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1.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 158, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that copy number variation (CNV) in the alpha (α)-amylase gene (AMY1A) is associated with body mass index, insulin resistance, and blood glucose levels, factors also shown to increase the risk of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). We have previously demonstrated the presence of α-amylase in healthy neuronal dendritic spines and a reduction of the same in AD patients. In the current study, we investigate the relationship between AMY1A copy number and AD, memory performance, and brain α-amylase activity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The association between AMY1A copy number and development of AD was analyzed in 5422 individuals (mean age at baseline 57.5 ± 5.9, females 58.2%) from the Malmö diet and cancer study genotyped for AMY1A copy number, whereof 247 where diagnosed with AD during a mean follow-up of 20 years. Associations between AMY1A copy number and cognitive performance where analyzed in 791 individuals (mean age at baseline 54.7 ± 6.3, females 63%), who performed Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Correlation analysis between α-amylase activity or α-amylase gene expression and AMY1A copy number in post-mortem hippocampal tissue from on demented controls (n = 8) and AD patients (n = 10) was also performed. RESULTS: Individuals with very high ( ≥10) AMY1A copy number had a significantly lower hazard ratio of AD (HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94) and performed significantly better on MoCA delayed word recall test, compared to the reference group with AMY1A copy number 6. A trend to lower hazard ratio of AD was also found among individuals with low AMY1A copy number (1-5) (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.53-1.02). A tendency towards a positive correlation between brain α-amylase activity and AMY1A copy number was found, and females showed higher brain α-amylase activity compared to males. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the degree of α-amylase activity in the brain is affected by AMY1A copy number and gender, in addition to AD pathology. The study further suggests that very high AMY1A copy number is associated with a decreased hazard ratio of AD and we speculate that this effect is mediated via a beneficial impact of AMY1A copy number on episodic memory performance.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066363

RESUMO

It has been suggested that high intake of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increase the level of circulating inflammatory proteins and that chronic inflammation plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) development. We aim to examine how added sugar and SSB intake associate with 136 measured plasma proteins and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort (n = 4382), and examine if the identified added sugar- and SSB-associated proteins associate with T2D incidence. A two-step iterative resampling approach was used to internally replicate proteins that associated with added sugar and SSB intake. Nine proteins were identified to associate with added sugar intake, of which only two associated with T2D incidence (p < 0.00045). Seven proteins were identified to associate with SSB intake, of which six associated strongly with T2D incidence (p < 6.9 × 10-8). No significant associations were observed between added sugar and SSB intake and CRP concentrations. In summary, our elucidation of the relationship between plasma proteome and added sugar and SSB intake, in relation to future T2D risk, demonstrated that SSB intake, rather than the total intake of added sugar, was related to a T2D-pathological proteomic signature. However, external replication is needed to verify the findings.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that a high intake of sugar or sweeteners may result in an unfavorable microbiota composition; however, evidence is lacking. Hence, in this exploratory epidemiological study, we aim to examine if intake of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) or artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) associate with the gut microbiota composition. METHODS: Participants (18-70 years) in the Malmö Offspring Study have provided blood, urine, and fecal samples and completed both web-based 4 day food records and short food frequency questionnaires. The gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, processed in QIIME and matched to Greengenes (v.13.8), giving 64 included genera after filtering. Intake of added sugar (n = 1371) (also supported by the overnight urinary sugar biomarker in a subgroup n = 577), SSBs (n = 1086) and ASBs (n = 1085) were examined as exposures in negative binomial regressions. RESULTS: Various genera nominally associated with intake of added sugar, SSBs, and ASBs. Only the negative association between SSB intake and Lachnobacterium remained significant after multiple testing correction. A positive association between SSB intake and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was also observed. CONCLUSION: In this wide population, the cross-sectional associations between added sugar and sweet beverage intake and the gut microbiota are modest, but the results suggest that SSB intake is associated negatively with the genus Lachnobacterium and positively with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Larger studies, preferably using metagenomic sequencing, are needed to further evaluate if a link exists between intake of sugars and sweeteners and the human gut microbiota.

4.
BMJ ; 370: m3173, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14541, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883969

RESUMO

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.

6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2180-2185, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease requiring intervention in Europe, the role that diet plays in development of the disease is largely unknown. The pathophysiology of aortic stenosis is however similar to other cardiovascular diseases that fiber intake has been associated with. The aim of this study was consequently to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake as well as the main food sources of fiber, i.e. fruit and vegetables and whole grains, and risk of incident aortic stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a Swedish prospective population-based cohort study with baseline data collection performed between year 1991-1996. Dietary habits were recorded through seven-day food diaries, 168-item diet questionnaires, and interviews, and data on incident aortic stenosis was collected through national registers. Among the 26,063 participants, 672 cases were ascertained during a mean follow-up period of 20 years. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between dietary intakes and incident aortic stenosis. No associations were found between incident aortic stenosis and intake of dietary fiber (HR for the highest vs lowest quintile: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.72-1.24), fruit and vegetables (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.76-1.28), or whole grains (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26) in the main model. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study do not indicate that consumption of dietary fiber or fiber rich foods are associated with incident aortic stenosis.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710289

RESUMO

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; Ptrend = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, Ptrend = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, Ptrend = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, Ptrend = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; Ptrend = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Phomogeneity = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.004), particularly with BCC (Ptrend = 0.008) and SCC (Ptrend = 0.004), but not with melanoma (Phomogeneity = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(6): 694-702, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186652

RESUMO

Importance: Aortic stenosis (AS) has no approved medical treatment. Identifying etiological pathways for AS could identify pharmacological targets. Objective: To identify novel genetic loci and pathways associated with AS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association study used a case-control design to evaluate 44 703 participants (3469 cases of AS) of self-reported European ancestry from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort (from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2015). Replication was performed in 7 other cohorts totaling 256 926 participants (5926 cases of AS), with additional analyses performed in 6942 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Follow-up biomarker analyses with aortic valve calcium (AVC) were also performed. Data were analyzed from May 1, 2017, to December 5, 2019. Exposures: Genetic variants (615 643 variants) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 and ω-3) measured in blood samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: Aortic stenosis and aortic valve replacement defined by electronic health records, surgical records, or echocardiography and the presence of AVC measured by computed tomography. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 44 703 GERA participants was 69.7 (8.4) years, and 22 019 (49.3%) were men. The rs174547 variant at the FADS1/2 locus was associated with AS (odds ratio [OR] per C allele, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93; P = 3.0 × 10-6), with genome-wide significance after meta-analysis with 7 replication cohorts totaling 312 118 individuals (9395 cases of AS) (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94; P = 2.5 × 10-8). A consistent association with AVC was also observed (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .03). A higher ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid was associated with AVC (OR per SD of the natural logarithm, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.30; P = 6.6 × 10-5). In mendelian randomization, increased FADS1 liver expression and arachidonic acid were associated with AS (OR per unit of normalized expression, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.17-1.48; P = 7.4 × 10-6]; OR per 5-percentage point increase in arachidonic acid for AVC, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.01-1.49; P = .04]; OR per 5-percentage point increase in arachidonic acid for AS, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.13; P = 4.1 × 10-4]). Conclusions and Relevance: Variation at the FADS1/2 locus was associated with AS and AVC. Findings from biomarker measurements and mendelian randomization appear to link ω-6 fatty acid biosynthesis to AS, which may represent a therapeutic target.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 261, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a dose-response relationship between physical activity and risk of diabetes has been demonstrated, few studies have assessed the relative importance of different measures of physical activity on diabetes risk. The aim was to examine the association between different self-reported measures of physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Out of 26,615 adults (45-74 years, 60% women) in the population-based Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 3791 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. Leisure-time (17 activities), occupational and domestic physical activity were assessed through a questionnaire, and these and total physical activity were investigated in relation to type 2 diabetes risk. RESULTS: All physical activity measures showed weak to modest associations with type 2 diabetes risk. The strongest association was found in the lower end of leisure-time physical activity in dose-response analysis at levels approximately below 22 MET-hrs/week (300 min/week) representing around 40% of the population. Compared with the lowest quintile, the moderate leisure-time physical activity category had a 28% (95% CI: 0.71, 0.87) decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Total physical activity showed a similar, but weaker, association with diabetes risk as to that of leisure-time physical activity. Domestic physical activity was positively and linearly related to diabetes risk, HR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.25) comparing highest to lowest quintile. There was no association between occupational physical activity and diabetes risk. CONCLUSION: A curvilinear association was observed between leisure-time physical activity and risk of diabetes. Beyond a threshold level of approximately 22 MET-hrs/week or 300 min/week, no additional risk reduction was observed with increase in physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Autorrelato , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2632-2640, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090257

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the associations between major foods and dietary fibre with subtypes of stroke in a large prospective cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data on 418 329 men and women from nine European countries, with an average of 12.7 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed using validated country-specific questionnaires which asked about habitual intake over the past year, calibrated using 24-h recalls. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke associated with consumption of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, eggs, cereals, fruit and vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, and dietary fibre. For ischaemic stroke (4281 cases), lower risks were observed with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR; 95% CI per 200 g/day higher intake, 0.87; 0.82-0.93, P-trend < 0.001), dietary fibre (per 10 g/day, 0.77; 0.69-0.86, P-trend < 0.001), milk (per 200 g/day, 0.95; 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.02), yogurt (per 100 g/day, 0.91; 0.85-0.97, P-trend = 0.004), and cheese (per 30 g/day, 0.88; 0.81-0.97, P-trend = 0.008), while higher risk was observed with higher red meat consumption which attenuated when adjusted for the other statistically significant foods (per 50 g/day, 1.07; 0.96-1.20, P-trend = 0.20). For haemorrhagic stroke (1430 cases), higher risk was associated with higher egg consumption (per 20 g/day, 1.25; 1.09-1.43, P-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Risk of ischaemic stroke was inversely associated with consumption of fruit and vegetables, dietary fibre, and dairy foods, while risk of haemorrhagic stroke was positively associated with egg consumption. The apparent differences in the associations highlight the importance of examining ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke subtypes separately.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 76-84, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107546

RESUMO

Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/etiologia , Dieta , Nozes , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Sementes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 10: 2042018819890532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839923

RESUMO

With the rising prevalence of both diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the aim of this project was to examine the association between dietary intake and lifestyle on the risk of developing PAD among individuals with DM. The Malmö Diet and Cancer study was a prospective cohort study with baseline examinations carried out between 1991 and 1996 in Malmö, Sweden (n = 30,446). Individuals with prevalent PAD and cardiovascular disease (prior stroke or myocardial infarction) were excluded from the study, resulting in a total study population of 1112 patients with prevalent DM. The diagnosis of incident PAD was validated and confirmed in 98% of patients. Of the 1112 individuals, 136 (12.2%) were diagnosed with PAD during a median follow up of 19.7 years (interquartile range 12.9-22.4). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that men with DM more often developed incident PAD compared with women (cumulative incidences 15.5% and 8.9%, respectively, p = 0.012). In Cox multivariable regression analysis, smoking (hazard ratio of 1.96, 95% confidence interval of 1.28-3.00) was associated with increased risk of PAD, and there was a trend that a higher intake of fish and shellfish (hazard ratio per additional gram per week of 0.99, 95% confidence interval of 0.99-1.00; p = 0.051) was associated with a decreased risk of PAD. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a trend towards a protective effect of higher intake of fish and shellfish upon incident symptomatic PAD among individuals with DM.

14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479109

RESUMO

Importance: Soft drinks are frequently consumed, but whether this consumption is associated with mortality risk is unknown and has been understudied in European populations to date. Objective: To examine the association between total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study involved participants (n = 451 743 of the full cohort) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), an ongoing, large multinational cohort of people from 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), with participants recruited between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2000. Excluded participants were those who reported cancer, heart disease, stroke, or diabetes at baseline; those with implausible dietary intake data; and those with missing soft drink consumption or follow-up information. Data analyses were performed from February 1, 2018, to October 1, 2018. Exposure: Consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Total mortality and cause-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for other mortality risk factors. Results: In total, 521 330 individuals were enrolled. Of this total, 451 743 (86.7%) were included in the study, with a mean (SD) age of 50.8 (9.8) years and with 321 081 women (71.1%). During a mean (range) follow-up of 16.4 (11.1 in Greece to 19.2 in France) years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Higher all-cause mortality was found among participants who consumed 2 or more glasses per day (vs consumers of <1 glass per month) of total soft drinks (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.22; P < .001), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P = .004), and artificially sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.35; P < .001). Positive associations were also observed between artificially sweetened soft drinks and deaths from circulatory diseases (≥2 glasses per day vs <1 glass per month; HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30-1.78; P < .001) and between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and deaths from digestive diseases (≥1 glass per day vs <1 glass per month; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.05; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with all-cause deaths in this large European cohort; the results are supportive of public health campaigns aimed at limiting the consumption of soft drinks.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

16.
Vasc Med ; 24(6): 511-518, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431146

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and associated with an increased risk of leg amputation, cardiovascular disease, and death. A healthy diet has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, but relationships between diet, fiber intake, and incidence of PAD are virtually unknown. The aim was to investigate the long-term impact of diet on the development of PAD among 26,010 middle-aged individuals in the prospective Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDCS). Data on dietary intake were collected through a 7-day food diary combined with a food questionnaire and a 1-hour interview. Adherence to a recommended intake of six dietary components - saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, fish and shellfish, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose - was scored (sum 0-6 points) to assess a diet quality index, adjusting for potential confounders. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate associations between diet variables and PAD incidence expressed in hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI. During a median follow-up of 21.7 years, 1122 participants developed PAD. Diet score was associated with a reduced risk of PAD in multivariable analysis (p = 0.03). When mutually adjusting for all dietary variables, only adherence to recommended levels of fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of incident PAD (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.99). In this prospective, population-based study including 26,010 participants with over 20 years of follow-up, a healthy diet, especially a high intake of fiber, was associated with a reduced risk of PAD. Primary prevention programs directed against PAD should therefore include a fiber recommendation.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate fibre, and plant foods, and its association with AAA risk. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, baseline data collection was carried out 1991-1996. The study participants' (n = 26,133) dietary habits were extensively recorded at baseline. The specific diagnosis of AAA in the in-hospital registry was found valid in 95%. The association between plant foods, such as cereals and types of vegetables, and AAA was assessed by using Cox regression analysis expressed as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A high intake of fibre was independently associated with AAA risk (HR per quintile 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97). High intake of vegetables (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.98), specifically leaf vegetables (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), and fruits and berries (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96), citrus (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.98) and non-citrus fruits (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.95) were independently associated with a decreased AAA risk. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of fruits and berries and vegetables, in particular leaf vegetables, are associated with a decreased risk of developing AAA.

18.
Br J Nutr ; 122(6): 707-716, 2019 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230610

RESUMO

Increased attention has been paid to circadian patterns and how predisposition to metabolic disorders can be affected by meal timing. Currently, it is not clear which role can be attributed to the foods selected at meals. On a cross-sectional sub-cohort study (815 adults) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study, we investigated whether the same foods (vegetables, fruits, refined grains, whole grains, red and processed meats) eaten at different meals (breakfast, lunch or dinner) show different associations with biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. Meal-specific usual intakes were calculated from multiple 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models showed that intake of vegetables at breakfast was associated with lower LDL-cholesterol (-0·37 mmol/l per 50 g; 95 % CI -0·61, -0·12) and vegetables at dinner was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol (0·05 mmol/l per 50 g; 95 % CI 0, 0·10). Fruit intake at breakfast was associated with lower glycated Hb (HbA1c) (-0·06 % per 50 g; 95 % CI -0·10, -0·01) and fruits at dinner with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0·21 mg/l per 50 g; 95 % CI -0·42, -0·01). Red and processed meat intake at breakfast was associated with higher HbA1c (0·25 % per 50 g; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·46) and CRP (0·76 mg/l per 50 g; 95 % CI 0·15, 1·36). Our results suggest that by preferring fruits and vegetables and avoiding red and processed meats at specific meals (i.e. breakfast and dinner), cardiometabolic profiles and ultimately chronic disease risk could be improved. Lunch seemed to be a less important meal in terms of food-biomarker associations.

19.
Circulation ; 139(25): 2835-2845, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with ≈20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta Saudável , Ovos , Carne , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 411-423, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590448

RESUMO

Background: Although sugar consumption has been associated with several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, evidence for harmful long-term effects is lacking. In addition, most studies have focused on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), not sugar per se. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between added and free sugar intake, intake of different sugar sources, and mortality risk. Methods: Two prospective population-based cohorts were examined: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 24,272), which collected dietary data by combining a food diary, interview, and food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study (NSHDS; n = 24,475), which assessed diet with an FFQ. Sugar intakes defined as both added and free sugar and different sugar sources were examined. The associations with mortality were examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Higher sugar consumption was associated with a less favorable lifestyle in general. The lowest mortality risk was found with added sugar intakes between 7.5% and 10% of energy (E%) intake in both cohorts. Intakes >20E% were associated with a 30% increased mortality risk, but increased risks were also found at intakes <5E% [23% in the MDCS and 9% (nonsignificant) in the NSHDS]. Similar U-shaped associations were found for both cardiovascular and cancer mortality in the MDCS. By separately analyzing the different sugar sources, the intake of SSBs was positively associated with mortality, whereas the intake of treats was inversely associated. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a high sugar intake is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, the risk is also increased among low sugar consumers, although they have a more favorable lifestyle in general. In addition, the associations are dependent on the type of sugar source.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dieta , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Paladar
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