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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 126-131, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818469

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has so far affected over 41 million people globally. The limited supply of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) kits and reagents has made meeting the rising demand for increased testing incompetent, worldwide. A highly sensitive and specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is the need of the hour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a rapid chromatographic immunoassay-based test (index test) compared with a clinical reference standard (rRT-PCR). Methods: A cross-sectional, single-blinded study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India. Paired samples were taken for RDT and rRT-PCR (reference standard) from consecutive participants screened for COVID-19 to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT. Further subgroup analysis was done based on the duration of illness and cycle threshold values. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to measure the level of agreement between the two tests. Results: Of the 330 participants, 77 were rRT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. Sixty four of these patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RDT. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 81.8 and 99.6 per cent, respectively. The sensitivity of RDT was higher (85.9%) in participants with a duration of illness ≤5 days. Interpretation & conclusions: With an excellent specificity and moderate sensitivity, this RDT may be used to rule in COVID-19 in patients with a duration of illness ≤5 days. Large-scale testing based on this RDT across the country would result in quick detection, isolation and treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Cromatografia , Imunoensaio , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(1): 35-38, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642491

RESUMO

Lymph node tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis worldwide. The study aimed to evaluate the role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in determining post-treatment response in lymph node tuberculosis. A PET-CT was done in all treatment naïve tubercular lymphadenitis adults at baseline and after six months of therapy. The post-treatment clinical response was compared with the metabolic response on PET-CT. Of the 25 patients with tubercular lymphadenitis, 9/25 patients showed a complete metabolic response (CMR) at six months, while 16 patients had a partial metabolic response (PMR). All patients with CMR had a good clinical response. However, discordance between clinical and PET findings was noticed in those with PMR. The role of PET-CT in evaluating post-treatment response in patients with tubercular lymphadenitis needs further evaluation with a larger sample size.

3.
Chest ; 159(2): 879-880, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563440
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) failure is not uniform in India. In this study we attempted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of treatment failure among patients who were on ART for >1 y. METHODS: We conducted an ambispective study from 2017 to 2019 in the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Patients and their past medical records were examined to determine clinical, immunological and virological failure. RESULTS: Among 301 enrolled patients, the majority was male (61.8%), with a mean age of 36.98±10.84 y. The prevalence of ART failure in our study was 10.63% (32/301). Clinical, immunological and virological failure rates were 1.66%, 10.63% and 5.65%, respectively. The maximum chance of failure was the tenofovir-lamivudine-nevirapine (33.3%) regimen followed by the stavudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (30.4%) regimen. Among the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a stavudine-based regimen had a significantly greater chance of failure (25.8%) compared with tenofovir (9.6%) and zidovudine (7.9%) regimens (p<0.005). Low baseline CD4 count and development of tuberculosis after ART initiation were significantly (p<0.05) associated with treatment failure in univariate analysis. Patients with a low peak CD4 count (adjusted odds ratio [AOR 4.26 {95% confidence interval 1.83 to 9.88}]) and who developed symptoms after ART initiation (AOR 3.77 [95% CI 1.47 to 9.69]) had significantly higher odds of treatment failure in the multivariate analysis (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of risk factors by regular follow-up and selection of the proper ART regimen can reduce the rate of treatment failure.

5.
Pathog Dis ; 79(1)2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: despite being in the 5th month of pandemic, knowledge with respect to viral dynamics, infectivity and RT-PCR positivity continues to evolve. AIM: to analyse the SARS CoV-2 nucleic acid RT-PCR profiles in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: it was a retrospective, observational study conducted at COVID facilities under AIIMS, New Delhi. METHODS: patients admitted with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for enrolment. Patients with incomplete details, or only single PCR tests were excluded. Data regarding demographic details, comorbidities, treatment received and results of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR performed on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs, collected at different time points, was retrieved from the hospital records. RESULTS: a total of 298 patients were included, majority were males (75·8%) with mean age of 39·07 years (0·6-88 years). The mean duration from symptom onset to first positive RT-PCR was 4·7 days (SD 3·67), while that of symptom onset to last positive test was 17·83 days (SD 6·22). Proportions of positive RT-PCR tests were 100%, 49%, 24%, 8·7% and 20·6% in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and >4 weeks of illness. A total of 12 symptomatic patients had prolonged positive test results even after 3 weeks of symptom onset. Age > = 60 years was associated with prolonged RT-PCR positivity (statistically significant). CONCLUSION: this study showed that the average period of PCR positivity is more than 2 weeks in COVID-19 patients; elderly patients have prolonged duration of RT-PCR positivity and requires further follow up.


Assuntos
/virologia , /genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 282-286, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390566

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a febrile respiratory illness that has spread rampantly across the globe and has emerged as one of the biggest pandemics of all time. Besides the direct effects of COVID-19 on mortality, collateral impacts on diagnosis and management of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is a matter of great concern. The overlap in presentation, shunting of available resources and infection control precautions in patients with suspected COVID-19 result in a significant delay in diagnoses and management of AFI. This review highlights the challenges in the management of acute febrile illness during COVID pandemic and possible solutions for the same.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Febre/diagnóstico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(1): 42-43, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390569

RESUMO

Most studies have described worse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been attributed to COVID-19 associated lymphopenia (resulting in lower CD4 count), higher prevalence of comorbidities (established risk factors for severity in COVID-19) and pre-existing lung damage. The problem has been further aggravated by the lack in the access to routine care in HIV patients due to diversion of resources. In this article, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on patients with HIV infection.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 313-318, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390410

RESUMO

The clinical profile and risk factors for mortality in dengue fever have evolved over the years. The all-cause mortality in admitted dengue patients is around 6%. We aimed to evaluate the recent change in trends of the clinical characteristics and risk factors for in-hospital mortality in adults with dengue fever. This is a retrospective study on adults with confirmed dengue fever admitted in a medical unit of a tertiary care center in North India. Medical records of confirmed dengue fever patients admitted between January 2011, and December 2016 were reviewed. Chi-squared tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing were used to identify risk factors for mortality. 232 records were included, of which 66.8% were males. The mean age was 31.6 ± 14 years. There were 17 deaths with an all-cause mortality rate of 7.3% with 76.5% being classified as severe dengue at admission. Among the 17 mortality cases, dyspnea (47%), tachypnea (86.7%), leucocytosis (58.8%), raised urea (80%), and elevated serum creatinine (52.9%) at presentation were significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.001). Shock at any time during the hospital stay (58.8%) was also found to be significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.001). We found that dyspnea, tachypnea, acute kidney injury, and leucocytosis at presentation was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. Based on our results, we recommend aggressive management of patients with severe dengue and those with mild/moderate disease with the above risk factors.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Leucocitose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leucocitose/etiologia , Leucocitose/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
9.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 330-335, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390562

RESUMO

Traditionally attributed only to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax has recently been reported to cause a significant burden of complicated malaria cases. The present study aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and identify predictors for severe disease. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) aged at least 14 years were included if they were diagnosed with vivax malaria based on rapid kits or peripheral smears. Clinical data and investigations during hospital stay was recorded. 439 cases of acute febrile illness were screened, of whom 50 (11%) were diagnosed with malaria including eight P. falciparum infections. Forty-two vivax malaria cases, 22 (52%) of whom were severe, were followed till discharge or death. The median age of the cohort was 24.5 years (Q1-Q3, 19-36 years), including a total of 29 males (69%). Severe malaria was more frequently associated with historical complaints of oliguria or dyspnea, and examination findings of pallor, splenomegaly or altered sensorium. The following five factors were identified to predict severe disease: prolonged illness over 7 days, symptoms of oliguria or dyspnea, examination findings of pallor or crepitations on auscultation. Malaria accounts for 1 in 10 cases of AFI at our North Indian tertiary care center and approximately half of them present with severe disease. Prolonged duration of disease prior to presentation is a modifiable predictor for severe disease and should be targeted for reducing morbidity.


Assuntos
Febre/parasitologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , Adulto , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Oligúria/epidemiologia , Oligúria/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Lab Physicians ; 12(3): 196-202, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268937

RESUMO

Background The global burden of infections due to multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) has a significant impact on patients' morbidity and mortality along with increased healthcare expenditure. Aim This article estimates the prevalence of MDRO and the spectrum of clinical infectious syndromes caused by these organisms in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital in India. Design and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed among patients admitted in medicine wards diagnosed with the various infectious syndromes and one or more clinically significant positive culture at a tertiary care hospital in North India over a period of 18 months. Results Out of 323 clinically significant microbiological culture isolates from 229 patients included in the study, 86 (27%) isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR) pattern, 197 (61%) isolates showed possible extremely drug-resistance pattern, and only 40 (12%) isolates showed nonmultidrug-resistance pattern of antibiogram. Conclusion The prevalence of MRDOs is high in clinically significant culture isolates from medicine wards in India. This emphasizes the importance of appropriate antibiotic usage and implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs in this part of the world.

11.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 255: 247-252, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256922

RESUMO

To evaluate Gene Xpert for diagnosis of Female Genital Tuberculosis (FGTB) as compared to conventional methods. STUDY DESIGN: It was a prospective study conducted over 167 cases of infertile female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) diagnosed on composite reference standard (CRS) (smear for AFB, histopathological evidence of epithelioid granuloma or definite or possible findings of tuberculosis on laparoscopy). All women underwent endometrial biopsy for AFB microscopy, culture, gene Xpert, PCR and histopathology) and laparoscopy and hysteroscopy for diagnosis and prognostication of disease. The results of Gene Xpert were compared with conventional methods in detection of FGTB. All patients were treated with 6 months course of rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H), pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E) (RHZE for 2 months, RHE for 4 months) using directly observed treatment short course strategy. RESULTS: Mean age, parity, body mass index and history of contact was 28.3 years, 0.28, 22.9 Kg/m2 and 38.92% respectively. Primary infertility was seen in 87.42% cases with mean duration of 2.42 years. Menstrual dysfunctions, abdominal or pelvic pain and lump were seen in 38.92%, 14.37% and 10.77% cases. Abnormal vaginal discharge and adnexal mass were seen in 28.14% and 13.17 % cases. On diagnostic laparoscopy, definite findings of tuberculosis (beaded tubes, tuebrcles and caseous nodules) were seen in 96 (57.48%) women while probable findings of tuberculosis (pelvic or abdominal adhesions, hydrosaplinx, tubo-ovarian mass, pyosalpinx) were seen in 81 (48.50%) women. On laboratory investigations, positive AFB on microscopy or culture was seen in 2.99% casess, PCR was positive in 47.90% gene Xpert was positive in 18.56% cases while epitheloid granuloma was seen on histopathology in 16 (9.58%) cases. Gene Xpert had sensitivity of 35.63%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 58.82% and diagnostic accuracy of 66.47% in the present study. CONCLUSION: Gene Xpert is a very useful test to rule in tuberculosis whereas when it is negative it is not a good test to rule out tuberculosis.

12.
Lung India ; 37(6): 495-500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154211

RESUMO

Context: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous mycobacteria present in environment and generally affect patients with either structural lung disease or immunosuppression and commonly involve lungs, lymph node, or skin. Materials and Methods: Between July 2016 and February 2019, 18 cases of NTM were diagnosed and their relevant clinical, diagnostic, and treatment details were recorded after taking informed consent. Results: We report 18 cases of NTM involving lungs (n = 11), skin and soft tissue (n = 3), joint (n = 2), genitourinary (n = 1), and central nervous system (n = 1). History of immunosuppression was present in two patients, whereas history of some form of intervention was seen in six patients. Mycobacterium fortuitum group (n = 5) was the most commonly isolated organism, followed by Mycobacterium avium complex (n = 4), Mycobacterium abscessus (n = 3), Mycobacterium kansasii (n = 2), and Mycobacterium chelonae (n = 1). In two patients, M. chelonae and M. abscessus were isolated in succession. Of these 18 patients, clinical response was present in 15 of the patients. Diagnosis and treatment of NTM in resource limited settings is extremely challenging. Conclusion: Most of the patients with NTM are misdiagnosed and are treated as tuberculosis in India, sometimes with a multidrug resistance regimen, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. We present these cases to shed some light on the epidemiology of NTM in this part of India.

13.
Indian J Med Res ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146157

RESUMO

Background & objectives: : Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has so far affected over 41 million people globally. The limited supply of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) kits and reagents has made meeting the rising demand for increased testing incompetent, worldwide. A highly sensitive and specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is the need of the hour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a rapid chromatographic immunoassay-based test (index test) compared with a clinical reference standard (rRT-PCR). Methods: : A cross-sectional, single-blinded study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India. Paired samples were taken for RDT and rRT-PCR (reference standard) from consecutive participants screened for COVID-19 to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT. Further subgroup analysis was done based on the duration of illness and cycle threshold values. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to measure the level of agreement between the two tests. Results: : Of the 330 participants, 77 were rRT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. Sixty four of these patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RDT. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 81.8 and 99.6 per cent, respectively. The sensitivity of RDT was higher (85.9%) in participants with a duration of illness ≤5 days. Interpretation & conclusions: : With an excellent specificity and moderate sensitivity, this RDT may be used to rule in COVID-19 in patients with a duration of illness ≤5 days. Large-scale testing based on this RDT across the country would result in quick detection, isolation and treatment of COVID-19 patients.

14.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 125: 102014, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160243

RESUMO

Microbiological diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has been one of the most difficult aspects of tuberculosis (TB) management. Availability of better imaging and diagnostic modalities has led to an increase in the number of diagnosed cases. The current upsurge in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis warrants routine testing of EPTB samples for resistance at baseline with shorter turn-around time. A total of 369 EPTB specimens were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain, liquid culture (LC) with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing, MTBDRplus V.2 and MTBDRsl V.2. The molecular categorisation of resistant specimens was further reconfirmed with sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of MTBDRplus V.2 to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) when compared to ZN stain was 97.9% and 89.2%, respectively while it was 73.4% and 83.8%, respectively when compared to LC. Similarly, for MTBDRsl V.2, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of MTB when compared with ZN was 95.6% and 91.9%, respectively and 75% and 89.2%, respectively when compared to LC. In smear-positive specimens, 94% (141/150) and 86% (129/150) valid results were observed in MTBDRplus V.2 and MTBDRsl V.2, respectively. The utilisation of both MTBDRplus V.2 and MTBDRsl V.2 for the diagnosis of smear-positive EPTB specimens would be useful in programmatic management of TB in high-burden settings.

15.
Pathog Dis ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being in the 5th month of pandemic, knowledge with respect to viral dynamics, infectivity and RT-PCR positivity continues to evolve. AIM: To analyse the SARS CoV-2 nucleic acid RT-PCR profiles in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: It was a retrospective, observational study conducted at COVID facilities under AIIMS, New Delhi. METHODS: Patients admitted with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for enrolment. Patients with incomplete details, or only single PCR tests were excluded. Data regarding demographic details, comorbidities, treatment received and results of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR performed on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs, collected at different time points, was retrieved from the hospital records. RESULTS: 298 patients were included, majority were males (75·8%) with mean age of 39·07 years (0·6-88 years). The mean duration from symptom onset to first positive RT-PCR was 4·7 days (SD 3·67), while that of symptom onset to last positive test was 17·83 days (SD 6·22). Proportions of positive RT-PCR tests were 100%, 49%, 24%, 8·7% and 20·6% in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & >4 weeks of illness. 12 symptomatic patients had prolonged positive test results even after 3 weeks of symptom onset. Age > = 60 years was associated with prolonged RT-PCR positivity (statistically significant). CONCLUSION: This study showed that the average period of PCR positivity is more than 2 weeks in COVID-19 patients; elderly patients have prolonged duration of RT-PCR positivity and requires further follow up.

17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(11): 3308-3314, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no effective therapy for COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used for its treatment but their safety and efficacy remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review to synthesize the available data on the efficacy and safety of CQ and HCQ for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Two reviewers searched for published and pre-published relevant articles between December 2019 and 8 June 2020. The data from the selected studies were abstracted and analyzed for efficacy and safety outcomes. Critical appraisal of the evidence was done by Cochrane risk of bias tool and Newcastle Ottawa Scale. The quality of evidence was graded as per the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We reviewed 12 observational and 3 randomized trials which included 10,659 patients of whom 5713 received CQ/HCQ and 4966 received only standard of care. The efficacy of CQ/HCQ for COVID-19 was inconsistent across the studies. Meta-analysis of included studies revealed no significant reduction in mortality with HCQ use [RR 0.98 95% CI 0.66-1.46], time to fever resolution (mean difference - 0.54 days (- 1.19-011)) or clinical deterioration/development of ARDS with HCQ [RR 0.90 95% CI 0.47-1.71]. There was a higher risk of ECG abnormalities/arrhythmia with HCQ/CQ [RR 1.46 95% CI 1.04 to 2.06]. The quality of evidence was graded as very low for these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSION: The available evidence suggests that CQ or HCQ does not improve clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Well-designed randomized trials are required for assessing the efficacy and safety of HCQ and CQ for COVID-19.

18.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 367-372, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920572

RESUMO

Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is one of the most critical interventions required to halt the growing global antimicrobial resistance. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainee driven ASP implementation with limited available resources on outcome variables. An ASP team comprising of infectious diseases trainees and consultants was constituted to conduct stewardship activities in the Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care apex institute in north India. Prospective audit and feedback were conducted by the team, and the following outcome variables were recorded and analyzed: the practice of sending cultures, appropriateness of prescribed empiric antibiotics, gross antimicrobial consumption and mortality. ASP intervention led to an increase in blood culture positivity rates by two folds (p<0.001). The trend of empiric prescription choices gradually shifted over time towards the use of more effective antibiotics according to the local antibiogram. Redundant usage of antibiotics substantially reduced over time. There was no impact of the antimicrobial stewardship program on the all-cause mortality rate. ASP had a significant effect on the practice of sending cultures and appropriateness of antibiotic usage. In resource-limited settings, trainee-driven antimicrobial stewardship program can succeed in inculcating rational practices among fellow residents and practicing physicians.

19.
Indian J Med Res ; 152(1 & 2): 77-81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820725

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab (NPS and OPS) collection is widely accepted as the preferred method for obtaining respiratory samples. However, it has certain disadvantages which may be overcome by gargling. The primary objective of this study was to assess agreement between gargle lavage and swab as an appropriate respiratory sample for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The secondary objective was to assess the patient acceptability of the two sampling methods. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study done at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India, on 50 confirmed COVID-19 patients. Paired swab (NPS and OPS) and gargle samples were taken within 72 h of their diagnosis. Samples were processed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Post-sample collection, a 10-point scale was administered to assess the level of discomfort with either of the collection methods. Results: All gargle samples were positive and comparable to their corresponding swab samples irrespective of the symptoms and duration of illness. The cycle threshold (Ct) values for gargle samples were slightly higher but comparable to those of swabs. Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between the two methods. Majority (72%) of the patients reported moderate-to-severe discomfort with swab collection in comparison to 24 per cent reporting only mild discomfort with gargle collection. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary results show that the gargle lavage may be a viable alternative to swabs for sample collection for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Adoption of gargle lavage for sample collection will have a significant impact as it will enable easy self-collection, relieve healthcare workers and also lead to substantial cost savings by reducing the need for swabs and personal protective equipment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Irrigação Terapêutica , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes
20.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 39(3): 285-291, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19-positive patients and compare with historical controls. METHODS: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID-19 (n = 28) between 22 April 2020 and 22 June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 were included as historical controls for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 28 COVID-19 patients (two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation [AD], and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol (n = 9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 2), viral (n = 5), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12 (46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3 (11.5%), and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11 (42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8 (7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3% (11/26), as compared with 23.1% (18/78) in the historical controls (p = 0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF (9/9) died compared with 53.3% (16/30) in ACLF of historical controls (p = 0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID-19 patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared with historical controls 2/17 (11.8%) vs. 2/48 (4.2%), though not statistically significant (p = 0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cirrose Hepática , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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