Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 88
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212574, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704478

RESUMO

Importance: Face masks are recommended to prevent transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, there is scarce evidence on their protection efficacy and ways to improve it. Objective: To determine the proportion of improper face mask use, the factors associated with face mask protection efficacy, and ways to improve efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in China from July to August 2020 in 5 kinds of public places. Participants included convenience samples of individuals wearing face masks and able to taste the check solution. Exposures: Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, including sex, age, and education level; information on face mask model and the worn duration was recorded. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome as airtightness, assessed by detecting face-to-face mask gaps, movement of cotton fiber placed at the face mask edges, and using a qualitative fit test with a bitter solution spray. Masks were further assessed for whether sealing the upper face mask edge with an adhesive tape strip was associated with improved face mask airtightness. Results: Among 6003 face mask wearers enrolled, the mean (SD) age of participants was 31.1 (13.7) years, and 3047 participants (50.8%) were female. The first qualitative fit test found air leakage in 2754 participants (45.9%; 95% CI, 44.6%-47.1%), which was mostly attributable to gaps at the upper face mask edge. After sealing the upper face mask edge with an adhesive tape strip, 69.7% (95% CI, 68.0%-71.5%) of masks that had exhibited leakage became airtight in the second qualitative fit test, and the rate of airtightness reached 96.2% (95% CI, 95.4%-96.8%) in a third qualitative fit test after new surgical face masks with tape on the upper edge were provided to those who had not converted initially. The tape was well tolerated; overall, 6 participants (1.2%) reported a rash and 24 participants (5.8%) reported significant discomfort. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of face mask fit among participants in China, although most people used face masks in public places, compromised protection due to suboptimal airtightness was common. The simple approach of sealing the upper edge of the face mask with an adhesive tape strip was associated with substantially improved its airtightness.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fibra de Algodão , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Máscaras , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cancer Control ; 28: 1073274821989307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the oncologic outcomes associated with platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in the management of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS: A total of 695 patients with FIGO stage IB2, IIA2, IIB-IVA LACC treated at 6 medical facilities were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: 478 were assigned to CCRT alone (CCRT group) and 217 to adjuvant chemotherapy after CCRT (CCRT-ACT group). The treatment outcomes were retrospectively compared and reported after the propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 56.4 months, no statistically significant differences were found in overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and distance metastasis-free survival (DMFS) between 2 groups. In CCRT-ACT group, patients with lymph nodes involvement or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) had significantly longer DMFS, but no significant benefit in survival outcomes were observed with more than 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, patients with a high level of CA125 (>20.5U/mL) or SCC-Ag (>22.8µg/L) had a relatively better DFS or PFS, and grade 3-4 acute hematological toxicity, late urinary and lower gastrointestinal complications and diarrhea symptom were more frequent in CCRT-ACT group. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy after CCRT has a potential role in further improving disease control for LACC patients with lymph nodal-metastasis or SCC with a high level of CA125 or SCC-Ag. Due to increased treatment-related complications and diarrhea symptom affecting the quality of life, post-CCRT adjuvant chemotherapy with excessive cycles was not be considered as the most appropriate choice in general.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 123(5): 793-802, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTEN loss is a putative driver in histotypes of ovarian cancer (high-grade serous (HGSOC), endometrioid (ENOC), clear cell (CCOC), mucinous (MOC), low-grade serous (LGSOC)). We aimed to characterise PTEN expression as a biomarker in epithelial ovarian cancer in a large population-based study. METHODS: Tumours from 5400 patients from a multicentre observational, prospective cohort study of the Ovarian Tumour Tissue Analysis Consortium were used to evaluate associations between immunohistochemical PTEN patterns and overall survival time, age, stage, grade, residual tumour, CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) counts, expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR) by means of Cox proportional hazard models and generalised Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. RESULTS: Downregulation of cytoplasmic PTEN expression was most frequent in ENOC (most frequently in younger patients; p value = 0.0001) and CCOC and was associated with longer overall survival in HGSOC (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.94, p value = 0.022). PTEN expression was associated with ER, PR and AR expression (p values: 0.0008, 0.062 and 0.0002, respectively) in HGSOC and with lower CD8 counts in CCOC (p value < 0.0001). Heterogeneous expression of PTEN was more prevalent in advanced HGSOC (p value = 0.019) and associated with higher CD8 counts (p value = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: PTEN loss is a frequent driver in ovarian carcinoma associating distinctly with expression of hormonal receptors and CD8+ TIL counts in HGSOC and CCOC histotypes.

5.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 38(7): 870-879, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283566

RESUMO

Cervical cancer (CC) holds the second highest incidence and is the fourth dominating cause of cancer-induced death in women. It has been widely accepted that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in pathological and physiological activities of CC. However, the research of lncRNAs is still in the initial stage. The biological function of lncRNA deoxyguanosine kinase antisense RNA 1 (DGUOK-AS1) in human cancers has not been reported yet. We found that DGUOK-AS1 was aberrantly upregulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC) tissues through TCGA database. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) also verified the high expression of DGUOK-AS1 in CC cell lines. Loss-of-function assays indicated that DGUOK-AS1 silence repressed CC cell growth. In addition, dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) experiments validated the binding relation between miR-653-5p and DGUOK-AS1 or EMSY. Results of the rescue assays elucidated that EMSY overexpression or miR-653-5p downregulation reversed the suppressive function of DGUOK-AS1 knockdown on cell growth and DNA repair in CC. To sum up, this research highlighted that DGUOK-AS1 could promote CC cell proliferation via serving as a ceRNA of miR-653-5p to release EMSY, which might inspire us to discover novel strategies for CC treatment. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: DGUOK-AS1 knockdown hinders proliferation of CC cells. DGUOK-AS1 sequesters miR-653-5p to elevate EMSY in CC. EMSY is required for DGUOK-AS1 to induce cell proliferation and repress DNA damage in CC.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analysed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C; and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families, while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C RR = 7.55, 95%CI:5.60-10.19, p = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D RR = 7.60, 95%CI:5.61-10.30, p = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C RR = 1.99, 95%CI:1.39-2.85, p = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D RR = 1.83, 95%CI:1.24-2.72, p = 0.002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC RRs increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 were 11% (95%CI:6-21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95%CI:7-23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 were 21% (95%CI:15-29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95%CI:14-28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C/D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history, and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with TOC; or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counselling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2192-2205, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499236

RESUMO

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), our study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs. never) and rs13255292 (p value = 3.48 × 10-4 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI = 0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
8.
Oncotarget ; 8(31): 50930-50940, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881617

RESUMO

We analyzed whole exome sequencing data in germline DNA from 412 high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project and identified 5,517 genes harboring a predicted deleterious germline coding mutation in at least one HGSOC case. Gene-set enrichment analysis showed enrichment for genes involved in DNA repair (p = 1.8×10-3). Twelve DNA repair genes - APEX1, APLF, ATX, EME1, FANCL, FANCM, MAD2L2, PARP2, PARP3, POLN, RAD54L and SMUG1 - were prioritized for targeted sequencing in up to 3,107 HGSOC cases, 1,491 cases of other epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) subtypes and 3,368 unaffected controls of European origin. We estimated mutation prevalence for each gene and tested for associations with disease risk. Mutations were identified in both cases and controls in all genes except MAD2L2, where we found no evidence of mutations in controls. In FANCM we observed a higher mutation frequency in HGSOC cases compared to controls (29/3,107 cases, 0.96 percent; 13/3,368 controls, 0.38 percent; P=0.008) with little evidence for association with other subtypes (6/1,491, 0.40 percent; P=0.82). The relative risk of HGSOC associated with deleterious FANCM mutations was estimated to be 2.5 (95% CI 1.3 - 5.0; P=0.006). In summary, whole exome sequencing of EOC cases with large-scale replication in case-control studies has identified FANCM as a likely novel susceptibility gene for HGSOC, with mutations associated with a moderate increase in risk. These data may have clinical implications for risk prediction and prevention approaches for high-grade serous ovarian cancer in the future and a significant impact on reducing disease mortality.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 657, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that some ovarian tumours evoke an immune response, which can be assessed by tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). To facilitate adoption of TILs as a clinical biomarker, a standardised method for their H&E visual evaluation has been validated in breast cancer. METHODS: We sought to investigate the prognostic significance of TILs in a study of 953 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer tumour samples, both primary and metastatic, from 707 patients from the prospective population-based SEARCH study. TILs were analysed using a standardised method based on H&E staining producing a percentage score for stromal and intratumoral compartments. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios of the association between TILs and survival. RESULTS: The extent of stromal and intra-tumoral TILs were correlated in the primary tumours (n = 679, Spearman's rank correlation = 0.60, P < 0.001) with a similar correlation in secondary tumours (n = 224, Spearman's rank correlation = 0.62, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between stromal TIL levels in primary and secondary tumour samples (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.29, P < 0.001) and intra-tumoral TIL levels in primary and secondary tumour samples (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.19, P = 0.0094). The extent of stromal TILs differed between histotypes (Pearson chi2 (12d.f.) 54.1, P < 0.0001) with higher levels of stromal infiltration in the high-grade serous and endometriod cases. A significant association was observed for higher intratumoral TIL levels and a favourable prognosis (HR 0.74 95% CI 0.55-1.00 p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: This study is the largest collection of epithelial ovarian tumour samples evaluated for TILs. We have shown that stromal and intratumoral TIL levels are correlated and that their levels correlate with clinical variables such as tumour histological subtype. We have also shown that increased levels of both intratumoral and stromal TILs are associated with a better prognosis; however, this is only statistically significant for intratumoral TILs. This study suggests that a clinically useful immune prognostic indicator in epithelial ovarian cancer could be developed using this technique.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/secundário , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Cancer ; 140(11): 2422-2435, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063166

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 17(8): 3945-51, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether concurrent chemotherapy treatment is superior to radiotherapy alone as an adjuvant regimen for postoperative cervical carcinoma with risk factors remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search strategy was used to examine Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Internet Web, the Chinese Biomedical Database and the Wanfang Database. Article reference lists and scientific meeting abstracts were also screened. Controlled trials comparing concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in postoperative cervical cancer were included. The methodological quality of non-randomized controlled trials was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Randomized controlled studies were evaluated with the Cochrane handbook. A meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: A total of 1,073 patients from 11 clinical trials were analysed, with 582 patients in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group and 491 patients in the radiotherapy group. Hazard ratios (HR) of 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.72) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.35-0.72) were observed for overall survival and progression-free survival, indicating a benefit from the additional use of concurrent chemotherapy. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that cervical cancer with high risk factors significantly benefitted from concurrent chemotherapy when examining overall survival (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) and progression-free survival (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.70), but patients with intermediate risk factors showed no benefit from concurrent chemotherapy in overall survival (HR 1.72, 95% CI 0.28-10.41) and progression-free survival (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.19-6.14). No significant differences were observed for grade 3-4 anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 3.87, 95% CI 0.69-21.84), grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (RR 3.04, 95% CI 0.88- 10.58), grade 3-4 vomiting or nausea (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.27-10.96), or grade 3-4 diarrhoea (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.69-2.83). Significant differences were observed for grade 3-4 neutropenia in favour of the radiotherapy group (RR 7.23, 95% CI 3.94-13.26). CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves survival in postoperative cervical cancer cases with high risk factors but not in those with intermediate risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , China , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
12.
Oncol Rep ; 36(2): 705-14, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27349969

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinogenesis may be related to the long-term effects of estradiol with no antagonism. However, how estradiol regulates cell proliferation is unknown. In the present study, through investigating the molecular events involved in estradiol induced angiogenics factors VEGF and bFGF, we found that estradiol induced endometrial cancer cell division, proliferation, migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and upregulated mRNA expression and protein synthesis of VEGF and bFGF. The estradiol-dependent induction of the expression of VEGF and bFGF was blocked by ER inhibitor, AKT inhibitor and NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC) in estrogen receptor positive Ishikawa cells and blocked by AKT inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC) in estrogen receptor negative HEC-1A cells. Moreover, estradiol activation of AKT was also blocked by AKT antagonist. NF-κB activation was restricted by estradiol concentration and time. Estradiol leading to VEGF and bFGF induction was also confirmed by the development of xenograft tumors in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that estradiol induces the production of angiogenic factors via a mechanism involving AKT-mediated NF-κB activation partly in non-genomic manner without the estrogen receptor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(5): 780-90, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26976855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk factors relate to hormone exposure and elevated estrogen levels are associated with obesity in postmenopausal women. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene-environment interactions related to hormone-related risk factors could differ between obese and non-obese women. METHODS: We considered interactions between 11,441 SNPs within 80 candidate genes related to hormone biosynthesis and metabolism and insulin-like growth factors with six hormone-related factors (oral contraceptive use, parity, endometriosis, tubal ligation, hormone replacement therapy, and estrogen use) and assessed whether these interactions differed between obese and non-obese women. Interactions were assessed using logistic regression models and data from 14 case-control studies (6,247 cases; 10,379 controls). Histotype-specific analyses were also completed. RESULTS: SNPs in the following candidate genes showed notable interaction: IGF1R (rs41497346, estrogen plus progesterone hormone therapy, histology = all, P = 4.9 × 10(-6)) and ESR1 (rs12661437, endometriosis, histology = all, P = 1.5 × 10(-5)). The most notable obesity-gene-hormone risk factor interaction was within INSR (rs113759408, parity, histology = endometrioid, P = 8.8 × 10(-6)). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the feasibility of assessing multifactor interactions in large genetic epidemiology studies. Follow-up studies are necessary to assess the robustness of our findings for ESR1, CYP11A1, IGF1R, CYP11B1, INSR, and IGFBP2 Future work is needed to develop powerful statistical methods able to detect these complex interactions. IMPACT: Assessment of multifactor interaction is feasible, and, here, suggests that the relationship between genetic variants within candidate genes and hormone-related risk factors may vary EOC susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 780-90. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 41: 71-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES differences in tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. In a pooled analysis, we investigated whether SES as represented by level of education is predictive for advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer, overall and by histotype. The effect of cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the association was also evaluated. METHODS: From 18 case-control studies, we obtained information on 10,601 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio (pOR) using a random effects model. RESULTS: Overall, women who completed ≤high school had an increased risk of advanced tumour stage at diagnosis compared with women who completed >high school (pOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.28). The risk estimates for the different histotypes of ovarian cancer resembled that observed for ovarian cancers combined but did not reach statistical significance. Our results were unchanged when we included BMI and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSION: Lower level of education was associated with an increased risk of advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The observed socioeconomic difference in stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer calls for further studies on how to reduce this diagnostic delay.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(3): 446-54, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While numerous susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have been identified, few associations have been reported with overall survival. In the absence of common prognostic genetic markers, we hypothesize that rare coding variants may be associated with overall EOC survival and assessed their contribution in two exome-based genotyping projects of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). METHODS: The primary patient set (Set 1) included 14 independent EOC studies (4,293 patients) and 227,892 variants, and a secondary patient set (Set 2) included six additional EOC studies (1,744 patients) and 114,620 variants. Because power to detect rare variants individually is reduced, gene-level tests were conducted. Sets were analyzed separately at individual variants and by gene, and then combined with meta-analyses (73,203 variants and 13,163 genes overlapped). RESULTS: No individual variant reached genome-wide statistical significance. A SNP previously implicated to be associated with EOC risk and, to a lesser extent, survival, rs8170, showed the strongest evidence of association with survival and similar effect size estimates across sets (Pmeta = 1.1E-6, HRSet1 = 1.17, HRSet2 = 1.14). Rare variants in ATG2B, an autophagy gene important for apoptosis, were significantly associated with survival after multiple testing correction (Pmeta = 1.1E-6; Pcorrected = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Common variant rs8170 and rare variants in ATG2B may be associated with EOC overall survival, although further study is needed. IMPACT: This study represents the first exome-wide association study of EOC survival to include rare variant analyses, and suggests that complementary single variant and gene-level analyses in large studies are needed to identify rare variants that warrant follow-up study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(3); 446-54. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(3)2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823519

RESUMO

Mosaic truncating mutations in the protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent, 1D (PPM1D) gene have recently been reported with a statistically significantly greater frequency in lymphocyte DNA from ovarian cancer case patients compared with unaffected control patients. Using massively parallel sequencing (MPS) we identified truncating PPM1D mutations in 12 of 3236 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) case patients (0.37%) but in only one of 3431 unaffected control patients (0.03%) (P = .001). All statistical tests were two-sided. A combination of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and MPS data suggested that 12 of the 13 mutations were mosaic. All mutations were identified in post-chemotherapy treatment blood samples from case patients (n = 1827) (average 1234 days post-treatment in carriers) rather than from cases collected pretreatment (less than 14 days after diagnosis, n = 1384) (P = .002). These data suggest that PPM1D variants in EOC cases are primarily somatic mosaic mutations caused by treatment and are not associated with germline predisposition to EOC.


Assuntos
Frequência do Gene , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteína Fosfatase 2C
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(2)2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2*c.9976A>T; p.Lys3326*; rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormone-related cancers. METHODS: Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76 637 cancer case patients and 83 796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9x10(-) (6)) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8x10(-3)). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4x10(-5) and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1x10(-5), respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Códon de Terminação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(26): 2901-7, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26261251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D genes to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population and in a screening trial of individuals at high risk of ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The coding sequence and splice site boundaries of the three RAD51 genes were sequenced and analyzed in germline DNA from a case-control study of 3,429 patients with invasive EOC and 2,772 controls as well as in 2,000 unaffected women who were BRCA1/BRCA2 negative from the United Kingdom Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UK_FOCSS) after quality-control analysis. RESULTS: In the case-control study, we identified predicted deleterious mutations in 28 EOC cases (0.82%) compared with three controls (0.11%; P < .001). Mutations in EOC cases were more frequent in RAD51C (14 occurrences, 0.41%) and RAD51D (12 occurrences, 0.35%) than in RAD51B (two occurrences, 0.06%). RAD51C mutations were associated with an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% CI, 1.1 to 24; P = .035), and RAD51D mutations conferred an odds ratio of 12 (95% CI, 1.5 to 90; P = .019). We identified 13 RAD51 mutations (0.65%) in unaffected UK_FOCSS participants (RAD51C, n = 7; RAD51D, n = 5; and RAD51B, n = 1), which was a significantly greater rate than in controls (P < .001); furthermore, RAD51 mutation carriers were more likely than noncarriers to have a family history of ovarian cancer (P < .001). CONCLUSION: These results confirm that RAD51C and RAD51D are moderate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes and suggest that they confer levels of risk of EOC that may warrant their use alongside BRCA1 and BRCA2 in routine clinical genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/etiologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(11)2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, responsible for 13 000 deaths per year in the United States. Risk prediction based on identifying germline mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes could have a clinically significant impact on reducing disease mortality. METHODS: Next generation sequencing was used to identify germline mutations in the coding regions of four candidate susceptibility genes-BRIP1, BARD1, PALB2 and NBN-in 3236 invasive EOC case patients and 3431 control patients of European origin, and in 2000 unaffected high-risk women from a clinical screening trial of ovarian cancer (UKFOCSS). For each gene, we estimated the prevalence and EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical and epidemiological risk factor information. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We found an increased frequency of deleterious mutations in BRIP1 in case patients (0.9%) and in the UKFOCSS participants (0.6%) compared with control patients (0.09%) (P = 1 x 10(-4) and 8 x 10(-4), respectively), but no differences for BARD1 (P = .39), NBN1 ( P = .61), or PALB2 (P = .08). There was also a difference in the frequency of rare missense variants in BRIP1 between case patients and control patients (P = 5.5 x 10(-4)). The relative risks associated with BRIP1 mutations were 11.22 for invasive EOC (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.22 to 34.10, P = 1 x 10(-4)) and 14.09 for high-grade serous disease (95% CI = 4.04 to 45.02, P = 2 x 10(-5)). Segregation analysis in families estimated the average relative risks in BRIP1 mutation carriers compared with the general population to be 3.41 (95% CI = 2.12 to 5.54, P = 7×10(-7)). CONCLUSIONS: Deleterious germline mutations in BRIP1 are associated with a moderate increase in EOC risk. These data have clinical implications for risk prediction and prevention approaches for ovarian cancer and emphasize the critical need for risk estimates based on very large sample sizes before genes of moderate penetrance have clinical utility in cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...