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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202256

RESUMO

As of February 29, 2020, more than 85,000 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from China and 53 other countries with 2,924 deaths. On January 30, 2020, the first laboratory-confirmed case of COVID was reported from Kerala, India. In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons. Patients will be monitored to document clinical (hospital length of stay and mortality at 14, 28 and 90 days), laboratory (presence of viral RNA in serial throat swab samples) and safety (adverse events and serious adverse events) outcomes. Treatment outcomes amongst initial cases would be useful in providing guidance about the clinical management of patients with COVID-19. If found useful in managing initial SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, further evaluation using a randomized control trial design is warranted to guide future therapeutic use of this combination.

5.
Postgrad Med J ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806733

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF STUDY: Ultrasound (US) for lumbar puncture has seen the most success in obese patients and in patients with difficult to palpate landmarks. We aimed to elucidate the advantage of the use of routine US for performing lumbar punctures over the traditional landmark method. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study with consecutive sampling with a sample size of convenience. Three residents were chosen to perform the lumbar punctures after a training session. Patients were assigned to either the US group or the landmark group. The outcomes studied were number of attempts at needle insertion, patient and physician anxiety, pain experienced, time to procedure, number of traumatic attempts and the difficulties faced during the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients were included in this study, of which 36 patients (46.8%) underwent landmark-based lumbar puncture and 41 (53.2%) underwent US-guided lumbar puncture. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups among the following characteristics: number of attempts to a successful procedure, number of traumatic punctures, procedure time, preprocedure anxiety of the participants and physicians and pain score rating of the procedure. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between the landmark method and US-guided method for performing lumbar puncture in the number of successful attempts, number of traumatic punctures, procedure time and pain during the procedure. Further studies are required to elucidate the advantage of the use of ultrasonography in subsets of the population such as the low body mass index population.

6.
Infez Med ; 27(4): 398-402, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846989

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the clinical spectrum and outcome of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in hospitalized patients. A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in North India between December 2016 and December 2018. Patients diagnosed with IFIs were enrolled. Their clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded using a pre-defined clinical report form. They were followed up till discharge or death and a 60-day outcome was recorded. A total of 110 IFI cases were identified, which included invasive aspergillosis (39%), invasive candidiasis (16%), cryptococcosis (14%) and mucormycosis (12%). Pneumonia (63%) was the most common final diagnosis in these patients. Diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common risk factor for all four diseases. Additionally, most patients with cryptococcosis had human immunodeficiency virus infection. Mortality was observed in 73% of the patients. Overall, IFIs are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients admitted to medical wards and ICUs.

8.
Indian J Med Res ; 150(2): 175-185, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670273

RESUMO

Background & objectives: The models for implementation of antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) in the acute care settings of developing countries are lacking. In most of the hospitals, patient turnover is high and a proper system for recording antibiotic-related information and tracking hospital-acquired infections is not in place. This pilot study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India to assess the feasibility of implementation of an ASP in a Medicine unit and to evaluate the effect of implementation as per the criteria applicable in this set up. Methods: A pre-post-quasi-experimental non-randomized study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, current practices in the Medicine wards were observed. In the second phase, the ASP was implemented in a single Medicine unit, along with prospective audit and feedback, tracking of the process, as well as outcome measures. Patient risk stratification, blood culture on day one, day 3 bundle, dose optimization, de-escalation and intravenous to oral conversion of antibiotics were the key elements focused upon. Results: There was a significant improvement in the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription (66 vs. 86%, P<0.001) and reduction in the mean number of antibiotics used per person (4.41 vs. 3.86, P<0.05) along with decrease in the duration of hospital stay (17 vs. 14 days, P<0.05). There was a significant improvement in sending of blood cultures on day one during the stewardship phase (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: The ASP approach used in our pilot study may be feasible and beneficial. However, it needs further confirmation in other settings and on a large scale.

10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748366
11.
QJM ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642501

RESUMO

Zika virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that presents with acute febrile illness associated with rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. After years of sporadic reports in Africa, the three major outbreaks of this disease occurred in Yap Islands (2007), French Polynesia (2013-2014) and South Americas (2015-2016). Although, serological surveys suggested the presence of ZIKV in India in 1950s, cross reactivity could not be ruled out. The first four proven cases of ZIKV from India were reported in 2017. This was followed by major outbreaks in the states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh in 2018. Fortunately, the outbreaks in India were not associated with neurological complications. These outbreaks in India highlighted the spread of this disease beyond geographical barriers owing to the growing globalization, increased travel and ubiquitous presence of its vector, the Aedes mosquito. We discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, management of Zika virus in India in this review.

12.
Infez Med ; 27(3): 308-315, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545775

RESUMO

With significant advancement in the tools and strategies available for diagnosis and management, there is an expected change in the epidemiological profile of patients living with HIV/AIDS (Human immunodeficiency syndrome/Acquired immunedeficiency syndrome). We retrospectively analyzed the changing epidemiological pattern of HIV infection over a period of 13 years in the anti-retroviral (ART) center of a tertiary care hospital in India. The study included a total of 9419 patients (8811 adults and 608 children) who were registered at our ART center between 2005 and 2017. Among adult patients, 68.9% patients were males and the mean age of presentation was 35.6±9.9 years. Heterosexual route was the most common route of transmission (95.5%). A total of 97.4% of pediatric patients acquired HIV infection via vertical transmission from their mothers. Most of the adult patients (77.1%) were educated only to primary level. Despite the economic growth in the country over the years, the monthly income of these patients has not significantly changed. The median CD4 count at the time of eligibility for starting ART was 244/µl of blood. An increasing trend in the baseline CD4 count was noticed from 2005 to 2017. Also, improved outcomes with less loss to follow up were noticed in the latter years. However, an increasing trend was also noted in the time gap between registration at the ART center and initiation of ART. Improvement in the baseline CD4 count and better treatment outcomes are indicators of a well-functioning national program. However, continued programmatic interventions are needed to further tackle the menace of HIV/AIDS in India.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019101, July-Sept. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016808

RESUMO

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare fatal autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. The disease presents most commonly in the first year of life; however, symptomatic presentation throughout childhood and adulthood has also been identified. Biallelic mutation in the perforin gene is present in 20%­50% of all cases of FHL. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in association with hematological malignancies is known; however, whether mutations in HLH-associated genes can be associated with FHL and hematolymphoid neoplasms is not well documented. Also, Epstein­Barr-virus- (EBV) positive systemic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (SE-LPD) in the setting of FHL is not clearly understood. Here, we present the case of a young boy who presented with typical features of childhood FHL harboring the perforin gene (PRF1) mutation, and had SE-LPD diagnosed on autopsy, along with evidence of recent EBV infection. The patient expired due to progressive disease. Five siblings died in the second or third decade of life with undiagnosed disease. Genetic counseling was provided to the two surviving siblings and parents, but they could not afford genetic testing. One surviving sibling has intermittent fever and is on close follow-up for possible bone marrow transplantation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Autopsia , Evolução Fatal , Perforina , Linfoma
14.
Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol ; 7(2): 185-187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380459

RESUMO

18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is an important imaging modality in the clinical workup of patients with chronic inflammatory disorders which present quite often with a fever of unknown origin. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disorder with a wide clinical spectrum that can involve different organs. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is usually based on the observation of noncaseating granulomas in biopsy specimens and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Skin involvement can occur in 20-25% of sarcoidosis cases. However, scar involvement in sarcoidosis is a rare condition. Herein, we present a case of multisystem sarcoidosis in a 45-year-old woman, who was previously treated with steroids and was in remission for 8 months. The patient presented with multiple skin nodules on the chest and back, a history of intermittent fever, headache, and mild itching at the abdominal scar site for 3 months. Blood investigations revealed elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels. The 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a metabolically active involvement of the cutaneous tissue (posthysterectomy scar), apart from other sites of involvement. Biopsy of the scar site revealed multiple epithelioid cell granulomas with giant cells surrounding the collagenous fibers of the scar tissue.

15.
Autops Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440481

RESUMO

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare fatal autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. The disease presents most commonly in the first year of life; however, symptomatic presentation throughout childhood and adulthood has also been identified. Biallelic mutation in the perforin gene is present in 20%-50% of all cases of FHL. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in association with hematological malignancies is known; however, whether mutations in HLH-associated genes can be associated with FHL and hematolymphoid neoplasms is not well documented. Also, Epstein-Barr-virus- (EBV) positive systemic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (SE-LPD) in the setting of FHL is not clearly understood. Here, we present the case of a young boy who presented with typical features of childhood FHL harboring the perforin gene (PRF1) mutation, and had SE-LPD diagnosed on autopsy, along with evidence of recent EBV infection. The patient expired due to progressive disease. Five siblings died in the second or third decade of life with undiagnosed disease. Genetic counseling was provided to the two surviving siblings and parents, but they could not afford genetic testing. One surviving sibling has intermittent fever and is on close follow-up for possible bone marrow transplantation.

16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(7): 2511-2515, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463286

RESUMO

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with an unknown etiology that can be life threatening. This study aimed to study the cause of mortality among admitted SLE patients over a period of 5 years at a teaching hospital in India. Methods: A 5-year retrospective analysis of mortality in SLE patients admitted under department of medicine of our institute was done. The presenting complaints, treatment history, clinical parameters, laboratory investigations, organ involvement, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI), and cause of mortality were collected from the medical records on a predesigned proforma. A further analysis of two groups based on the cause of mortality was done. Results: In total, 53 death records were analyzed. Mortality in 28 SLE patients was due to high disease activity (Group I) and mortality in 25 patients was attributed due to both high disease activity and concomitant infection (Group II). Most of the patients were female (98%) and mean age of patient was 30.6 years. About 19 patients (35.8%) were diagnosed with SLE during hospital admission. Fever was the most common presenting complaint (69.8%) and lupus nephritis was the most common organ dysfunction seen (84.9%). Myocarditis was observed in 11 patients and 9 patients had cerebrovascular accident. The mean hemoglobin was lower in Group II (7.4 vs. 8.7 g/dL, P = 0.02). The median total leukocyte count was significantly higher in Group II (10,200 vs. 6600, P = 0.02). The mean serum urea and creatinine levels were also significantly higher in Group II (141.41 vs. 87.8 mg/dL, P = 0.006 and 4.7 vs. 1.7, P = 0.0001), respectively. The mean SLEDAI in Group I was 20.8 ± 8.9 and in Group II was17.7 ± 7.5. Bacterial pneumonia (17) was the most common infection, followed by tuberculosis (2) and fungal infection (2). Conclusion: Mortality among SLE patients could be due to disease flare or concomitant infection. Lung is the most common organ affected by infection in these patients.

18.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(3): 384-388, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249204

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis and has received increasing emphasis. However, the reverse association of tuberculosis impacting blood sugar levels has not been well studied. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hyperglycemia in patients with tuberculosis and assess its resolution following successful treatment of tuberculosis. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 582 patients with tuberculosis were evaluated for hyperglycaemia [DM or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)] with random blood sugar (RBS) and all patients with RBS >100 mg/dl were subjected to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All patients received thrice weekly intermittent Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) for tuberculosis. Patients with hyperglycaemia were re-evaluated at the end of anti-tuberculosis treatment with an OGTT and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels to assess for glycaemic status. Results: In the present study, 41 of the 582 patients were found to have DM [7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (5.2, 9.4)] while 26 patients were found to have IGT [4.5%, 95% CI (3, 6.5)]. Three patients were lost to follow up. Of the 26 patients with IGT, 17 [65.4%, 95% CI (46.1, 80.7)] reverted to euglycaemic status following successful treatment of tuberculosis, while the blood sugar levels improved in all patients with DM following treatment of tuberculosis. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study results show that tuberculosis adversely impacts glycaemic status with improvement in blood sugar levels at the end of successful treatment of tuberculosis. Longitudinal studies with large sample size are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/complicações , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(5): 1755-1759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198750

RESUMO

Introduction: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are quite common in the primary care setting. These unexplained symptoms lead to physical, psychological, and functional disability increasing patient and caregiver distress. Methodology: Cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 patients attending medicine outpatient department. The data on sociodemographic profile and detailed clinical history were collected. Disability was assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 instrument. Association between qualitative measures was measured by Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and for qualitative measure t-test or Wilcoxon test was used. Results: Most of the patients were young, from urban settings and belonging to lower socioeconomic strata. A mean of 6.54 symptoms per patient was presented with headache as the most common symptom. Average gross disability score in each domain was 1.6 with a major impact on the social and lifestyle-related domain. Conclusion: Patients with MUPS have significant disability especially in the domain of mobility and lifestyle-related activities. The disability is more in females, population dwelling in urban settlements, and population belonging to lower socioeconomic status.

20.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(2): 101-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080200

RESUMO

Acute febrile illness (AFI) is one of the commonest indications for hospitalization and can present with varying severity including single or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). During monsoon season, there is a spurt of AFI often caused by vector borne diseases leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to determine distribution of etiological causes, differential organ involvement and predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with AFI. It was a hospital based observational study which included patients with AFI with dysfunction of at least one organ system. The study was conducted over 4 months during monsoon season. Admitted patients were included who had been subjected to a standard battery of tests and managed with standard hospital based management protocol. 145 patients were included and etiology of fever was ascertained in 81.4% of patients with the most common single infection being chikungunya (20.7%) followed by dengue (20%) fever. Thrombocytopenia and deranged liver biochemistry each were seen in nearly 75% of the patients. Renal (50.3%) and nervous system (46.2%) dysfunction were the predominant organ failures. 49 patients died (33.8%) which correlated with predicted mortality by APACHE (acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation) II score. Independent predictors for mortality were older age (> 55 years) (p = 0.01), acidemia (p = 0.01), altered sensorium (p = 0.02) and coagulopathy (p = 0.048). Sub-group analysis revealed that amongst patients with MODS, hypotension could help differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial causes (p = 0.01). Critically ill patients with AFI suffer from significant morbidity and mortality. Features like the presence of hypotension in MODS may differentiate between a bacterial cause vis-à-vis viral or protozoal etiology.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , APACHE , Adolescente , Adulto , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Criança , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/classificação , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
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