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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229670

RESUMO

Background Thyroid hormone plays an important role in the adaptation of metabolic function to critically ill. The relationship between thyroid hormone levels and the outcomes of septic shock is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of thyroid hormone for prognosis in pediatric septic shock. Methods We performed a prospective observational study in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Patients with septic shock were enrolled from August 2017 to July 2019. Clinical and laboratory indexes were collected, and thyroid hormone levels were measured on PICU admission. Results Ninety-three patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. The incidence of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) was 87.09% (81/93) in patients with septic shock. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that T4 level was independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock (OR: 0.965, 95% CI: 0.937-0.993, p = 0.017). The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for T4 was 0.762 (95% CI: 0.655-0.869). The cutoff threshold value of 58.71 nmol/L for T4 offered a sensitivity of 61.54% and a specificity of 85.07%, and patients with T4 < 58.71 nmol/L showed high mortality (60.0%). Moreover, T4 levels were negatively associated with the pediatric risk of mortality III scores (PRISM III), lactate (Lac) level in septic shock children. Conclusions Nonthyroidal illness syndrome is common in pediatric septic shock. T4 is an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality, and patients with T4 < 58.71 nmol/L on PICU admission could be with a risk of hospital mortality.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238772

RESUMO

Profitability of dairy and beef industries have been largely affected by the actually achieved reproductive efficiency. Although a large proportion of cows worldwide have been bred by artificial insemination (AI) services, many potential factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of AI have remained to be addressed. In the present study, we investigated the vaginal microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and analyzed their association with differential pregnancy outcomes (i.e., pregnant vs. nonpregnant) of multiple AI services in dairy cows. Sequencing of V3-V4 region totally produced 512,046 high-quality sequences that were computationally clustered into 2,584 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). All OTUs were taxonomically assigned to 10 bacterial phyla. There were statistically significant differences among the three times of AI service (T1, T2 and T3) with respective to Shannon index and number of observed OTUs (P < 0.05). Bray-Curtis distance-based PCoA analysis also revealed that T2 group could be significantly distinguished from T1 and T3. However, no significant difference between the pregnant and nonpregnant cows was found in confidence regarding both alpha diversity and beta diversity. These results would help us better understanding the possible influence of vaginal microbial community on pregnancy outcome of AI service in cows.

3.
Food Funct ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242560

RESUMO

Vinegar extract is rich in phenolic compounds, which can prevent free radical-induced diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of vinegar extract on gut microbiota in alcohol-treated mice and their correlation with alcohol-induced liver damage. These results showed that vinegar extract regulated the gut microbiota composition and improved intestinal homeostasis through increasing the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1, Reg3b, and Reg3g in alcohol-treated mice. In addition, vinegar extract inhibited the alcohol-induced production of ROS and inflammatory factors. Moreover, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia, and Lactobacillus showed a significant positive correlation with Reg3b, Reg3g, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 and a negative correlation with hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress parameters. However, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Butyricimonas, Parabacteroides, and Bilophila exhibited the opposite effect. These findings suggest that vinegar extract modulates gut microbiota and improves intestinal homeostasis, and can be used as a novel gut microbiota manipulator against alcohol-induced liver damage.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242796

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-7082T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics confirmed the affiliation of strain NEAU-7082T to the genus Glycomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain NEAU-7082T belonged to the genus Glycomyces and was closely related to Glycomyces mayteni JCM 16217T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Glycomyces sambucus DSM 45047T (98.4 %), Glycomyces scopariae DSM 44968T (98.3 %), Glycomyces paridis DSM 102295T (98.1 %), Glycomyces artemisiae NBRC 109773T (98.0 %) and Glycomyces dulcitolivorans DSM 105121T (97.9 %). Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain formed a stable clade with G. mayteni JCM 16217T and clustered with G. sambucus DSM 45047T, G. scopariae DSM 44968T, G. artemisiae NBRC 109773T and G. dulcitolivorans DSM 105121T in the genus Glycomyces. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates were glucose and xylose. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), glycolipid (GL), phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) and an unidentified lipid (UL). The menaquinones were MK-11(H4), MK-11 and MK-10. Major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. These chemotaxonomic data substantiated the affiliation of strain NEAU-7082T to the genus Glycomyces. The DNA G+C content was 71.3 mol%. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-7082T could be distinguished from its closest relatives. Therefore, strain NEAU-7082T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the name Glycomyces albidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-7082T (=CCTCC AA 2019045T=JCM 33458T).

5.
Yi Chuan ; 42(3): 309-320, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217516

RESUMO

Excessive accumulation of fat is harmful to human health. The preadipocyte differentiation is a critical process of fat development. Studying the expression profiles of genes related to preadipocyte differentiation contributes to understanding of the mechanism of fat accumulation. Despite being considered an ideal animal model for studying adipogenesis, little is known about the gene expression profiles at different stages during preadipocyte differentiation in rabbits. In the present study, rabbit preadipocytes were cultured in vitro and induced for differentiation, and gene expression profiles of adipocytes collected at days 0, 3, and 9 of differentiation were analyzed by RNA-seq. We identified 1352 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing day 3 with day 0 and identified 888 DEGs when comparing day 9 with day 3. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the PPAR signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway were significantly enriched by the DEGs that up-regulated within the period of day 0 - day 3, and the GO terms and KEGG pathways that were associated with cell cycle were enriched by the DEGs that up-regulated within the period of day 3 - day 9. The DEGs that specifically up-regulated within the period of day 0 - day 3 might play roles in the cytoplasm, and the DEGs that specifically up-regulated within the period of day 3 - day 9 might act in the nucleus. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network constructed by DEGs showed that hub node genes might modulate rabbit preadipocyte differentiation via regulating cell cycle.

6.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaay3240, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195345

RESUMO

Seeds of the desert shrub, jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), are an abundant, renewable source of liquid wax esters, which are valued additives in cosmetic products and industrial lubricants. Jojoba is relegated to its own taxonomic family, and there is little genetic information available to elucidate its phylogeny. Here, we report the high-quality, 887-Mb genome of jojoba assembled into 26 chromosomes with 23,490 protein-coding genes. The jojoba genome has only the whole-genome triplication (γ) shared among eudicots and no recent duplications. These genomic resources coupled with extensive transcriptome, proteome, and lipidome data helped to define heterogeneous pathways and machinery for lipid synthesis and storage, provided missing evolutionary history information for this taxonomically segregated dioecious plant species, and will support efforts to improve the agronomic properties of jojoba.

7.
J Med Food ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186945

RESUMO

The chemopreventive effects of various mixed cereal grain (MCG) samples on azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 0.02 g/mL)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in C57BL/6J mice were studied. The main MCG preparation consisted of fermented brown rice (FBR), glutinous brown rice, glutinous Sorghum bicolor, glutinous Panicum miliaceum, Coix lacryma-jobi, and black soybean at an appropriate mixing ratio. Other MCG preparations contained rice coated with 5% Phellinus linteus and 5% Curcuma longa (MCG-PC) or 10% Phellinus linteus (MCG-P) or 10% Curcuma longa (MCG-C). Consumption of dietary MCG-PC by CRC mice significantly increased colon length, decreased the ratio of colon weight to length, and reduced the number of colon tumors. Similar effects, although to a lower extent, were observed in CRC mice fed with MCG-P, followed by those fed with MCG-C, MCG, FBR, or white rice. MCG-PC significantly suppressed colonic neoplasia and decreased the levels of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor: Tnf, interleukin 1 beta: Il1b, interleukin 6: Il6, and interferon gamma: Ifnγ) in serum and colon tissue of the CRC mice. In addition, MCG-PC increased the mRNA expressions of tumor suppressor protein p53 (Tp53) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (Cdkn1a), activated pro-apoptotic caspase 3 (Casp3), and reduced expressions of both mRNA and protein of inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2), and cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) in colon tissue. These findings suggest that compared with other cereal grain preparations, MCG-PC had a greater activity against AOM/DSS-induced CRC by reducing intestinal inflammation and modulating the expression of certain carcinogenesis related factors (Nos2, Ptgs2, Tp53, Cdkn1a, Ccnd1, and Casp3) in colon tissue of CRC mice.

8.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 31(3): 28, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125534

RESUMO

Keratins derived from human hair have been suggested to be particularly effective in general surgical wound healing. However, the healing of a combined radiation-wound injury is a multifaceted regenerative process. Here, hydrogels fabricated with human hair keratins were used to test the wound healing effects on rats suffering from combined radiation-wound injuries. Briefly, the keratin extracts were verified by dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and amino acid analysis, and the keratin hydrogels were then characterized by morphological observation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and rheology analyses. The results of the cell viability assay indicated that the keratin hydrogels could enhance cell growth after radiation exposure. Furthermore, keratin hydrogels could accelerate wound repair and improve the survival rate in vivo. The results demonstrate that keratin hydrogels possess a strong ability to accelerate the repair of a combined radiation-wound injury, which opens up new tissue regeneration applications for keratins.

9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 66, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is an unpleasant state of tension that may impact patients' post-operative pain and satisfaction. The level of preoperative anxiety should be routinely identified. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-reported questionnaire that is used to quickly assess preoperative anxiety and information needs with good psychometric properties. OBJECTIVES: To validate the Chinese version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and to explore coping strategies used by patients in dealing with surgery and anesthetic. METHODS: The cross-cultural validation of APAIS involved the translation of a Chinese version of APAIS and an investigation of its psychometric properties and clinical applicability. Forward-back translation and a pilot study were performed to produce a Chinese adaptation of APAIS. The inpatients of the orthopedic, otolaryngology, and general surgery department scheduled for general anesthesia surgery were enrolled to complete psychometric testing. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were calculated to assess construct validity. The criteria validity was analyzed using the correlation between APAIS and State-trait anxiety inventory-state (STAI-S) and Visual analogue scale-anxiety (VAS-A). Coping styles were evaluated using the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) score that covered three domains: confrontation, avoidance, and resignation. The impact of different coping styles on patients' anxiety was explored. RESULTS: A total of 204 valid questionnaires were collected the day before surgery. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.862 for the anxiety scale and 0.830 for the information scale. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed two factors that explained 76.45% of the total variances. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a two-factor model with an adequate model fit (root mean square error of approximation: 0.073, goodness-of-fit: 0.966). The APAIS anxiety score significantly correlated with STAI-S (r = 0.717, P < 0.01) and VAS-A (r = 0.720, P < 0.01). For the three coping strategies, preoperative anxiety had a low correlation with confrontation (r = 0.33, P < 0.01) and resignation (r = 0.22, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of APAIS is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing preoperative anxiety. Use of this measurement tool for Chinese patients is feasible and shows promising results.

10.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148021

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) undergoing epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) play an essential role in metastasis and have a better correlation with poor disease outcomes, but the most current affinity-based enrichment methods rely on targeting epithelial markers, which are less effective in capturing CTCs undergoing EMT. Herein, we identified and optimized an aptamer (ZY5C) sequence with high binding affinity and specificity against cell surface vimentin (CSV), which is overexpressed on the post-EMT CTCs. Not only can the hairpin-structured ZY5C aptamer specifically recognize a number of cancer cells with native CSV expression, but it can also bind to CSV expressed on EMT-cells. The Kd value of the ZY5C aptamer against CSV-positive T24 cells was found to be 38 ± 4 nM. Using the evolved ZY5C aptamer and multivalent ZY5C aptamer-functionalized chip, we were able to isolate CTCs from the blood of adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and carcinosarcoma patients. Overall, this ZY5C aptamer and isolation method bring a fresh approach to CTCs analysis, which not only detects CTCs from nonepithelial origin, but also provides an efficient way to in-depth study the role of post-EMT CTCs in clinical application and metastasis mechanisms.

11.
J Food Biochem ; : e13187, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185800

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of rubusoside (Rbs) were investigated in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice, followed by effective attenuation of Rbs treatment on the airway hyperresponsiveness and reduction of inflammatory cells inside the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The mitigation of inflammatory infiltration as a result of Rbs treatment was histologically observed in these mice lungs. Rbs contributed to the decrease of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-13, IL-6, IL-5, and IL-4) inside the BALF of mice with asthma. A decline of OVA-dependent IgE and IgG1 inside the serum was also noticed in these mice. Rbs was proved to enhance the mRNA level of Foxp3 inside the mice lung affected with asthma while decrease that of IL-17A, IL-23, and RORγt. NF-κB pathway activation elicited by OVA was suppressed by Rbs inside the pulmonary tissues. Rbs played significantly in the reduction of airway inflammation induced by OVA which with modulating NF-κB pathway activation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Simultaneous therapy with medicine and food is strategically significant for disease prevention and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Rbs is a diterpene glycoside isolated from Rubus suavissimus. The anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic mechanism dependent of Rbs need further study clinically. The goal of current investigation is to explore the anti-inflammatory as well as anti-asthmatic activity of Rbs in mouse models of OVA-induced experimental allergic asthma. Results of the present study are scientifically supportive for the use of Rbs as an adjunctive reagent for clinical treatment of allergic asthma.

12.
Food Chem ; 318: 126518, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151925

RESUMO

Cocoa butter substitutes (CBS) used for chocolate preparation was produced using a mixture of palm kernel oil (PKO) and enzymatically interesterified fats. The interesterified fats consisted of palm olein (POL), fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO) and PKO that were catalyzed using Lipozyme TL IM at 65 °C in a solvent-free packed bed reactor. An interesterification degree of 97.10% was obtained using feed flow rate of 70 mL/min and the interesterified fats showed steep solid fat content (SFC) curve characteristics with low SFC at high temperature. In the binary system, PKO and the interesterified fats showed good compatibility at 5-10 °C, while eutectic effects were observed at 15-35 °C. CBS produced from PKO and the interesterified fats in a mass ratio of 4:6 (CBS-46) and 3:7 (CBS-37) had crystals formed prominently in the ß' form. Without the need of a tempering process, chocolate made using CBS-46 as the base oil exhibited the desired properties in terms of hardness and fracturability.

13.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163006

RESUMO

Liangshan cattle are a very small indigenous breed with adult weight of less than 300 Kg and have been mainly distributed in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Southwestern Sichuan, China. Due to its long-term adaptation to local environments, Liangshan cattle is a valuable genetic resource and should be paid with more attentions. However, the genetic diversity of Liangshan cattle have not been specifically investigated yet, which would be required when designing the appropriate conservation and utilization programs. In this study, we successfully employed the restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) approach to explore a total of 84,854 genome-wide and high-confidence SNPs of Liangshan cattle. All these SNPs were evenly distributed through all chromosomes with an average of 98 SNPs per 1-Mb region. The nucleotide diversity, expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information content of Liangshan cattle were 0.227, 0.223 and 0.183, respectively. Furthermore, there was no obvious difference on the genetic diversity among the three studied geographical populations. In conclusion, we provided a list of SNPs that could be used in the follow-up studies for Liangshan cattle and revealed a relatively high genetic variation in this gene pool.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093082

RESUMO

Ketosis is one of the most prevalent transition metabolic disorders in dairy cows, and has been intrinsically influenced by both genetic and nutritional factors. However, altered gene expression with respective to dairy cow ketosis has not been addressed yet, especially at the genome-wide level. In this study, we recruited nine Holsteins diagnosed with clinical ketosis and ten healthy controls, for which whole blood samples were collected at both prepartum and postpartum. Four groups of blood samples were defined: from cows with ketosis at prepartum (PCK, N = 9) and postpartum (CK, N = 9), respectively, and controls at prepartum (PHC, N = 10) and postpartum (HC, N = 10). RNA-Seq approach was used for investigating gene expression, by which a total of 27,233 genes were quantified with four billion high-quality reads. Subsequently, we revealed 75 and four differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sick and control cows at postpartum and prepartum, respectively, which indicated that sick and control cows had similar gene expression patterns at prepartum. Meanwhile, there were 95 DEGs between postpartum and prepartum for sick cows, which showed depressed changes of gene expression during this transition period in comparison with healthy cows (428 DEGs). Functional analyses revealed the associated DEGs with ketosis were mainly involved in biological stress response, ion homeostasis, AA metabolism, energy signaling, and disease related pathways. Finally, we proposed that the expression level of STX1A would be potentially used as a new biomarker because it was the only gene that was highly expressed in sick cows at both prepartum and postpartum. These results could significantly help us to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms for incidence and progression of ketosis in dairy cows.

15.
Exp Gerontol ; 134: 110843, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045633

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi flowers is rich in flavonoids resources but not effectively exploited. This study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effects and potential mechanism of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi flowers extract (SFE). The chemical components of the SFE were analyzed by UPLC-MS and the anti-aging effects of SFE were investigated in d-galactose (d-gal) induced aging rats by behavior examination and biochemical indexes, and the potential anti-aging mechanism of SFE were explored by 1H NMR-based liver metabolomics. Chemical composition research showed that 19 flavonoids were identified in SFE, and pharmacological research showed that SFE could significantly ameliorate spatial learning and memory ability. SFE could significantly regulate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). It also ameliorated the pathological abnormalities in liver. Additionally, anti-aging mechanism of SFE showed that total of 10 potential biomarkers were found by metabolomics techniques, which involved in 6 metabolic pathways. Among them, SFE could significantly increased the levels of d-glutamine and d-glutamate. Furthermore, the levels of glutamine and glutamate, and the levels of the key amino acids, enzymes and final product in the synthesis process of glutathione (GSH) were quantitatively determined in the liver by commercial kits and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results indicated that regulation of the glutamine-glutamate metabolic pathway is involved in the anti-aging effect of SFE in d-gal induced aging rats.

16.
Sci Adv ; 6(5): eaax4690, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064335

RESUMO

CCR9+ T cells have an increased potential to be activated and therefore may mediate strong antitumor responses. Here, we found, however, that CCL25, the only chemokine for CCR9+ cells, is not expressed in human or murine triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), raising a hypothesis that intratumoral delivery of CCL25 may enhance antitumor immunotherapy in TNBCs. We first determined whether this approach can enhance CD47-targeted immunotherapy using a tumor acidity-responsive nanoparticle delivery system (NP-siCD47/CCL25) to sequentially release CCL25 protein and CD47 small interfering RNA in tumor. NP-siCD47/CCL25 significantly increased infiltration of CCR9+CD8+ T cells and down-regulated CD47 expression in tumor, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis through a T cell-dependent immunity. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of NP-siCD47/CCL25 was synergistically enhanced when used in combination with programmed cell death protein-1/programmed death ligand-1 blockades. This study offers a strategy to enhance immunotherapy by promoting CCR9+CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration.

17.
J Med Food ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109191

RESUMO

This study was to compare the anticolitis activity of fresh Saengshik (FSS) with heated Saengshik (HSS) with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis mouse model. Both FSS- and HSS-fed colitis mice exhibited the effects of the increase in the body weight, the alleviation in the colon shortening, and the reduction of the ratio of colon weight to length. However, FSS-fed colitis mice showed a much more significant decrease in DSS-induced tissue damage by mucosal edema and crypt deficiency than did HSS-fed ones. Besides, FSS contributed to decreasing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta) and inhibiting the colonic mRNA expressions of these cytokines in colitis tissue of the mice. FSS also resulted in the lower colonic mRNA expression level of inflammation-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colitis mice than did HSS. Overall results confirmed Saengshik, especially FSS, inhibits more effectively against DSS-induced inflammation reaction in colitis mice than HSS.

18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 6047145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064276

RESUMO

Background: More and more studies focus on the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiome and type 2 diabetes, but few of them have actually explored the relationship between enterotypes and type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 134 patients with type 2 diabetes and 37 nondiabetic controls. The anthropometric and clinical indices of each subject were measured. Fecal samples of each subject were also collected and were processed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations of enterotypes with type 2 diabetes. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between lipopolysaccharide levels and insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, BMI, TG, HDL-C, DAO, and TNF-α. The correlation analysis between factors and microbiota was identified using Spearman correlation analysis. The correlation analysis between factors was identified using partial correlation analysis. Results: Gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes group exhibited lower bacterial diversity compared with nondiabetic controls. The fecal communities from all subjects clustered into two enterotypes distinguished by the levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Bacteroides and Bacteroides and Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: We identified two enterotypes, Bacteroides and Prevotella, among all subjects. Our results showed that the Bacteroides enterotype was an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which was due to increased levels of lipopolysaccharide causing decreased insulin sensitivity.Bacteroides and Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Bacteroides and.

19.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 576-581, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078759

RESUMO

Elevated free fatty acids may impair insulin-mediated signaling to eNOS that contributes to the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies have indicated the protective effect of ginseng and the regulatory potential of phenolic acid components from other plants on endothelial function. Therefore, this study investigated the protective effects of phenolic acid extract from ginseng (PG2) on endothelial cells against palmitate-induced damage. We found that PG2 increases cell viability, inhibits the palmitate-induced intracellular accumulation of lipids, and the overexpression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) through enhancing the phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PI3K/Akt/eNOS) signaling pathway. The results of this study may be valuable for the development of PG2 to combat the endothelial cell damage caused by hyperlipidemia. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: We proved that phenolic acid extract from ginseng has a protective effect on free fatty acid-induced endothelial dysfunction in vitro. This study provides experimental data for the application of ginseng-derived phenolic acids in treating cardiovascular disease.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3067, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080301

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is an age-associated disease characterized by loss of muscle mass and function, but the diagnostic cutoff values remain controversial. To investigate the diagnostic cutoff values and incidence of sarcopenia in a plateau population, the limb skeletal muscle mass, gait speed and grip strength of 2318 Tibetan adults were measured according to the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. We found that the diagnostic reference values for sarcopenia in the high-altitude population were significantly lower than those in the plain population, and the incidences of sarcopenia in the high-altitude population over 60 years old were 17.2% in men and 36.0% in women, which were significantly higher than those in the plain population. Our study proposes reference values for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in Tibet. We suggest that the cutoff value for sarcopenia in the plateau population should be established based on altitude. Hypoxia may be an important risk factor for sarcopenia.

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