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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769475

RESUMO

Nano-sized zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) affects lipid deposition, but its absorption patterns and mechanisms affecting lipid metabolism are still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanism of nano-ZnO absorption and its effects on lipid metabolism in the intestinal tissues of a widely distributed freshwater teleost yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that 100 mg/kg dietary nano-ZnO (H-Zn group) significantly increased intestinal Zn contents. The zip6 and zip10 mRNA expression levels were higher in the H-Zn group than those in the control (0 mg/kg nano-ZnO), and zip4 mRNA abundances were higher in the control than those in the L-Zn (50 mg/kg nano-ZnO) and H-Zn groups. Eps15, dynamin1, dynamin2, caveolin1, and caveolin2 mRNA expression levels tended to reduce with dietary nano-ZnO addition. Dietary nano-ZnO increased triglyceride (TG) content and the activities of the lipogenic enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), upregulated the mRNA abundances of lipogenic genes 6pgd, fatty acid synthase (fas), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), and reduced the mRNA expression of farnesoid X receptor (fxr) and small heterodimer partner (shp). The SHP protein level in the H-Zn group was lower than that in the control and the L-Zn group markedly. Our in vitro study indicated that the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) absorbed nano-ZnO via endocytosis, and nano-Zn-induced TG deposition and lipogenesis were partially attributable to the endocytosis of nano-ZnO in IECs. Mechanistically, nano-ZnO-induced TG deposition was closely related to the metal responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1)-SHP pathway. Thus, for the first time, we found that the lipogenesis effects of nano-ZnO probably depended on the key gene shp, which is potentially regulated by MTF1 and/or FXR. This novel signaling pathway of MTF-1 through SHP may be relevant to explain the toxic effects and lipotoxicity ascribed to dietary nano-ZnO addition.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150831, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627884

RESUMO

Peatlands in northeast China are experiencing severe climate warming. Most studies on peatlands focus on the responses of CH4 dynamics to temperature. However, they rarely consider the synchronous changes in the composition of plant communities caused by the expansion of vascular plants. In this study, an experiment combined warming with the manipulation of plants to examine the concentrations of CH4 porewater and its fluxes in the mesocosm. We found that warming increased the concentration of CH4 and its fluxes relative to the control treatments, and it was strongly modulated by plant richness and functional types. The average CH4 fluxes in the warming and non-warming mesocosms varied from 72.10 to 119.44 and 97.95 to 194.43 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. Plant species richness significantly increased CH4 flux at the warming level of 3.2 °C (P < 0.01). The presence of vascular plants, such as Carex globularis and Vaccinium uliginosum, significantly increased the CH4 fluxes after warming had occurred. Our results suggest that the distinct response of CH4 to richness and species primarily stemmed from the direct or indirect effects of plant biomass and functional characteristics. Therefore, more consideration should be given to the diversity changes caused by vascular plant expansion when estimating CH4 flux in boreal peatland, especially in the context of future climate warming.

3.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 108883, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653601

RESUMO

Oxidative stress can induce occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nrf2 is a central regulator of cellular oxidative stress and also participates in the control of lipid deposition and metabolism. Here, we hypothesize that oxidative stress-mediated Nrf2 activation participates in the regulation of the Cu-induced lipid deposition. We found that Cu excess activated oxidative stress and autophagy, up-regulated lipogenesis and lipid metabolism, suppressed Keap1 expression and activated Nrf2 signaling. Moreover, Cu induced lipid deposition via oxidative stress and the mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress mediated Cu-induced activation of Nrf2 and autophagy. The activation of autophagy helps to alleviate Cu-induced lipid deposition and accordingly provided a protective role against Cu-induced NAFLD. Meantime, Cu-induced oxidative stress promoted Nrf2 recruitment to the PPARγ promoter, inducing target gene transcription, and subsequent lipogenesis. Our findings, for the first time, provide direct evidences for Nrf2 function in the modulation of lipogenic metabolism via the transcriptional activation of PPARγ, and elucidate the mechanisms by which Nrf2 functions as the central regulator of lipogenic genes and highlights the significance of Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets for oxidative stress-associated obesity and NAFLD for fish and human beings.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148464, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465062

RESUMO

Mitigating environmental pollution and sustaining grain production have been foundational issues in sustainable development, however, ascertaining the optimal balance remains poorly investigated. This study used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to simulate crop growth and nitrogen loss, established the mapping relationship between nitrogen input to yield and water quality, and proposed a general method to determine a nitrogen application strategy for high yield and low pollution at a basin scale. Lake Xiaoxingkai basin, which is the primary maize producing area in China as well as an internationally important wetland distribution area, was used as a case study. First, we designed application scenarios for 10 base fertilizers (B1-B10) and 10 topdressing fertilizers (T1-T10) and evaluated their combined effects of maize growth to identify the critical nitrogen fertilizer rates determined under fixed and dynamic base/topdressing ratios. Then, the critical base and topdressing fertilizer rates were determined. Based on the mapping relationship between nitrogen fertilizer rate and nitrogen loss, we then revealed water quality at the basin outlet under the critical base and topdressing fertilizer rates. Finally, we proposed alternative nitrogen application strategies for high yield and low pollution while considering the different preferences of decision-makers for the economy, agriculture, and environment. We found that adjusting the ratio of base to topdressing fertilizer may create a win-win situation for agriculture and the environment, which will provide a scientific basis for sustainable development.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Qualidade da Água , Zea mays
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112822, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571419

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an indispensable role in ecosystem services and functions in wetlands. While most wetlands have undergone increased nitrogen (N) loading due to intensive human activities, the response of DOM characteristics to long-term N addition remains unexplored. In this study, we assessed the changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), NH4+, NO3-, dissolved organic N (DON), dissolved total N (DTN), and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) in surface water and soil pore water at 15 cm depth after 10 years of N addition at four levels (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg N hm-2 year-1) in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. We also examined the effect of N addition on DOM aromaticity and humification by measuring the specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), the color per C unit (C/C ratio), and the fulvic acid/humic acid ratio (E4/E6 ratio). Our results showed that N addition significantly altered DOM properties, but the direction and magnitude of these changes generally did not vary with the N addition level. During the growing season, DOC, NH4+, NO3-, DON, and DTN concentrations in both surface water and soil pore water were increased by N addition. Accordingly, N addition increased the DOC/DTP and DTN/DTP ratios but decreased the DOC/DTN ratio in surface water and soil pore water. In addition, the SUVA254 value and C/C ratio increased, while the E4/E6 ratio reduced after N addition in surface water and soil pore water, indicating increases in DOM aromaticity and humification. These observations suggest that long-term N addition changes DOM characteristics by causing stoichiometric imbalances and increasing recalcitrant compounds in temperate freshwater wetlands, which may then deteriorate water quality, alter microbial-mediated ecological processes, and impact downstream aquatic ecosystem structures.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208159

RESUMO

B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (Cycs) are two important proteins relevant to cellular apoptosis. In this study, we characterized the functions of the promoter regions of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Cycs, in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We obtained a 1989 bp Bcl-2 promoter and an 1830 bp Cycs promoter and predicted several key transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on the promoters, such as Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), forkhead box O (FOXO), metal-responsive element (MRE) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α). Zinc (Zn) increased the activities of the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased the activities of the Cycs promoter. Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and HNF-1α directly bound with Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, and they positively regulated the activity of the Bcl-2 promoter but negatively regulated the activity of the Cycs promoter. Zn promoted the binding ability of HNF-1α to the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased its binding ability to the Cycs promoter. However, Zn had no significant effect on the binding capability of MTF-1 to the regions of Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters. Zn upregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Bcl-2 but downregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Cycs. At the same time, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that Zn significantly reduced the apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. For the first time, our study provides evidence for the MRE and HNF-1α response elements on the Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, offering new insight into the mechanism by which Zn affects apoptosis in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Peixes-Gato/genética , Citocromos c/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1864(8): 194723, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116248

RESUMO

The study characterized their regulatory functions of four znt members (znt1, znt2, znt6 and znt8) in Zn homeostasis in vertebrates. We found that the -1281/-1296 bp locus on the znt1 promoter, the -1/-16 bp locus on the znt2 promoter, the -825/-839 bp locus on the znt6 promoter, the -165/-180 bp locus and the -274/-292 bp STAT3 locus on the znt8 promoter were functional MTF-1 binding sites and had metal responsive element (MRE). Zn incubation increased activities of four znt promoters, which was mediated by MRE sites on znt1, znt2, znt6 and znt8 promoters and by STAT3 binding site on znt8 promoter. Moreover, Zn activated the transcription of these znts genes through MTF-1-MRE-dependent pathway. Zn incubation up-regulated the mRNA and total protein expression of ZnT1, ZnT2 and ZnT8 at both 24 h and 48 h. Overall, for the first time, this study offered novel insights for regulatory mechanism of Zn homeostasis in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Homeostase , Humanos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(6): 890-902, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018515

RESUMO

Eurasian permafrost serves as an important carbon pool and water resource for linked aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the effects of expected warmer climate under climate change, and also to fill the data gaps in the south margin of the Eurasian permafrost, the seasonal runoff and the associated dissolved carbon fluxes in a pair of catchments in the Great Khingan Mountains of northeast China were investigated in 2018-2019. Two similar small catchments, a south-facing (SF) and a north-facing (NF), were used to check the effects of warmer climate on the dynamics of runoff and dissolved carbon yields. The SF catchment, with a warmer condition compared to the NF catchment, presented much larger snowmelt runoff during spring and more gentle rainfall flood peaks in the summer-autumn period, but similar concentrations of dissolved carbons during both the periods. As a result, the dissolved carbon fluxes were greatly elevated during the snowmelt period. However, the runoff and carbon yield in the two catchments showed no significant difference during the summer rainfall periods, in spite of a much deeper active layer of permafrost in the SF. As indicated by two fluorescence indices, the humification (HIX) and biological index (BIX), the chemical characteristics of dissolved carbon were similar in both the snowmelt and rainfall runoff periods in the two catchments. These results emphasize that warmer climate would largely alter the seasonal runoff patterns and promote dissolved carbon export in the snowmelt period, which would lead to more unexpected ecological impacts on the aquatic systems in the south Eurasian permafrost.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Movimentos da Água
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 40(9): 2450-2462, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037263

RESUMO

Information on the effects of pollutants in sediments at an ecosystem level to validate current and proposed risk-assessment procedures is scarce. The most frequent criticism of these procedures is that responses of surrogate species in the laboratory are not representative of responses of natural populations. A tiered approach using both laboratory and microcosm exposures (96-h and 21-d laboratory bioassays and a 3-mo field microcosm) was conducted to compare the impacts of sediment-spiked cadmium on the mortality, development, and abundance of Chironomidae larvae. The 96-h and 21-d lethal concentrations of sediment-spiked Cd to 50% of the species Chironomus riparius were estimated to be 201.07 and 172.66 mg/kg, respectively. In the 21-d laboratory bioassay, the endpoints, including the development rate and emergence ratio, were compared, and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) values were 325.8 and 10.7 mg/kg, respectively. The abundance, richness, and biomass of field-collected larvae were compared among the different treatments in the field microcosm, and it was found that the order of sensitivities using different endpoints was biomass (2.6/5.2 mg/kg of no-observed-effect concentration/LOEC) > diversity (10.7/21.2 mg/kg) > abundance (41.2/82.7 mg/kg). The toxicity values based on lethal/sublethal changes in the laboratory bioassays might not fully protect field organisms against damage from chemicals, such as Cd, unless an assessment factor of 5 is used. These findings highlight the need to conduct field validation of criteria/guidelines before they are introduced to protect organisms/ecosystems in the field and provide a preliminary template for future field validation of criteria elsewhere. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:2450-2462. © 2021 SETAC.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925909

RESUMO

The steroid hormones are required for gonadal development in fish. The present study was undertaken to characterize the cDNA and promoter sequences of TSPO and SMAD4 genes in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, explored the mRNA tissue expression and deciphered their promoter regions. Yellow catfish TSPO and SMAD4 shared the similar domains to the corresponding genes from other vertebrates. The TSPO and SMAD4 mRNAs were widely expressed in the detected tissues, but at different levels. Several transcription factors were predicted, such as Sp, GATA, AP1, SOX1, SRY, STAT, HNF4α, PPARγ, Pu.1 and FOXL2. PPARγ overexpression increased but STAT3 overexpression reduced TSPO promoter activity, and FOXL2 overexpression inhibited the promoter activity of TSPO and SMAD4. The site mutation and EMSA analysis indicated that TSPO promoter possessed STAT3 and FOXL2 sites. Overall, our provided the novel understanding into the transcriptionally regulatory mechanisms of TSPO and SMAD4 in fish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de GABA , Proteína Smad4 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de GABA/genética , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad4/genética , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo
11.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111670, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218828

RESUMO

According to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), understanding the extent of wetlands, their change trends and the proximate causes is important for the conservation of wetlands and endangered waterfowls. Here we studied the world's ninth largest river basin, the Amur River Basin (ARB), with a land area of 2.08 million km2. Our objectives were to address the information deficiencies of spatially explicit wetland distributions and their changes and to quantify the proximate causes of these changes in various periods in the ARB. A hybrid approach combining object-based and hierarchical decision-trees classification (HOHC) was applied to Landsat series images to obtain multitemporal land cover datasets from 1980 to 2016. Further quantitative analysis revealed that the ARB held 184,561 km2 of wetlands in 2016, accounting for 9% of the whole basin area. Among these, 59% of the wetlands were identified on the Russian side, while 40% were on the Chinese side, and 1% were on the Mongolian side. The ARB lost 22% of its wetland (52,246 km2) from 1980 to 2016, with a consistent net loss from 1980 to 2010 but an area gain from 2010 to 2016. Human activities dominated the consistent wetland losses on the Chinese side of the ARB, of which cropland expansion was the primary proximate cause of wetland loss (69%). Conversely, the wetlands on the Russian side had consistent losses from 1980 to 2010 followed by a gain from 2010 to 2016, which could be attributed to climate change. These quantified data will inform decision-making on wetland conservation and benefit scientific studies depending on spatially explicit wetland information.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Áreas Alagadas , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Rios , Federação Russa
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141997, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889293

RESUMO

Little is known about the influence of conversion of wetlands to farmlands on concentrations and distribution of elements other than those most commonly studied, partly because of the lack of stratification in wetland soils. In this study, in the Sanjiang Plain in northeastern China, we determined the concentrations of 63 elements along soil profiles at three depths: 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and below the depth to which farmers would plow, at 40-60 cm, under four land uses: natural wetland, drained wetland, wetland converted to soybean field and subsequently to rice paddy field. Based on our previous work, we expected that changes in organic matter content would be an important factor affecting element concentrations, but that changes in land uses also led to decoupling of the influence of organic matter on elements. This would lead to other factors, such as changes in redox conditions, changes in hydrology and mixing of soils due to plowing, becoming more important factors affecting element distributions. Our study confirmed these expectations. Changes in organic matter content directly or indirectly affected many elements, explaining 67% of variation. Arsenic, cobalt, iron and nickel concentrations were dramatically higher and sulfur concentrations lower when wetland was converted to paddy field. Co and Ni were identified as potential chemical indicators of wetland conversion. Our research is the first to use multi-element fingerprinting to study effects of conversion of wetlands to croplands in China and showed that this relatively simple approach highlights the complexity of the many interacting factors in reclamation of wetland soils for agricultural uses.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858813

RESUMO

ZIP (zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein) family plays an important role in organism Zn balance. This research identified the promoter regions of ZIP3 and ZIP8, two members of ZIP family, from a freshwater teleost yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, characterized the binding sequences of the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) and Ras responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) on their promoter regions. The present study cloned and obtained the 2027 bp of ZIP3 promoter and 1664 bp of ZIP8 promoter, and predicted several key elements on their promoters, such as the binding sites of CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein), KLF4 (Kruppel like factor 4), MTF-1 and RREB1. The sequence deletion from -361 bp to -895 bp down-regulated the luciferase activity of ZIP3 promoter, and the deletion from -897 bp to -1664 bp down-regulated the luciferase activity of ZIP8 promoter. Within different deletion plasmids, the relative luciferase activities of ZIP3 and ZIP8 promoters changes to Zn incubation in a Zn concentration-dependent manner. The site mutagenesis and EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) found that the -1327 bp/-1343 bp MTF-1 binding site and the -248 bp/-267 bp RREB1 binding site on the ZIP3 promoter, and the -1543 bp/-1557 bp MTF-1 binding site on the ZIP8 promoter are functional sites. Low Zn increased the binding capability between MTF-1 and its responsive site on the ZIP3 promoter, and high Zn increased the transcriptional activation ZIP3 by RREB1; Zn also promoted the binding ability between MTF-1 and its responsive element on the ZIP8 promoter. This study provides the first direct evidence for the response elements of MTF-1 and RREB1 on ZIP3 and MTF-1 on ZIP8 to Zn, which are very important for the evaluation of Zn nutrition and toxicity in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Deleção de Sequência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605219

RESUMO

Wetlands regulate the balance of global organic carbon. Small changes in the carbon stocks of wetland ecosystem play a crucial role in the regional soil carbon cycle. However, an accurate estimation of carbon stocks is still be debated for China's wetlands ecosystem due to the limitation of data collection and methodology. Here, we investigate the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in a 1-m depth in China's palustrine wetlands. A total of 1383 sample data were collected from palustrine wetlands in China. The data sources are divided into three parts, respectively, data collection from published literature, data from books, and actual measurement data of sample points. The results demonstrate that there is considerable SOC storage in China's palustrine wetlands (9.945 Pg C), primarily abundant in the northeast, northwest arid and semi-arid as well as Qinghai-Tibet Plateau regions. The SOC density in per unit area soil was higher in the wetland area of northeast, southwest and Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Within China terrestrial scale, the temperature and precipitation differences caused by latitude were the main environmental factors affecting the organic carbon content. Furthermore, except for the southeast and south wetland region, SOC content decreased with depth.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Alcaloides , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Tibet
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139587, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492611

RESUMO

Permafrost play an important role in regulating global climate system. We analyzed the gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), and evapotranspiration (ET) derived from MODIS and three earth system models participated in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) in the Asian permafrost region. The water use efficiency (WUE) was further computed. The simulated GPP, NPP, and ET show slightly increasing trends during historical period (1900-2014) and strong increasing trends in projection period (2015-2100), and projected impacts of climate change on all variables are greater under high-emission scenarios than low-emission scenarios. Further analysis revealed higher increases in GPP and NPP than that of ET, indicating that vegetation carbon sequestration governs the growing WUE under historical and projected periods in this region. The GPP, NPP and ET showed higher changing rates in western, central and southeast areas of this region, and WUE (WUEGPP, and WUENPP) shows the similar spatial pattern. Compared to MODIS-derived GPP, NPP, and ET during 2000-2014, Earth system models yield the best estimates for NPP, while slight underestimations for GPP and ET, and thus slight overestimations for WUEGPP and WUENPP. This study highlights the predominant role of vegetation activity in regulating regional WUE in Asian permafrost region under future climate change. Vegetation domination of the growing water use efficiency implies that the permafrost region may continue acting efficiently in sequestrating atmospheric carbon in terms of water consumption throughout the 21st century.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Ciclo do Carbono , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Água
16.
Ecol Lett ; 23(5): 821-830, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100414

RESUMO

Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, whereas concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modelling approach estimated that contemporary N addition suppresses CH4 sink in global grassland by 11.4% and concurrent N and P deposition alleviates this suppression to 5.8%. The P alleviation of N-suppressed CH4 sink is primarily attributed to substrate competition, defined as the competition between ammonium and CH4 for the methane mono-oxygenase enzyme. The N and P impacts on CH4 uptake indicate that projected increases in N and P depositions might substantially affect CH4 uptake and alter the global CH4 cycle.


Assuntos
Metano , Nitrogênio , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Fósforo , Solo
17.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114030, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004965

RESUMO

Temperate wetlands have been undergoing increased nitrogen (N) inputs in the past decades, yet its influence on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics is still elusive in these ecosystems. Here, using a field multi-level N addition (0, 6, 12, and 24 g N m-2 year-1) experiment, we investigated the changes in aboveground plant biomass, DOC production from plant litters, DOC biodegradation, and DOC concentration in surface water and soil pore water (0-15 cm depth) following 10 years of N addition in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. We observed that, irrespective of N addition levels, N addition caused an increase in DOC production from plant litters under both non-flooded and flooded conditions. Conversely, DOC biodegradation was inhibited by N addition in both surface water and soil pore water. Because of enhanced DOC production from plant litters and declined DOC biodegradation, N addition elevated DOC concentration in surface water and soil pore water across the growing season. In addition, long-term N addition increased aboveground plant biomass, but decreased species richness. Our results suggest that long-term N enrichment promotes DOC accumulation through the contrasting effects on litter-derived DOC production and microbial decomposition of DOC in temperate wetlands.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nitrogênio , Áreas Alagadas , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Solo
18.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 59: 126433, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zn is an essential trace element for vertebrates, and Zn uptake and transport is related with the ZIP family of Zn transporters. Meantime, Zn also influenced the expression of ZIP family members. METHODS: We cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of ten Zn transport-relevant genes (ZIP1, ZIP3, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP9, ZIP10, ZIP11, ZIP13 and ZIP14) from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, investigated their mRNA tissue expression. These ZIP mRNA expression was also assessed in the primary hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells of yellow catfish in response to three Zn levels (0, 30 µM and 60 µM, respectively). RESULTS: All these genes shared the similar domains with the corresponding members in mammals. The mRNA expression of the ten ZIP genes was detected in nine-tested tissues, but variable among these tissues. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy observation indicated that intracellular free Zn2+ concentration in hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells increased with increasing Zn incubation concentration at both 24 h and 48 h. Zn incubation differentially influenced mRNA levels of ZIP transporters in the hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells, in a time- and cells-dependent manners. In the hepatocytes, at 24 h, compared to the control, Zn addition down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP1, ZIP3, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP9, ZIP11 and ZIP14; however, ZIP10 mRNA levels were lower in 60 µM Zn group than those in the control and 30 µM Zn group. At 48 h, mRNA levels of ZIP1, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP9, ZIP10 and ZIP14 declined with increasing Zn incubation concentrations; ZIP3 mRNA levels were the lowest in 60 µM Zn group and showed no significant differences between the control and 30 µM Zn group. In the intestinal epithelial cells, at 24 h, Zn addition down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP1, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP9, ZIP10, ZIP11, ZIP13 and ZIP14; ZIP3 mRNA levels were lower in 60 µM Zn group than those in the control and 30 µM Zn group. At 48 h, Zn addition up-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP6 and ZIP9, but down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP8, ZIP10 and ZIP13. ZIP7, ZIP11 and ZIP14 mRNA abundances were the lowest in 60 µM Zn group and showed no significant differences between the control and 30 µM Zn group. CONCLUSION: For the first time, our study characterized ten ZIP family members in yellow catfish, explored their mRNA tissue expression. Their regulation to Zn addition were also investigated in the hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells of yellow catfish. Our study revealed the mechanism of cells exposed to Zn addition and provided novel insights for the regulatory mechanism of Zn homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/genética , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Água Doce/química , Hepatócitos/química , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 1210-1218, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743916

RESUMO

Eurasian permafrost serves as an important nitrogen source for linked aquatic and oceanic ecosystems. To fill in the data gaps in the southern margin of the Eurasian permafrost, nitrogen dynamics in the two rivers that drain the permafrost in the Great Xing'an Mountains of northeast China were investigated during the 2012-2015 growing seasons. The mean concentration of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in the two catchments was 0.63 mg L-1, which is generally higher than other permafrost catchments around the Arctic Ocean. The dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) constituted the majority of TDN, and the mean DON:TDN ratio was as high as 0.84. The seasonal flood patterns broadly influenced the concentrations and annual loads of DON, as well as the dissolved organic carbon (DOC):DON ratios in the two rivers. River discharge was positively related to DON concentration during growing seasons, while the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), namely ammonium and nitrate, demonstrated no relationship with discharge. The estimated annual TDN yield, 190 kg km-2 yr-1 on average, was much higher than in the large Arctic rivers that drain permafrost. This yield accounts for 42.7% of the total atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the study area, which indicates a great potential for dissolved nitrogen export from the permafrost area in the Great Xing'an Mountains.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 626: 678-683, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898554

RESUMO

In boreal peatlands, litter decomposition plays an important role in modulating ecosystem carbon (C) cycling and nutrient turnover. However, how climate warming and plant functional group interact to affect litter decomposition is still unclear in these ecosystems. Here, we collected fresh litters of six plant functional groups (nitrogen (N)-fixing species, deciduous tree, deciduous shrub, evergreen shrub, graminoid, and Sphagnum moss) from a boreal peatland located in northeast China. A laboratory incubation experiment was used to determine the effect of temperature (10 °C vs. 20 °C) on microbial respiration and mass loss during decomposition. Among the six functional groups, the litters of N-fixing species and deciduous shrub, followed by deciduous tree, generally had the greatest mass losses and microbial respiration rates, whereas the Sphagnum moss decomposed with the slowest rate at both incubation temperatures. Increasing incubation temperature from 10 °C to 20 °C, microbial respiration rate and mass loss increased slightly for Sphagnum moss litters (25% and 19%, respectively), but increased dramatically for vascular plant litters (84-135% and 49-85%, respectively). For litters from vascular plants, both decomposition rate and temperature sensitivity showed a tight linear correlation with the initial C:N and C:phosphorus ratios. Considering that climate warming will cause increased dominance of woody plant species coupled with decreased cover by Sphagnum mosses, this study provides clear evidence that climate warming and the associated changes to vegetation community composition can synergistically accelerate plant litter decomposition in boreal peatlands.

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