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2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

3.
Clin Immunol ; 193: 118-120, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355610

RESUMO

We describe the case of a child affected by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency showing a maternal T-cell engraftment, a finding that has never been reported before. The presence of engrafted maternal T cells was misleading. Although ADA enzymatic levels were suggestive of ADA-SCID, the child did not present the classical signs of ADA deficiency; therefore, the initial diagnosis was of a conventional SCID. However, ADA toxic metabolites and molecular characterization confirmed this diagnosis. Polyethylene glycol-modified bovine (PEG) ADA therapy progressively decreased the number of maternal engrafted T cells. The child was grafted with full bone marrow from a matched unrelated donor, after a reduced conditioning regimen, and the result was the complete immunological reconstitution.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(7): 701-706, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Complete signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by impairment of intracellular signaling from both type I and type II interferons (IFN). Affected patients are prone to early severe mycobacterial and viral infections, which usually result in death before 18 months of age. We previously reported a patient affected by complete STAT1 deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here, we describe the transplantation procedures and long-term outcomes. METHODS: The patient, who had suffered multiple life-threatening mycobacterial and viral infections in the first years of life, underwent HSCT at 4 years of age from a partially matched (HLA compatibility 8/10) unrelated donor after a myeloablative conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin. RESULTS: Hematological reconstitution was detected at d+15, with full donor engraftment demonstrated by molecular analysis of leukocytes. Several complications occurred in the post-transplantation phase, including acute graft versus host disease, posterior reversible encephalopathy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, bilateral keratoconjunctivitis with complete loss of vision, and chronic lower limb lymphedema. Analysis of STAT1 in CD3+ cells at 90 and 120 days after HSCT by flow cytometry showed normal STAT1 phosphorylation levels in response to IFN-α. CONCLUSIONS: Notably, no severe infections occurred after discharge (day + 90) during a 9-year follow-up, suggesting that normal response to IFNs in hematopoietic cells is sufficient to provide protection in humans.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/deficiência , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Pediatr ; 164(2): 389-92.e1, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24252793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a simplified, 1-day/week regimen of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is sufficient to prevent Pneumocystis (jirovecii [carinii]) pneumonia (PCP). Current recommended regimens for prophylaxis against PCP range from daily administration to 3 consecutive days per week dosing. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective survey of the regimens adopted for the PCP prophylaxis in all patients treated for childhood cancer at pediatric hematology-oncology centers of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica. RESULTS: The 20 centers participating in the study reported a total of 2466 patients, including 1093 with solid tumor and 1373 with leukemia/lymphoma (or primary immunodeficiency; n = 2). Of these patients, 1371 (55.6%) received the 3-day/week prophylaxis regimen, 406 (16.5%) received the 2-day/week regimen, and 689 (27.9%), including 439 with leukemia/lymphoma, received the 1-day/week regimen. Overall, only 2 cases of PCP (0.08%) were reported, both in the 2-day/week group. By intention to treat, the cumulative incidence of PCP at 3 years was 0.09% overall (95% CI, 0.00-0.40%) and 0.51% for the 2-day/week group (95% CI, 0.10%-2.00%). Remarkably, both patients who failed had withdrawn from prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: A single-day course of prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole may be sufficient to prevent PCP in children with cancer undergoing intensive chemotherapy regimens. This simplified strategy might have implications for the emerging need for PCP prophylaxis in other patients subjected to the increased use of biological and nonbiological agents that induce higher levels of immune suppression, such as those with rheumatic diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Br J Haematol ; 145(1): 73-83, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19222467

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) causes recurrent infection and inflammatory disease. Despite antimicrobial prophylaxis, patients experience frequent hospitalisations and 50% mortality by 30 years. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure CGD with resolution of infection and colitis. This study reports the survival and long-term outcome in 20 conditioned patients treated between 1998 and 2007, using 10 matched sibling (MSD) and 10 unrelated donors (URD). Age at HSCT, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), growth, and outcome were analysed. Fourteen had > or = 1 invasive infection, 10 had colitis and seven had growth failure before HSCT. Median age at transplantation was 75 months (range 15 months-21 years). Eighteen (90%) were alive 4-117 months (median 61) after HSCT with normal neutrophil function. Two died from disseminated fungal infection. Two experienced significant chronic GvHD, with continuing sequelae in 1. Colitis resolved within 8 weeks of HSCT. Mean weight and height for age Z scores on recovery from HSCT rose significantly (P < 0.001). HSCT with MSD or URD gave excellent engraftment and survival, remission of colitis and catch-up growth, with low incidence of significant GvHD. Transplant-associated complications were restricted to those with pre-existing infection or inflammation, supporting the argument for early HSCT for more CGD patients with a well matched donor.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Irmãos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/fisiopatologia , Crescimento , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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