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1.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694887

RESUMO

Bone metastasis is a severe complication associated with various carcinomas. It causes debilitating pain and pathological fractures and dramatically impairs patients' quality of life. Drugs aimed at osteoclastogenesis significantly decrease the incidence of skeletal complications and are currently the standard of care for patients with bone metastases. Here, we reported that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) plays a pivotal role in the formation and function of osteoclasts by regulating the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel Orai1. We showed that SGK1 inhibition represses osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevents bone loss in vivo. Furthermore, we validated the effect of SGK1 on bone metastasis by using an intracardiac injection model in mice. Inhibition of SGK1 resulted in a significant reduction in bone metastasis. Subsequently, the Oncomine and the OncoLnc database were employed to verify the differential expression and the association with clinical outcome of SGK1 gene in breast cancer patients. Our data mechanistically demonstrated the regulation of the SGK1 in the process of osteoclastogenesis and revealed SGK1 as a valuable therapeutic target for bone metastasis.

2.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies of tuberculosis treatment have indicated that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience poor outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize evidence for the relationship between HbA1c control levels and anti-tuberculosis treatment effects in patients afflicted with both tuberculosis and DM. METHODS: Both English and Chinese databases were searched. Chinese databases included CNKI, WanFang, SinoMed, and VIP. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for English articles. We included studies that were restricted to the relationship between HbA1c levels and anti-tuberculosis treatment effects [sputum conversion rate (SCR) and tuberculosis focus absorption] in diabetic patients receiving treatment for tuberculosis. We used RevMan 5.3 software to analyze the data. RESULTS: We included twelve studies of which five reported SCR at two months, seven reported the conversion at three months, and seven reported tuberculosis focus absorption. According to the five studies which reported two months-SCR, patients with diabetes and tuberculosis had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.14 (95% CI: 0.84-5.43) for the two months-SCR between controlled (HbA1c <7.0) and uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥7.0). However, an additional seven studies reporting three months-SCR showed that controlled diabetics had higher SCR than uncontrolled (OR 3.39, 95% CI: 2.12-5.43). Moreover, seven of the twelve studies demonstrated that there were differences in tuberculosis focus absorption between controlled and uncontrolled diabetes (OR 2.69, 95% CI: 1.91-3.79). CONCLUSION: HbA1c control levels influence the SCR at three months and the tuberculosis focus absorption at the end of the anti-tuberculosis intensive treatment phase. This study highlights a need for increased attention to HbA1c or glucose control in patients afflicted with both TB and DM.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652747

RESUMO

In order to understand the water cycle and assess the water quality for irrigation purposes in the Upper Pi River Basin (UPRB), which is the northern slope of the Dabie Mountains, 68 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for H-O isotopes and hydrochemistry during the high-flow season in 2017 and 2018. The results show that ranges of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δ2H: -68.8‱ to -40.8‱, δ18O: -10.05‱ to -5.05‱) are controlled by the medium latitude and high altitude of the UPRB. Among different types of water, the δ2H and δ18O values can be ordered as follows: reservoir water < spring water ≈ river water < pond water. The water of the upstream medium and small reservoir is enriched with lighter isotopes that is likely related to more exchange with rainwater and less residence time; however, large reservoirs are similar to the upstream river and spring in terms of the H-O isotopic composition. Hydro-chemical facies are dominated by the Ca-HCO3 type in the UPRB, which reflects fresh recharged water from rainfall, and few samples are of the Ca-Cl type that is caused by intensive evaporation. The water quality for irrigation purposes was also evaluated. According to the Wilcox diagram, United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) diagram, magnesium hazard, and Kelly's ratio, all water samples have been considered suitable for irrigation water.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(90): 13510-13513, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584053

RESUMO

The elusive heterocumulenic radical OCCNO˙ and its isotopologues OC13CNO˙ and OCC15NO˙ have been prepared by reacting photolytically generated unsaturated carbene OCC/OC13C with ˙NO/15˙NO in cryogenic N2-, Ar-, and Ne-matrices. Upon UV-light (365 nm) irradiation, the C-C bond in OCCNO˙ breaks and yields a long-sought ground-state radical CNO˙ (X2Π), which has also been identified with matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598675

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes have important functions in human diseases and biological processes. Gene expression profile analysis before and after knockdown or knockout is one of the most important strategies for obtaining target genes of TFs and exploring TF functions. Human gene expression profile datasets with TF knockdown and knockout are accumulating rapidly. Based on the urgent need to comprehensively and effectively collect and process these data, we developed KnockTF (http://www.licpathway.net/KnockTF/index.html), a comprehensive human gene expression profile database of TF knockdown and knockout. KnockTF provides a number of resources for human gene expression profile datasets associated with TF knockdown and knockout and annotates TFs and their target genes in a tissue/cell type-specific manner. The current version of KnockTF has 570 manually curated RNA-seq and microarray datasets associated with 308 TFs disrupted by different knockdown and knockout techniques and across multiple tissue/cell types. KnockTF collects upstream pathway information of TFs and functional annotation results of downstream target genes. It provides details about TFs binding to promoters, super-enhancers and typical enhancers of target genes. KnockTF constructs a TF-differentially expressed gene network and performs network analyses for genes of interest. KnockTF will help elucidate TF-related functions and potential biological effects.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 104: 109940, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500050

RESUMO

Well-dispersed Ag nanowires and PVP-modified BaGdF5: Yb3+, Er3+ spherical nanoparticles were prepared by simple solvothermal and hydrothermal method, and they were further combined to obtain photo-thermal-magnetic multifunctional Ag/BaGdF5: Yb3+, Er3+ nanocomposites. Under NIR laser irradiation, monodispersed rare-earth fluoride BaGdF5: Yb3+, Er3+ in nanocomposite exhibit good upconversion fluorescent. Meanwhile, under the action of an external magnetic field, the nanocomposite also exhibits good magnetic properties and excellent contrast efficiency by CT/MR imaging. The NCs possess good structure and photothermal stability at multiple cycles due to that Ag nanowires are modified by polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium citrate. The biocompatibility and low toxicity of NCs are also remarkable. Importantly, the unique linear morphology of Ag particles can achieve high efficiency conversion between light and heat. Furthermore, in vitro tests also confirm the high efficiency of photothermal therapy for cancer cells.

7.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the founding member of the PRMT family of proteins, whose members catalyze methylation of arginine residues in various proteins. Although several studies have reported upregulation of PRMT1 in various cancer types, the expression pattern and the underlying mechanism of PRMT1 action in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are still unclear. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry staining as well as RT-PCR was used to determine the expression pattern of PRMT1 in clinical PDAC samples. Lentivirus packaging and transfection were employed to construct cell lines with PRMT1 overexpression or knockdown. MTT and crystal violet assays were used to determine the proliferation rates of PDAC cells. ß-catenin transcription activity was measured using a TOPFlash assay. PRMT1 binding to the promoter region of CTNNB1 was determined by ChIP-qPCR assay. RESULTS: Elevated PRMT1 expression was found in PDAC tissue samples compared to noncancerous normal tissues in 41 patients using a real-time PCR assay and in 90 patients using a tissue microarray (TMA) in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the PRMT1 expression data and PDAC clinical features revealed that PRMT1 expression was significantly correlated with PDAC tumor size and prognosis in postoperative patients. Additional functional experiments revealed that PRMT1 expression promoted the growth of pancreatic cancer-derived cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that PRMT1 increased the cellular ß-catenin level. We also found that PRMT1 and ß-catenin were co-expressed in TCGA and GTEx datasets containing 370 samples. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our study provides novel insight into the expression and function of PRMT1 in PDAC and indicates that PRMT1 may serve as a therapeutic target for treating patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(1): 8-14, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474337

RESUMO

To explore the effect of double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase (PKR) in acute lung injury (ALI) and resultant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI was used to evaluate the levels of phosphorylated (p)-PKR and NLRP3 in lung tissue, and the protective effects of a PKR inhibitor on lung injury. And in vitro, macrophages were incubated with LPS, with or without PKR inhibitor pre-treatment. It was observed that the levels of p-PKR protein and NLRP3 protein were significantly increased compared with those in control tissues after LPS administration. Meanwhile, treatment with PKR inhibitor decreased inflammation, injury score, wet/dry weight ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein levels, neutrophil count in BALF, myeloperoxidase activity and expression of high-mobility group box1(HMGB1) and interleukin(IL)-1ß in the lungs of LPS-challenged mice. In vitro, we demonstrated that the levels of p-PKR and NLRP3, and cell mortality rate were increased in macrophages which were incubated with LPS compared with those without LPS administration, and PKR inhibitor significantly suppressed the level of NLRP3, caspase-1, HMGB1 and IL-1ß. These results indicate that PKR plays a key role in ALI through NLRP3-pyrotosis pathway and pharmacological inhibition of PKR may have potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of patients with ALI and ARDS.

9.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaaw5686, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523709

RESUMO

Medium-scale quantum devices that integrate about hundreds of physical qubits are likely to be developed in the near future. However, these devices will lack the resources for realizing quantum fault tolerance. Therefore, the main challenge of exploring the advantage of quantum computation is to minimize the impact of device and control imperfections without complete logical encoding. Quantum error mitigation is a solution satisfying the requirement. Here, we demonstrate an error mitigation protocol based on gate set tomography and quasi-probability decomposition. One- and two-qubit circuits are tested on a superconducting device, and computation errors are successfully suppressed. Because this protocol is universal for digital quantum computers and algorithms computing expected values, our results suggest that error mitigation can be an essential component of near-future quantum computation.

10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1086: 82-89, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561797

RESUMO

The location of double bond in unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) plays a critical role in their physiological properties. However, structural identification and quantification of unsaturated FAs by mass spectrometry are still challenging. In this work, we reported the coupling of epoxidation reaction of the C=C in unsaturated FAs and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for accurate identification and quantification of C=C isomers of FAs. Epoxidation of the C=C in unsaturated FAs was induced by a dioxide of ketone, tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one 1,1-dioxide, as a catalyst and Oxone as an oxidant in less than 5 min with nearly 100% yield. All the C=C bonds were epoxidized to obtain a single product, simplifying the chromatographic separation of epoxidation products to enable more accurate quantification analysis. The epoxidation products were stable at room temperature and can produce highly abundant diagnostic ions indicative of C=C locations by tandem mass spectrometry using collision-induced association (CID). The application of this approach for the analysis of FAs isomers in human plasma demonstrated the potential of our method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of unsaturated FAs in complex biological samples, which is valuable in biological and medical analysis.

11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the evaluation results of skin sensitivity, such as clinical parameters, stinging test records and biophysical assessments dates might be impacted by many factors, the influence factors need to be further explored, and the skin sensitivity evaluation process and methodology needed distinction and normalization. In this study, we investigated the changes of sensitive skin indexes and lactic acid stinging test results in different seasons, facial regions, skin photo-type, and living habits. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy subjects had completed this study. Lactic acid stinging test was performed in different seasons. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, sebum secretion, and pH were measured in an environment-controlled room. Correlations between stinging responses, skin biophysical parameters, and sensitive skin inducements in different seasons were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Skin TEWL, hydration, sebum secretion, and pH values on different facial parts were various. Two-way correlation analysis between the results of lactic acid stinging test in different seasons and the sensitivity factors showed differences between summer, autumn, and winter. The mean scores of lactic acid stinging test increased in autumn. Linear regression analysis of skin sensitivity factors in type III and type IV photobiology skin found that the frequency of sleeping time and eating spicy food in the past of week could infect the sensitive skin evaluation dates statistically (P < .05). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Skin sensitivity assessment results were impacted by seasonal transformation, living habits and customs, and facial regions. These indicted that we should consider above interfering factors when evaluated the skin sensitivity for getting more precise dates.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540022

RESUMO

Dissolved inorganic carbon isotope composition (δ13CDIC), together with major ion concentrations were measured in the Mun River and its tributaries in March 2018 to constrain the origins and cycling of dissolved inorganic carbon. In the surface water samples, the DIC content ranged from 185 to 5897 µmol/L (average of 1376 µmol/L), and the δ13CDIC of surface water ranged from -19.6‱ to -2.7‱. In spite of the high variability in DIC concentrations and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), the δ13CDIC values of the groundwater were relatively consistent, with a mean value of -16.9 ± 1.4‱ (n = 9). Spatial changes occurred in the direction and magnitude of CO2 flux through water-air interface (FCO2). In the dry season, fluxes varied from -6 to 1826 mmol/(m2·d) with an average of 240 mmol/(m2·d). In addition to the dominant control on hydrochemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotope composition by the rock weathering, the impacts from anthropogenic activities were also observed in the Mun River, especially higher DIC concentration of waste water from urban activities. These human disturbances may affect the accurate estimate contributions of carbon dioxide from tropical rivers to the atmospheric carbon budgets.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553514

RESUMO

Alkynyl isocyanates have been postulated as highly reactive intermediates in synthetic chemistry. Herein, the parent molecule HC≡CNCO is isolated for the first time. In sharp contrast to the previously reported short lifetime (ca. 15 s) at room temperature, we found that HC≡CNCO has a lifetime of 55 h in the gas phase (2 mbar, 300 K) with a melting point of -79.5 °C and vaporization enthalpy (ΔHvap ) of 23.1(1) kJ mol-1 . Apart from the IR (gas, solid, and matrix), 1 H and 13 C NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopic characterization, its photoisomerization with a acylnitrene HC≡CC(O)N and cyanoketene NCC(H)CO has been observed.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 48(37): 13907-13911, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469132

RESUMO

Monomeric methyl metaphosphate (CH3OPO2), a highly electrophilic phosphorylating intermediate in chemical oligonucleotide synthesis, has been generated in the gas phase by high-vacuum flash pyrolysis (1000 K) of methyl 2-butenylphosphonate. In addition to the unambiguous characterization using IR spectroscopy in solid N2-, Ar-, and Ne-matrices, the formation CH3OPO2 in the photooxidation of the prototypical phosphinidene oxide CH3PO by O2 with 18O-isotope scrambling has been observed in the solid N2-matrix (15 K).

15.
Science ; 365(6453): 574-577, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395779

RESUMO

Multipartite entangled states are crucial for numerous applications in quantum information science. However, the generation and verification of multipartite entanglement on fully controllable and scalable quantum platforms remains an outstanding challenge. We report the deterministic generation of an 18-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and multicomponent atomic Schrödinger cat states of up to 20 qubits on a quantum processor, which features 20 superconducting qubits, also referred to as artificial atoms, interconnected by a bus resonator. By engineering a one-axis twisting Hamiltonian, the system of qubits, once initialized, coherently evolves to multicomponent atomic Schrödinger cat states-that is, superpositions of atomic coherent states including the GHZ state-at specific time intervals as expected. Our approach on a solid-state platform should not only stimulate interest in exploring the fundamental physics of quantum many-body systems, but also enable the development of applications in practical quantum metrology and quantum information processing.

16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00860, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Aberrant expression of miR-497-5p has been reported in various human malignancies. However, the role of miR-497-5p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we found that miR-497-5p was downregulated in HCC tissues. The low level of miR-497-5p in HCC tumors was correlated with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics and predicted poor prognosis in HCC patients. The overexpression of miR-497-5p significantly inhibited HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, and metastasis in vitro and vivo. Bioinformatics analysis further identified insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) as a novel target of miR-497-5p in HCC cells. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that miR-497-5p regulates HCC cell survival, partially through downregulation of IGF1. Therefore, the miR-497-5p/IGF1 axis might serve as a novel therapeutic target in patients with HCC.

17.
Mol Oncol ; 13(10): 2211-2226, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408573

RESUMO

Accurate predictions of classification biomarkers and disease status are indispensable for clinical cancer diagnosis and research. However, the robustness of conventional gene biomarkers is limited by issues with reproducibility across different measurement platforms and cohorts of patients. In this study, we collected 4775 samples from 12 different cancer datasets, which contained 4636 TCGA samples and 139 GEO samples. A new method was developed to detect miRNA-mediated subpathway activities by using directed random walk (miDRW). To calculate the activity of each miRNA-mediated subpathway, we constructed a global directed pathway network (GDPN) with genes as nodes. We then identified miRNAs with expression levels which were strongly inversely correlated with differentially expressed target genes in the GDPN. Finally, each miRNA-mediated subpathway activity was integrated with the topological information, differential levels of miRNAs and genes, expression levels of genes, and target relationships between miRNAs and genes. The results showed that the proposed method yielded a more robust and accurate overall performance compared with other existing pathway-based, miRNA-based, and gene-based classification methods. The high-frequency miRNA-mediated subpathways are more reliable in classifying samples and for selecting therapeutic strategies.

18.
Exp Cell Res ; 383(1): 111491, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288024

RESUMO

Transmembrane protein 18 (Tmem18) is an obesity-associated gene essential for adipogenesis; however, its function in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is still unclear. In this study, we found that Tmem18 was significantly downregulated in rat BMSCs after osteogenic induction. TMEM18 overexpression remarkably downregulated osteo-specific genes including alkaline phosphatase (Alp), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (Ocn), and osteopontin (Opn), and reduced the number of mineral deposits and ALP activity in vitro, whereas knockdown of Tmem18 yielded the opposite results. In vivo assays also indicated that TMEM18 knockdown BMSCs have an increased bone formation potential in a rat model of calvarial defects. Analyses of the mechanism suggested that TMEM18 overexpression decreased ß-catenin expression, whereas the TMEM18 knockdown enhanced ß-catenin expression and promoted its nuclear translocation. The positive effects on osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs owing to the TMEM18 knockdown were attenuated by ß-catenin downregulation. Taken together, these results indicate that TMEM18 plays an inhibitory role in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via inactivation of ß-catenin.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 936, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior have important implications for child health. The purpose of the study was to describe the PA and sedentary behavior among Chinese children. METHODS: The study analyzed the PA and sedentary behavior status of 38,744 Chinese children aged 6-17 years, based on the data from China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2010-2012. RESULTS: Chinese children spent 61.6 min/d on school-time PA and the proportion with 60 min and over on school-time PA was 52.5%. The average transportation time was 38.5 min/d and the main mode for children was walking (50.9%), followed by taking private vehicles (19.4%), taking public transportation (16.4%) and cycling (13.3%). Approximately 70% Chinese children did domestic PA and they spent 17.2 min/d on it. Children spent 2.9 h per day on leisure-time sedentary behaviors and 85.8% of them engaged in sedentary behaviors longer than 2 h/d. The proportion of children participating in leisure-time PA was 35.4%and they performed moderate-to-vigorous PA on 3.4 days per week with average 44.9 min per day. Boys were more active in school-time PA, leisure-time PA and transportation, while girls spent more time on domestic PA and homework. More older children took active transportation and spent more time on domestic PA, leisure-time PA and sedentary behaviors compared with younger children. Children in urban area were more likely to take inactive transportation and participate in leisure-time PA, spent less time on domestic PA while more time on sedentary behaviors compared with their counterpart. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese children performed little physical activity and spent long time engaging in sedentary behaviors. Their physical activity and sedentary behaviors varied by gender, age and area.


Assuntos
Exercício , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Exp Cell Res ; 382(2): 111486, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255598

RESUMO

Neutrophils activated during acute lung injury (ALI) form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to capture pathogens. However, excessive NETs can cause severe inflammatory reactions. Macrophages are classified as M1 macrophages with proinflammatory effects or M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory effects. During ALI, alveolar macrophages (AMs) polarize to the M1 phenotype. This study tested the hypothesis that NETs may aggravate ALI or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) inflammation by promoting alveolar macrophage polarization to the M1 type. Our research was carried out in three aspects: clinical research, animal experiments and in vitro experiments. We determined that NET levels in ARDS patients were positively correlated with M1-like macrophage polarization. NET formation was detected in murine ALI tissue and associated with increased M1 markers and decreased M2 markers in BALF and lung tissue. Treatment with NET inhibitors significantly inhibitor NETs generation, downregulated M1 markers and upregulated M2 markers. Regardless of LPS pre-stimulation, significant secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulated M1 markers were detected from bone marrow-derived macrophages (M0 and M2) cocultured with high concentrations of NETs; conversely, M2 markers were downregulated. In conclusion, NETs promote ARDS inflammation during the acute phase by promoting macrophage polarization to the M1 phenotype. We propose that NETs play an important role in the interaction between neutrophils and macrophages during the early acute phase of ALI.

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