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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360726

RESUMO

Fungal diseases pose a major threat to ornamental plants, with an increasing percentage of pathogen-driven host losses. In ornamental plants, management of the majority of fungal diseases primarily depends upon chemical control methods that are often non-specific. Host basal resistance, which is deficient in many ornamental plants, plays a key role in combating diseases. Despite their economic importance, conventional and molecular breeding approaches in ornamental plants to facilitate disease resistance are lagging, and this is predominantly due to their complex genomes, limited availability of gene pools, and degree of heterozygosity. Although genetic engineering in ornamental plants offers feasible methods to overcome the intrinsic barriers of classical breeding, achievements have mainly been reported only in regard to the modification of floral attributes in ornamentals. The unavailability of transformation protocols and candidate gene resources for several ornamental crops presents an obstacle for tackling the functional studies on disease resistance. Recently, multiomics technologies, in combination with genome editing tools, have provided shortcuts to examine the molecular and genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying fungal disease resistance, ultimately leading to the subsequent advances in the development of novel cultivars with desired fungal disease-resistant traits, in ornamental crops. Although fungal diseases constitute the majority of ornamental plant diseases, a comprehensive overview of this highly important fungal disease resistance seems to be insufficient in the field of ornamental horticulture. Hence, in this review, we highlight the representative mechanisms of the fungal infection-related resistance to pathogens in plants, with a focus on ornamental crops. Recent progress in molecular breeding, genetic engineering strategies, and RNAi technologies, such as HIGS and SIGS for the enhancement of fungal disease resistance in various important ornamental crops, is also described.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
2.
J Periodontol ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (DBBM-C) soaked with hyaluronic acid (HA) for ridge preservation in compromised extraction sockets. METHODS: Bilateral third, fourth premolars and first molar were hemisected, distal roots were extracted, and then combined endodontic periodontal lesion was induced in the remaining mesial roots. After 4 months, the mesial roots were extracted and the following four treatments were randomly performed: Absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), ACS soaked with HA (ACS+HA), ridge preservation with DBBM-C covered with a collagen membrane (RP), ridge preservation with DBBM-C mixed with HA and covered with a collagen membrane (RP+HA). Animals were sacrificed at 1 and 3 months following treatment. Ridge dimensional changes and bone formation were examined using microcomputed tomography, histology, and histomorphometry. RESULTS: At 1 month, ridge width was significantly higher in the RP and RP+HA groups than in the ACS and ACS+HA groups, while the highest proportion of mineralized bone was observed in ACS+HA group. At 3 months, ridge width remained significantly higher in the RP and RP+HA groups than in the ACS and ACS+HA groups. ACS+HA and RP+HA treatments featured the highest proportion of mineralized bone and bone volume density compared with the other groups. No statistical difference was observed between ACS+HA and RP+HA treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ridge preservation with the mixture DBBM-C/HA prevented dimensional shrinkage and improved bone formation in compromised extraction sockets at 1 and 3 months.

3.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(3): 464-477, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify whether ridge preservation is effective in the reduction of dimensional loss and in bone formation compared to spontaneous healing in extraction sockets of periodontally compromised teeth. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects requiring tooth extraction for stage III/IV periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: alveolar ridge preservation using collagenated bovine bone mineral and a resorbable collagen membrane (test, RP) or spontaneous healing (control, SH). Six months later, postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed to measure the linear and volumetric changes of the sockets compared to baseline scans. Biopsies were retrieved at the implant site for histomorphometric calculations. Nonparametric tests were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significantly less shrinkage occurred in RP compared to SH, mainly in the crestal zone. The width loss difference between groups was 3.3 mm and 2.2 mm at 1 mm and 3 mm below the crest, respectively (p < .05). RP yielded a gain in socket height of 0.25 mm, whereas a loss of -0.39 mm was observed in SH (p < .05). The percentage of volume loss recorded in RP was also less than that recorded in SH (-26.53% vs -50.34, p < .05). Significantly less bone proportion was detected in biopsies from RP (30.1%) compared with SH (53.9%). A positive association between baseline bone loss and ridge shrinkage was found in SH but not in RP. CONCLUSION: Ridge preservation in extraction sockets of periodontally compromised teeth was effective in reducing the amount of ridge resorption.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda do Osso Alveolar/cirurgia , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Animais , Bovinos , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia
4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066545

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate and assess salivary biomarkers and microbial profiles as a means of diagnosing periodontitis. A total of 121 subjects were included: 28 periodontally healthy subjects, 24 with Stage I periodontitis, 24 with Stage II, 23 with Stage III, and 22 with Stage IV. Salivary proteins (including active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), pro-MMP-8, total MMP-8, C-reactive protein, secretory immunoglobulin A) and planktonic bacteria (including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Actinomyces viscosus) were measured from salivary samples. The performance of the diagnostic models was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic models were constructed based on the subjects' proteins and/or microbial profiles, resulting in two potential diagnosis models that achieved better diagnostic powers, with an AUC value > 0.750 for the diagnosis of Stages II, III, and IV periodontitis (Model PA-I; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.754, specificity: 0.712) and for the diagnosis of Stages III and IV periodontitis (Model PA-II; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.756, specificity: 0.868). This study can contribute to screening for periodontitis based on salivary biomarkers.

5.
J Clin Periodontol ; 46(1): 105-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether or not topically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the early healing phase of oral soft tissue wounds. METHODS: One day following the creation of palatal defects (n = 6/animal), 14 dogs were allocated to one of the following five groups: spontaneous healing (SH), vehicle ointment (V), vehicle ointment + rhEGF at concentrations of 1 µg/g (EGF1), 10 µg/g (EGF10) or 50 µg/g (EGF50). Topical administration of ointments was repeated twice per day until sacrifice at days 8 and 16. Wound area was clinically monitored. Keratinocytes proliferation (Ki67-immunolabelling), inflammatory response (IR) and areas of collagen (C) and granulation tissue (GT) were histologically measured. Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunnett correction was used for multiple group statistical comparisons. RESULTS: Clinically, in comparison with SH, a significantly smaller wound area was observed in groups EGF1 and EGF10 at day 8 (p < 0.05). At day 16, wound closure reached 97.8% in group EGF1 compared to 83.2% in group SH, albeit no statistically different. Histologically, at day 8, significantly more GT was observed in group EGF10 compared to all other groups (p < 0.05). At day 16, in addition to a higher Ki67-immunolabelling, groups EGF1 and EGF10 demonstrated a significant decrease in GT and IR with more deposition of C compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Application of rhEGF enhanced the early healing of acute oral soft tissue wounds compared to SH, predominantly at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/g.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Cicatrização , Administração Tópica , Animais , Cães , Tecido de Granulação , Humanos , Cinética , Proteínas Recombinantes
6.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 28(6): 727-733, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of newly bone formation and dimensional change in diseased extraction sockets using Bio-Oss® Collagen with or without a collagen membrane. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In six beagle dogs, right and left 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars were hemisected and the distal roots were removed. Combined endodontic-periodontic lesions were induced in all sites using black silk, collagen sponge, endodontic files, and application of Porphyromonas gingivalis. After 4 months, among 4 premolars, three teeth were randomly selected per dog and allocated to the following experimental groups: Control group (no treatment but debridement), Test 1 group (only Bio-Oss® Collagen graft), and Test 2 group (Bio-Oss® Collagen graft with a collagen membrane). After 7 months from the baseline, the beagle dogs were sacrificed for histomorphometric and Micro-CT analysis. RESULTS: The vertical distance between buccal and lingual crests in the Control group (2.22 ± 0.26 mm) and Test 2 group (1.80 ± 0.16 mm) was significantly different. The socket of the Test 2 group (27.04 ± 5.25%) was occupied by a greater quantity of bone graft compared to the Test 1 group (18.49 ± 2.11%). CONCLUSION: Ridge preservation in diseased extraction sockets could compensate for buccal bone resorption by contact osteogenesis surrounding the bone graft particles at the bucco-coronal area during socket healing, and the application of a collagen membrane at the entrance of the socket is useful for preserving graft material at the coronal part of the socket.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/fisiopatologia , Regeneração Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos , Colágeno , Minerais , Alvéolo Dental/fisiologia , Cicatrização , Animais , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Inflamação , Membranas Artificiais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental/citologia , Alvéolo Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Alvéolo Dental/microbiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
7.
J Periodontol ; 87(9): 1075-82, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoinducer (AI)-2 has an important role in biofilm formation in the oral environment. Mature biofilms formed as a result of the cell-to-cell communication make it difficult to overcome periodontitis with the use of antibiotics. Previous in vitro studies suggest that quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs) interfere with AI-2. This study compares the QSI effects resulting from an oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis in an experimental animal model. METHODS: Forty-five male mice were divided into three groups (n = 15 each): 1) infection; 2) QSI; and 3) control. Infection and QSI groups received oral inoculation of P. gingivalis, whereas treatment with QSIs (furane compound and d-ribose) was only performed in the QSIs group. The control group was a negative control not receiving manipulation. After 42 days, mice were sacrificed, and the distance from the alveolar bone crest (ABC) to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) was measured by microcomputed tomography. P. gingivalis DNA was quantified in the soft and hard tissues around the molar teeth by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Distance from ABC to CEJ was significantly increased in the P. gingivalis infection group compared with the control group (P = 0.02) and significantly decreased in the QSI group compared with the infection group (P = 0.02). The QSI group contained 31.64% of the bacterial DNA count of the infection group. CONCLUSION: Use of QSIs in the mice infection model showed a reduction of bone breakdown and a decrease in the number of bacteria in vivo, suggesting that QSIs can be a new approach to prevention and treatment of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda do Osso Alveolar , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
J Periodontol ; 87(7): 790-5, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on ridge preservation focusing on fresh extraction sockets using graft materials for ridge preservation procedures have reported a delay in the tissue modeling and remodeling phases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on healing of infected sockets. METHODS: Six beagle dogs were used in this study. Both mandibular third premolars were hemisected, and the distal roots were extracted. Subsequently, periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced at the remaining mesial root. After communication of the periodontal lesion, an endodontic periapical lesion was observed at 4 months, and the mesial roots of both the right and left sides were extracted. HA was applied into the socket of the test group, and no treatment was administered to the other group (control group). Three months after extraction of the mesial roots, the dogs were sacrificed, and histologic evaluations were performed. RESULTS: The sockets were filled by mineralized bone (47.80% ± 6.60%) and bone marrow (50.47% ± 6.38%) in the control group, whereas corresponding values were 63.29% ± 9.78% and 34.73% ± 8.97% for the test group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups. Reversal lines and a copious lineup of osteoblasts were observed in the middle and apical parts of the sockets in the test group. CONCLUSION: An infected socket shows delayed healing of the socket wound, and HA, because of its osteoinductive, bacteriostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties, may improve bone formation and accelerate wound healing in infected sockets.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolo Dental , Animais , Cães , Projetos Piloto , Extração Dentária
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