devices with missing strings or abnormal position are available to all patients regardless of insurance status.

5.
Contraception ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the overnight maximum pain scores after osmotic dilator placement prior to a dilation and evacuation (D&E) procedure in participants assigned to a prescription for ibuprofen alone or to ibuprofen plus oxycodone. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a nonblinded pragmatic, randomized controlled trial to evaluate pain management among women undergoing osmotic dilator placement prior to D&E. We randomly assigned 70 participants at 12 weeks 6 days to 23 weeks 6 days gestation to receive a prescription for ibuprofen alone, or ibuprofen plus oxycodone. We assessed pain using a numeric rating scale (NRS; scale 0-10) at the following time points: Baseline, dilator placement, 2 and 6 hours, and preoperatively, where we also asked participants their maximum pain score. The primary outcome was mean individual NRS pain score change from baseline to maximum pain score. RESULTS: Maximum mean pain score (change from baseline) was 4.7 ± 2.9 in the ibuprofen group, and 6.5 ± 2.5 in the ibuprofen plus oxycodone group (p < 0.01). Participants in both groups reported highest NRS pain scores 2 hours after dilator placement, 3.9 ± 2.5 and 5.3 ± 2.6 respectively (p = 0.02). Average ibuprofen use in both arms was similar, and 81% of participants used at least 1 dose of ibuprofen after dilator placement. Of those randomized to prescription to ibuprofen plus oxycodone, only 51% used a dose of oxycodone. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to participants randomized to receive a prescription for ibuprofen, those randomized to receive a prescription for ibuprofen plus oxycodone reported higher maximum overnight pain scores. IMPLICATIONS: Participants receiving a prescription for ibuprofen alone had lower maximum overnight pain scores following osmotic dilator placement. Given that opioid prescriptions did not appear to reduce overnight pain, minimizing these prescriptions would avoid opioid exposure for patients undergoing D&E.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(5): 1001-1005, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030869

RESUMO

Patient-centered care is one of the six aims for improvement in health care quality outlined by the National Academy of Medicine (previously known as the Institute of Medicine). We propose an algorithm for patients who are presenting with a pregnancy of unknown location that emphasizes pregnancy desiredness to improve patient-centered care. Health care professionals should assess pregnancy desiredness at a patient's initial consultation for evaluation of pregnancy of unknown location; desiredness, along with other clinical criteria, should guide management. For women with an undesired pregnancy, health care professionals should offer expedient active management. Uterine aspiration will allow for quick clinical diagnosis and resolution of the pregnancy. Alternatively, for women with a desired pregnancy or for those who are ambivalent, we recommend careful conservative management. Adopting this algorithm will recenter the patient in the complex management of pregnancy of unknown location.


Assuntos
Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia
7.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 47(2): 287-316, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451019

RESUMO

Telemedicine has the potential to increase access to family planning. The most common application involved the use of text message reminders and mobile apps. Text messaging increased knowledge in a variety of settings, but had no effect on contraceptive uptake and use. Two randomized studies found that text messaging improved continuation of oral contraceptives and injectables. Telemedicine provision of medication abortion included both clinic-to-clinic and direct-to-patient models of care. Telemedicine provision of medication abortion has been found to be equally safe and effective as in-person provision. Some measures of satisfaction are higher with telemedicine. Telemedicine may improve access to early abortion.

9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(4): 551.e1-551.e7, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early pregnancy loss is a common event in the first trimester, occurring in 15%-20% of confirmed pregnancies. A common evidence-based medical regimen for early pregnancy loss uses misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, with a dosage of 800 µg, self-administered vaginally. The clinical utility of this regimen is limited by suboptimal effectiveness in patients with a closed cervical os, with 29% of patients experiencing early pregnancy loss requiring a second dose after 3 days and 16% of patients eventually requiring a uterine aspiration procedure. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate clinical predictors associated with treatment success in patients receiving medical management with mifepristone-misoprostol or misoprostol alone for early pregnancy loss. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a planned secondary analysis of a randomized trial comparing mifepristone-misoprostol with misoprostol alone for management of early pregnancy loss. The published prediction model for treatment success of single-dose misoprostol administered vaginally included the following variables: active bleeding, type of early pregnancy loss (anembryonic pregnancy or embryonic and/or fetal demise), parity, gestational age, and treatment site; previous significant predictors were vaginal bleeding within the past 24 hours and parity of 0 or 1 vs >1. To determine if these characteristics predicted differential proportions of patients with treatment success or failure, we performed bivariate analyses; given the small proportion of treatment failures in the combined treatment arm, both arms were combined for analysis. Thereafter, we performed a logistic regression analysis to assess the effect of these predictors collectively in each of the 2 treatment groups separately as well as in the full cohort as a proxy for the combined treatment arm. Finally, by using receiver operating characteristic curves, we tested the ability of these predictors in association with misoprostol treatment success to discriminate between treatment success and treatment failure. To quantify the ability of the score to discriminate between treatment success and treatment failure in each treatment arm as well as in the entire cohort, we calculated the area under the curve. Using multivariable logistic regression, we then assessed our study population for other predictors of treatment success in both treatment groups, with and without mifepristone pretreatment. RESULTS: Overall, 297 evaluable participants were included in the primary study, with 148 in the mifepristone-misoprostol combined treatment group and 149 in the misoprostol-alone treatment group. Among patients who had vaginal bleeding at the time of treatment, 15 of 17 (88%) in the mifepristone-misoprostol combined treatment group and 12 of 17 (71%) in the misoprostol-alone treatment group experienced expulsion of pregnancy tissue. Among patients with a parity of 0 or 1, 94 of 108 (87%) in the mifepristone-misoprostol treatment group and 66 of 95 (69%) in the misoprostol-alone treatment group experienced expulsion of pregnancy tissue. These clinical characteristics did not predict treatment success in the combined cohort alone (area under the curve=0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.64). No other baseline clinical factors predicted treatment success in the misoprostol-alone treatment arm or mifepristone pretreatment arm. In the full cohort, the significant predictors of treatment success were pretreatment with mifepristone (adjusted odds ratio=2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-4.43) and smoking (adjusted odds ratio=2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-4.49). CONCLUSION: No baseline clinical factors predicted treatment success in women receiving medical management with misoprostol for early pregnancy loss. Adding mifepristone to the medical management regimen of early pregnancy loss improved treatment success; thus, mifepristone treatment should be considered for management of early pregnancy loss regardless of baseline clinical factors.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Abortivos Esteroides , Aborto Espontâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Paridade , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiologia , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Contraception ; 102(1): 23-29, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine college health centers' referral patterns for students seeking induced abortion. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional simulated patient study at 4-year colleges in Pennsylvania between June 2017 and May 2018. A researcher posing as a student seeking abortion referral contacted student health centers twice during the course of the study using a structured script, once as a minor (under 18 years), and once as an adult. The primary outcome was "direct referral", defined as a referral to an abortion provider. We measured proportions of student health centers who provided no referral, "indirect referral" (referral to a non-specific provider), and "inappropriate referral" (referral to a non-abortion provider). We analyzed the relationship between the proportion of direct referrals and minor status of the caller as well as college characteristics (religious affiliation, location, student body mean income, and size). We included variables found to be significant as covariates in a generalized linear model that accounted for the cluster of multiple calls to each institution. RESULTS: We attempted contact with 115 institutions, once as a minor and once as an adult, resulting in 202 successful contacts. Direct referral was the most common outcome (49.5%), followed by inappropriate referral (33.7%) and no referral (21.8%). The proportion of direct referrals given to minors was similar when compared to adults (48.0% vs 52.0%, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.47-1.42). Religiously affiliated institutions were less likely to provide a direct referral than non-religiously affiliated schools (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.75). With each increase in students' household income tertile, health centers were more likely to provide a direct referral (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Half of college student health centers in Pennsylvania do not provide direct abortion referrals, and many provide inappropriate referrals. Student health centers at religiously affiliated institutions and those with poorer students are less likely to provide direct abortion referrals. IMPLICATIONS: Student health providers should inform themselves about fake health clinics and local abortion providers. Colleges should train staff, create accurate resources and define clear policies around referral. Professional and policymaking organizations should affirm the duty of all college health centers, regardless of religious affiliation, to provide abortion referrals.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e201594, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215633

RESUMO

Importance: Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is the most common complication of pregnancy. A multicenter randomized clinical trial compared 2 strategies for medical management and found that mifepristone pretreatment is 25% more effective than the standard of care, misoprostol alone. The cost of mifepristone may be a barrier to implementation of the regimen. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of medical management of EPL with mifepristone pretreatment plus misoprostol vs misoprostol alone in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This preplanned. prospective economic evaluation was performed concurrently with a randomized clinical trial in 3 US sites from May 1, 2014, through April 30, 2017. Participants included 300 women with anembryonic gestation or embryonic or fetal demise. Cost-effectiveness was computed from the health care sector and societal perspectives, with a 30-day time horizon. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2018, to July 3, 2019. Interventions: Mifepristone pretreatment plus misoprostol administration vs misoprostol alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs in 2018 US dollars, effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and treatment efficacy. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of mifepristone and misoprostol vs misoprostol alone were calculated, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were generated. Results: Among the 300 women included in the randomized clinical trial (mean [SD] age, 30.4 [6.2] years), mean costs were similar for groups receiving mifepristone pretreatment and misoprostol alone from the health care sector perspective ($696.75 [95% CI, $591.88-$801.62] vs $690.88 [95% CI, $562.38-$819.38]; P = .94) and the societal perspective ($3846.30 [95% CI, $2783.01-$4909.58] vs $4845.62 [95% CI, $3186.84-$6504.41]; P = .32). The mifepristone pretreatment group had higher QALYs (0.0820 [95% CI, 0.0815-0.0825] vs 0.0806 [95% CI, 0.0800-0.0812]; P = .001) and a higher completion rate after first treatment (83.8% vs 67.1%; P < .001) than the group receiving misoprostol alone. From the health care sector perspective, mifepristone pretreatment was cost-effective relative to misoprostol alone with an ICER of $4225.43 (95% CI, -$195 053.30 to $367 625.10) per QALY gained. From the societal perspective, mifepristone pretreatment dominated misoprostol alone (95% CI, -$5 111 629 to $1 801 384). The probabilities that mifepristone pretreatment was cost-effective compared with misoprostol alone at a willingness-to-pay of $150 000 per QALY gained from the health care sector and societal perspectives were approximately 90% and 80%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that medical management of EPL with mifepristone pretreatment was cost-effective when compared with misoprostol alone. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02012491.


Assuntos
Abortivos Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Mifepristona , Abortivos Esteroides/economia , Abortivos Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Perda do Embrião/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/economia , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/economia , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(2): 371-382, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of telehealth interventions for improving obstetric and gynecologic health outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a comprehensive search for primary literature in ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, and MEDLINE. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Qualifying primary studies had a comparison group, were conducted in countries ranked very high on the United Nations Human Development Index, published in English, and evaluated obstetric and gynecologic health outcomes. Cochrane Collaboration's tool and ROBINS-I tool were used for assessing risk of bias. Summary of evidence tables were created using the United States Preventive Services Task Force Summary of Evidence Table for Evidence Reviews. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, RESULTS: Of the 3,926 published abstracts identified, 47 met criteria for inclusion and included 31,967 participants. Telehealth interventions overall improved obstetric outcomes related to smoking cessation and breastfeeding. Telehealth interventions decreased the need for high-risk obstetric monitoring office visits while maintaining maternal and fetal outcomes. One study found reductions in diagnosed preeclampsia among women with gestational hypertension. Telehealth interventions were effective for continuation of oral and injectable contraception; one text-based study found increased oral contraception rates at 6 months. Telehealth provision of medication abortion services had similar clinical outcomes compared with in-person care and improved access to early abortion. Few studies suggested utility for telehealth to improve notification of sexually transmitted infection test results and app-based intervention to improve urinary incontinence symptoms. CONCLUSION: Telehealth interventions were associated with improvements in obstetric outcomes, perinatal smoking cessation, breastfeeding, early access to medical abortion services, and schedule optimization for high-risk obstetrics. Further well-designed studies are needed to examine these interventions and others to generate evidence that can inform decisions about implementation of newer telehealth technologies into obstetrics and gynecology practice.


Assuntos
Ginecologia/métodos , Obstetrícia/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Feminino , Ginecologia/tendências , Humanos , Obstetrícia/tendências , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Telemedicina/tendências
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(1): 12-23, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia following complete and partial molar pregnancy after reaching normal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels to guide evidence-based follow-up recommendations. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, POPLINE, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to November 2018, using the intersection of "gestational trophoblastic disease," "molar pregnancy," and "human chorionic gonadotropin" themes. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Search results were screened to identify cohort studies of molar pregnancy reporting gestational trophoblastic neoplasia development, with at least 6 months of intended normal hCG follow-up. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Two reviewers independently identified articles for inclusion. Data were extracted using a standardized form. For meta-analysis, cumulative incidence of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, with CIs by the Agresti-Coull method, and pooled risk ratios (RRs) comparing complete and partial mole were calculated. Among the 19 eligible studies that reported adequate data for inclusion in the primary meta-analysis, we found low incidence of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after normal hCG level following both complete mole (64/18,357, 0.35%, 95% CI 0.27-0.45%), and partial mole (5/14,864, 0.03%, 95% CI 0.01-0.08%). There was a significantly higher risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after complete compared with partial molar pregnancy (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.81-12.3, P=.002). Among gestational trophoblastic neoplasia cases after normal hCG level following complete mole, 89.6% occurred when the time from evacuation to normalization was 56 days or longer, and 60.7% were diagnosed beyond the commonly recommended 6-month surveillance interval. Sensitivity analyses, including those limiting to studies at low risk of bias, did not significantly affect results. We found an overall incidence of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia of 15.7% for complete mole (1,354/8,611, 95% CI 15.0-16.5%) and 3.95% for partial mole (221/5,593, 95% CI 3.47-4.50%). CONCLUSION: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia development after normal hCG level following molar pregnancy is rare. Recommendations for frequency and duration of hCG follow-up can be minimized to lessen burden on patients and informed by the type of molar pregnancy and time interval from uterine evacuation to hCG normalization. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019116414.


Assuntos
Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/epidemiologia , Mola Hidatiforme/cirurgia , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Curetagem a Vácuo , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme/sangue , Mola Hidatiforme/patologia , Incidência , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Uterinas/sangue , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
14.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 33(1): 27-32, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563628

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of anticipated pain with intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in adolescents and young women. DESIGN: We performed linear regression to identify demographic, sexual/gynecologic history, and mood covariates associated with anticipated pain using a visual analogue scale pain score collected as part of a single-blind randomized trial of women who received a 13.5-mg levonorgestrel IUD. SETTING: Three academic family planning clinics in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-three adolescents and young adult women aged 14-22 years. INTERVENTION: Participants received either a 1% lidocaine or sham paracervical block. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anticipated pain measured using a visual analogue scale before and perceived pain at 6 time points during the IUD insertion procedure. RESULTS: Black or African American participants had a median anticipated pain score of 68 (interquartile range [IQR], 52-83), White participants had a median anticipated pain of 51 (IQR, 35-68), whereas participants of other races had a median anticipated pain score of 64 (IQR, 36-73); P = .012. In multivariate analysis, race was the only covariate that significantly predicted anticipated pain at IUD insertion. Women with anticipated pain scores above the median had significantly higher perceived pain during all timepoints of the IUD insertion procedure. CONCLUSION: Increased anticipated pain is associated with increased perceived pain with IUD insertion. Black adolescent women experience greater anticipated pain with IUD insertion. This population might benefit from counseling and clinical measures to reduce this barrier to IUD use.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Percepção da Dor , Dor Processual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Processual/etiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
15.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(2): 136-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with physical disabilities have unmet gynecologic care needs, including disparities in cancer screening and contraceptive care, when compared with women without physical disabilities. Our objective was to qualitatively assess provider and patient perspectives regarding barriers to gynecologic health care for women with physical disabilities. METHODS: We used purposive sampling to recruit women with physical disabilities and gynecology providers who had experience caring for this population at two university hospitals. Patient and provider participants completed in-depth, semistructured interviews investigating their experiences with and barriers to receiving or providing gynecologic care. Transcripts were systematically analyzed by reviewing assigned codes and performing thematic analysis. We planned a sample size of at least 20 patient and provider participants to allow for saturation of thematic content. RESULTS: We interviewed 29 women with physical disabilities and 20 providers. Important themes for providers and patients centered around adequate time spent during appointments, challenges with the gynecologic examination, inadequate facilities, clinical space limitations, and lack of formal provider and staff training in caring for this population. CONCLUSIONS: Providers were motivated to provide quality care for women with disabilities, but encountered systems and training barriers. Patients and providers had concordant impressions of barriers that influenced equitable and patient-centered care, with structural barriers, including a lack of accessible space, closely related to perceptions of health care inequity between women with and without physical disabilities.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoas com Deficiência , Ginecologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Saúde da Mulher
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cervical preparation is recommended prior to second-trimester surgical abortion. Osmotic dilators are an effective means to prepare the cervix, but require an additional procedure and may cause discomfort. We compared cervical preparation with mifepristone and misoprostol to preparation with osmotic dilators. STUDY DESIGN: A randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was performed to compare cervical preparation with mifepristone and misoprostol to preparation with osmotic dilators in women undergoing surgical abortion between 15 and 18 weeks gestation. The medication group (n=29) received mifepristone 200 mg orally 24 hours prior to uterine evacuation and misoprostol 400 µg buccally 2 hours before the procedure. The dilator group (n=20) underwent osmotic dilator insertion 24 hours prior to the procedure. The primary outcome was total procedure time, from insertion to removal of the speculum. Secondary outcomes included operative time (from intrauterine instrumentation to speculum removal), initial cervical dilation, nausea, pain, ease of procedure, and whether participants would choose the same modality in the future. RESULTS: For mean total procedure time, medication preparation (14.0 min, 95% CI 12.0-16.1) was not inferior to dilators (14.3 min, 95% CI 11.7 to 16.8, p<0.001). Mean operative time and ease of procedure were also similar between groups. More women in the medication group than the dilator group would prefer to use the same method in the future (86% vs 30%, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Prior to surgical abortion at 15-18 weeks, use of mifepristone and misoprostol did not result in longer procedure times than overnight osmotic dilators. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01462.

18.
Contraception ; 100(3): 234-240, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to understand patient-, provider- and system-level factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use among women Veterans and with receipt of LARC methods within the Veterans Affairs (VA) system. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from a national telephone-based survey of 2302 women ages 18-44 receiving primary care in VA. Multivariable regression was used to examine adjusted associations of participant-reported patient-, provider- and facility-level factors with LARC use and within-VA receipt of LARC among women Veterans. RESULTS: Among 987 women Veterans at risk of unintended pregnancy, 294 (30%) reported using LARC, 65% of whom had received their method within VA. Higher LARC use was observed among women who were multiparous vs. nulliparous [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.22] and did not desire future pregnancies (aOR=1.88; 95% CI=1.31-2.68). Although overall LARC uptake was not associated with any provider- or facility-level factors, receipt of these methods within VA was associated with receiving both general and gender-specific health care by a single provider (aOR=2.81; 95% CI=1.20-6.61) and with receiving care within a women's health clinic (aOR=2.54; 95% CI=1.17-5.50). CONCLUSIONS: While patient-level factors were more strongly correlated with use of LARC, provider- and system-level factors influence whether women received these methods within VA. IMPLICATIONS: This study of patient-, provider- and system-level correlates of LARC use in VA, the country's largest integrated healthcare system, highlights that women Veterans share similar patient-level factors associated with LARC use as the general population and that continuity with providers and comprehensive women's health services can facilitate LARC access.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares , Adulto Jovem
19.
Contraception ; 100(2): 106-110, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to (1) assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and operative time during immediate postpartum tubal ligation procedures and to (2) determine whether operative time is non-inferior in women with BMI ≥30 versus women with BMI <30 and in women with BMI ≥40 versus women with BMI <40. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who received immediate postpartum tubal ligations following vaginal delivery from 2013 to 2017 at a university hospital. We abstracted demographic information, patient and procedural characteristics, and clinical outcomes. We assessed the relationship between BMI and operative time via linear regression. We also conducted non-inferiority analysis to determine whether the mean operative time in women with BMI ≥30 was non-inferior to the mean operative time in women with BMI <30, within a non-inferiority margin of 10 min. We compared intraoperative and postoperative complications in the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 279 women were included for analysis, among whom N=79 (28%) had a BMI of 25-29.9 and N=171 (61%) had a BMI ≥30. Demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. We found that operative time increased by 35 s for each one-point increase in BMI (p<.01). Although mean operative time was 46.1 min (n=171; 95% CI 43.7, 48.6 min) for women with BMI ≥30 and 40.6 min (n=108; 95% CI 37.9 min, 43.4 min) for women with BMI <30, (p<.01), it was non-inferior within a 10-min margin. There was no difference in rates of intraoperative or postoperative complications, incision length, total anesthesia time, and median length of stay between women with BMI ≥30 and BMI <30. CONCLUSION: There is a small increase in postpartum tubal ligation operative time with increasing BMI. However, among women who received immediate postpartum tubal ligations at our institution, women with BMI ≥30 versus BMI <30 had operative times that were non-inferior within a 10-min margin. IMPLICATIONS: While increasing body mass index slightly increases the operative time for immediate postpartum tubal ligations, this increase in time does not appear to be clinically significant.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Duração da Cirurgia , Período Pós-Parto , Esterilização Tubária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pennsylvania , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 51(1): 35-41, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645011

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Advancing gestational age can increase the cost of an abortion and is a significant risk factor for complications. While obesity is not associated with increased risks, anecdotal evidence suggests that obese women seeking services at freestanding abortion clinics are often referred for hospital-based care, which can lead to delays. METHODS: In 2016, a cross-sectional survey collected data on the experiences of 201 women who had obtained abortions at a hospital-based clinic in Philadelphia; rates of medical complications were determined from hospital records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess if obesity was associated with whether patients had been referred from freestanding abortion clinics or reported other paths to care. Differences in wait time and up-front out-of-pocket costs were examined by women's referral status. RESULTS: No difference in rates of abortion complications was found between patient groups. Women who were severely obese (body mass index of at least 40 kg/m2 ) were more likely than normal-weight individuals to have been referred from a freestanding abortion clinic (odds ratio, 7.5). The median wait time to get an abortion was 28 days for referred patients and 12 days for others. Multivariable analysis confirmed that referred patients waited twice as long as other patients (rate ratio, 2.0) and paid 66% more in up-front costs. CONCLUSIONS: Future research is needed to determine whether obese women seeking abortions are being referred despite evidence that they do not require hospital-based care. If obese women are suffering delays because of referral, strategies to help overcome delay should also be explored.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/economia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Salários e Benefícios , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tempo para o Tratamento/economia , Transportes
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