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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758079

RESUMO

Whether photosynthesis has improved with increasing yield in major crops remains controversial. Research in this area has often neglected to account for differences in light intensity experienced by cultivars released in different years. Light intensity is expected to be positively associated with photosynthetic capacity and resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus to high light but negatively associated with light utilization efficiency under low light. Here, we analyzed the light environment, photosynthetic activity, and protein components of leaves of 26 winter wheat cultivars released during the past 60 years in China. Over time, light levels on flag leaves significantly decreased due to architectural changes, but photosynthetic rates under high or low light and the resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus to high light remained steady, contrary to expectations. We propose that the difference between the actual and expected trends is due to breeding. Specifically, breeding has optimized photosynthetic performance under high light rather than low light. Moreover, breeding selectivity altered the stoichiometry of several proteins related to dynamic photosynthesis, canopy light distribution, and photoprotection. These results indicate that breeding has significantly altered the photosynthetic mechanism in wheat and its response to the light environment. These changes likely have helped increase wheat yields.

2.
Tumori ; : 3008916211050687, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The expression of cytoskeleton-related protein γ-adducin (ADD3) was abnormally reduced in some tumors. Functional experiments demonstrated that it could inhibit the malignant progression of lung cancer and glioma, whereas the involvement of ADD3 in osteosarcoma was not clear. This study aimed to investigate the role of ADD3 in osteosarcoma and its upstream regulatory mechanisms. METHODS: ADD3 was knocked down by siRNA transfection and the expression level of ADD3 was determined using quantitative real-time PCR assay and Western blot. CCK-8 assay and colony formation were performed to detect the capacity of cell proliferation. Transwell assay and PI and Annexin V-FITC staining were used to determine cell migration and apoptosis, respectively. Luciferase reporter experiment was performed to investigate the interaction between ADD3 and miR-23b-3p. RESULTS: Based on gene silencing assays, we showed that knockdown of ADD3 suppressed apoptosis and promoted the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells, revealing inhibitory effects of ADD3 in osteosarcoma. Luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed that miR-23b-3p could bind to the 3'-UTR of ADD3. Upregulation of miR-23b-3p not only inhibited the expression of ADD3, but also released the tumor suppressive role of ADD3 on the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that ADD3 functioned as a tumor suppressor gene during osteosarcoma development. The abnormal upregulation of miR-23b-3p targeted the expression of ADD3 and resulted in accelerated osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration. Thus, the miR-23b-3p/ADD3 axis contributes to the development of osteosarcoma and ADD3 is a key driver of malignancy.

3.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645309

RESUMO

Wheat pathogens, especially those causing powdery mildew and stripe rust, seriously threaten yield worldwide. Utilizing newly identified disease resistance genes from wheat relatives is an effective strategy to minimize disease damage. In this study, chromosome-specific molecular markers for the 3Sb and 7Sb chromosomes of Aegilops bicornis were developed using PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) primers for screening wheat-Ae. bicornis progenies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to further identify wheat-Ae. bicornis progenies using oligonucleotides probes Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1, and Oligo-(GAA)8. After establishing Ae. bicornis 3Sb and 7Sb chromosome-specific FISH markers, Holdfast (common wheat)-Ae. bicornis 3Sb addition, 7Sb addition, 3Sb(3A) substitution, 3Sb(3B) substitution, 3Sb(3D) substitution, 7Sb(7A) substitution, and 7Sb(7B) substitution lines were identified by the molecular and cytological markers. Stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance, along with agronomic traits were investigated to evaluate the breeding potential of these lines. Holdfast and Holdfast-Ae. bicornis progenies were all highly resistant to stripe rust, indicating that the stripe rust resistance might derive from Holdfast. However, Holdfast-Ae. bicornis 3Sb addition, 3Sb(3A) substitution, 3Sb(3B) substitution, and 3Sb(3D) substitution lines showed high resistance to powdery mildew while Holdfast was highly susceptible, indicating that chromosome 3Sb of Ae. bicornis carries previously unknown powdery mildew resistance gene(s). Additionally, the transfer of the 3Sb chromosome from Ae. bicornis to wheat significantly increased tiller number, but chromosome 7Sb has a negative effect on agronomic traits. Therefore, wheat germplasm containing Ae. bicornis chromosome 3Sb has potential to contribute to improving powdery mildew resistance and tiller number during wheat breeding.

4.
Plant Sci ; 308: 110910, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034867

RESUMO

Molecular tools and knowledge of crop germplasm are vital for their effective utilization. In this study, we developed 40,866 high-quality and well distributed SNPs for a rice mini-core collection (RMC) developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The high-quality SNPs clustered the USDA-RMC into five subpopulations (Ind, indica; Aus, aus; Afr, African rice; TeJ, temperate japonica; TrJ, tropical japonica) and one admixture (Adm). This classification was further confirmed by phylogenetic and principal component analyses. The rice ARO (aromatic) subpopulation of previous studies was re-assigned with Adm and the WD (wild-type) subpopulation was re-defined to the Afr subpopulation because most of its accessions are African cultivated rice. The Aus and Ind subpopulations had a substantially wider genetic variation than the TrJ and TeJ subpopulations. The genetic diversities were much larger between the Ind or Aus subpopulation and the TrJ or TeJ subpopulation than between the Afr subpopulation and the Ind, Aus, TrJ or TeJ subpopulation. Comparative agronomic trait analysis between the subpopulations also supported the genetic structure and variation of the RMC, and suggested the existence of extensive variation in the genes controlling agronomic traits among them. Furthermore, analysis of ancestral membership of the RMC accessions revealed that reproductive barrier or wide incompatibility existed between the Indica and Japonica groups, while gene flow occurred between them. These results provide high-quality SNPs and knowledge of genetic structure and diversity of the USDA-RMC necessary for enhanced rice research and breeding.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Oryza/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(1): 1913-1923, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802656

RESUMO

Mechanical phenotyping of complex cellular structures gives insight into the process and function of mechanotransduction in biological systems. Several methods have been developed to characterize intracellular elastic moduli, while direct viscoelastic characterization of intracellular structures is still challenging. Here, we develop a needle tip viscoelastic spectroscopy method to probe multidimensional mechanical phenotyping of intracellular structures during a mini-invasive penetrating process. Viscoelastic spectroscopy is determined by magnetically driven resonant vibration (about 15 kHz) with a tiny amplitude. It not only detects the unique dynamic stiffness, damping, and loss tangent of the cell membrane-cytoskeleton and nucleus-nuclear lamina but also bridges viscoelastic parameters between the mitotic phase and interphase. Self-defined dynamic mechanical ratios of these two phases can identify two malignant cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa-HPV18+, SiHa-HPV16+) whose membrane or nucleus elastic moduli are indistinguishable. This technique provides a quantitative method for studying mechanosensation, mechanotransduction, and mechanoresponse of intracellular structures from a dynamic mechanical perspective. This technique has the potential to become a reliable quantitative measurement method for dynamic mechanical studies of intracellular structures.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos da radiação , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Biologia de Sistemas , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/química , Células HeLa/ultraestrutura , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Papillomavirus Humano 18/patogenicidade , Humanos , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos da radiação , Análise Espectral , Vibração/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/efeitos adversos
6.
Nanoscale ; 11(39): 18382-18392, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573587

RESUMO

Recent progress of untethered mobile micromotors has shown immense potential for targeted drug delivery in vivo. However, designing a wireless micromotor with high maneuverability and biocompatibility and achieving controlled drug release with high efficiency at a specific position remains a great challenge. Herein, we present a pine pollen-based micromotor (PPBM) and demonstrate its potential application as a cargo carrier for targeted drug delivery. These multifunctional biohybrid micromotors were massively and inexpensively fabricated by the encapsulation of magnetic particles (Fe3O4) and medicine into the two hollow air sacs of pine pollen, via vacuum loading. PPBMs successfully inherit the intrinsic functionalities of pine pollen: structural uniformity, morphological stability, biocompatibility, autofluorescence (AF) and physicochemical robustness. Under an external magnetic field, the loaded Fe3O4 enables individual and swarm PPBMs to propel precisely in complex biological fluids. Capitalizing on the magnetic nanoparticle aggregation phenomenon under a powerful magnetic field, controlled release of the therapeutic cargo is achieved using a fluid field generated by the rotating magnetic agglomerate. The biohybrid micromotors reported here turn natural pine pollen into active and controllable cargo carriers for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4773, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886203

RESUMO

This study characterized and evaluated a set of wheat-Aegilops comosa introgression lines, including six additions and one substitution. A total of 47 PLUG markers and a set of cytogenetic markers specific for Ae. comosa chromosomes were established after screening 526 PLUG primer pairs and performing FISH using oligonucleotides as probes. Marker analysis confirmed that these lines were wheat-Ae. comosa 2M-7M addition lines and a 6M(6A) substitution line. The molecular and cytogenetic markers developed herein could be used to trace Ae. comosa chromatin in wheat background. In order to evaluate the breeding value of the material, disease resistance tests and agronomical trait investigations were carried out on these alien chromosome introgression lines. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosomes 2M and 7M of Ae. comosa might harbor new stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance genes, respectively, therefore, they could be used as resistance sources for wheat breeding. Investigations into agronomical traits showed that all chromosomes 2M to 7M had detrimental effects on the agronomic performance of wheat, therefore, the selection of plants with relatively negative effects should be avoided when inducing wheat-A. comosa chromosome translocations using chromosome engineering procedures.


Assuntos
Aegilops/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Mutagênese Insercional , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
8.
Food Chem ; 284: 312-322, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744863

RESUMO

Grain quality is a major breeding objective and paramount to food production. This study was aimed to phenotypically and molecularly dissect the rice grain quality, especially amylose content (AC), grain protein content (GPC) and alkali spreading value (ASV), using the USDA rice mini-core collection representing the world-wide rice germplasm lines. Grain chemical analysis combined with genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used for the study. A wide genetic variation was observed for these grain quality traits in the mini-core collection. Germplasm lines unique in AC, GPC and ASV and desirable for grain quality improvement were identified. The genetic diversity of the collection was re-analyzed using new SNPs, thus providing a more precise genotypic information about the collection. Furthermore, ten loci significantly associated with these grain quality traits were identified through GWAS using 22947 high-quality SNPs. These results, therefore, provide knowledge, resources and molecular tools for efficient rice grain quality improvement.


Assuntos
Amilose/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture
9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(4): 1067-1071, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480856

RESUMO

Developing self-fueled micro-reactor droplets with programmable autonomic behaviors provides a step towards smart liquid dispersions comprising motile microscale objects. Herein, we prepare aqueous suspensions of lipase-coated oil globules comprising a mixture of a triglyceride substrate (tributyrin, 1,2,3-tributylglycerol) and a low-density oil (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) and describe a range of active behaviors based on controlled enzyme-mediated consumption of individual droplets under non-equilibrium conditions. Encapsulation of the lipase-coated lipid/PDMS droplets into a model protocell as energy-rich sub-compartments is demonstrated as an internalized mechanism for activating protocell buoyancy. Taken together, our results highlight opportunities for the regulation of autonomic behavior in enzyme-powered oil droplets and provide a new platform for increasing the functionality and energization of synthetic protocells.

10.
Ren Fail ; 40(1): 597-602, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effects of regional characteristics of IgAN patients in different areas of China were investigated. METHODS: Patients who were identified to have primary IgAN by renal biopsy diagnosis were recruited both from Shaanxi province hospital of traditional Chinese medicine and Guangdong province hospital of traditional Chinese medicine. Besides renal histopathology data, a number of clinical and laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: It was shown that the frequency of the patients with no mucosal infection in the urinary tract was higher in the Guangzhou group, while the frequencies of upper respiratory tract and biliary infections were lower when compared with those in the Xi'an group. Serum uric acid, alexin C3, creatinine and serum cholesterol concentrations were increased in the Guangzhou group, while triglyceride, glomerular filtration rate, and urine red blood cell count level decreased. IgA + IgM + C3 and IgA + IgG + IgM + C3 were found in most patients of the Xi'an group, whereas IgA + C3, IgA + IgM + C3 and IgA were more frequent in the Guangzhou group. CONCLUSION: It was found that differential environment, life habits and patterns in the two investigated areas obviously may influence the variable characteristics of IgAN patients.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/sangue , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Rim/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Colesterol/sangue , Complemento C3/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Úrico/sangue
11.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 13(1): 250, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen in multimodal pain management in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen versus placebo in TKA. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) concerning related topics were retrieved from PubMed (1996-June 2018), Embase (1980-June 2018), and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL June 2018). Any studies comparing intravenous acetaminophen with a placebo were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results were collected and analyzed by Stata 12.0. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the general characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: In total, the patients from six studies met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis results indicated that compared with a control group, intravenous acetaminophen was associated with reductions in total morphine consumption and visual analogue scale (VAS) score at postoperative day (POD) 3. However, there was no significant difference in morphine consumption at POD 1 or in VAS at POD 1 or POD 2. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, intravenous acetaminophen in multimodal management has shown better efficacy in pain relief at POD 3 and has morphine-sparing effects. High-quality studies with more patients are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Artroplastia do Joelho/tendências , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(21): 5233-5238, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895706

RESUMO

Purpose: The prognosis for patients with refractory soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) is dismal. Anlotinib has previously shown antitumor activity on STS in preclinical and phase I studies.Patients and Methods: Patients 18 years and older, progressing after anthracycline-based chemotherapy, naïve from angiogenesis inhibitors, with at least one measurable lesion according to RECIST 1.1, were enrolled. The main subtypes eligible were undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), liposarcoma (LPS), leiomyosarcoma (LMS), synovial sarcoma (SS), fibrosarcoma (FS), alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS), and clear cell sarcoma (CCS). Participants were treated with anlotinib. The primary endpoint was progression-free rate at 12 weeks (PFR12 weeks).Results: A total of 166 patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the PFR12 weeks was 68%, and objective response rate was 13% (95% confidence interval, 7.6%-18%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5.6 and 12 months, respectively. The PFR12 weeks, median PFS and OS were: 58%, 4.1 and 11 months for UPS (n = 19); 63%, 5.6 and 13 months for LPS (n = 13); 75%, 11 and 15 months for LMS (n = 26); 75%, 7.7 and 12 months for SS (n = 47); 81%, 5.6 and 12 months for FS (n = 18); 77%, 21 and not reached for ASPS (n = 13); 54%, 11 and 16 months for CCS (n = 7); and 44%, 2.8 and 8.8 months for other sarcoma (n = 23), respectively. The most common clinically significant grade 3 or higher adverse events were hypertension (4.8%), triglyceride elevation (3.6%), and pneumothorax (2.4%). No treatment-related death occurred.Conclusions: Anlotinib showed antitumor activity in several STS entities. The toxicity was manageable. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5233-8. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Animais , Terapia Combinada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7090, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712971

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

14.
Scanning ; 2018: 3979576, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692874

RESUMO

An efficient and adaptive boundary tracking method is developed to confine area of interest for high-efficiency local scanning. By using a boundary point determination criterion, the scanning tip is steered with a sinusoidal waveform while estimating azimuth angle and radius ratio of each boundary point to accurately track the boundary of targets. A local scan region and path are subsequently planned based on the prior knowledge of boundary tracking to reduce the scan time. Boundary tracking and local scanning methods have great potential not only for fast dimension measurement but also for sample surface topography and physical characterization, with only scanning region of interest. The performance of the proposed methods was verified by using the alternate current mode scanning ion-conductance microscopy, tapping, and PeakForce modulation atomic force microscopy. Experimental results of single/multitarget boundary tracking and local scanning of target structures with complex boundaries demonstrate the flexibility and validity of the proposed method.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4548, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540822

RESUMO

Waxy wheat has unique end-use properties; however, its production is limited due mainly to its low grain yield compared with non-waxy wheat. In order to increase its grain yield, it is critical to understand the eco-physiological differences in grain filling between the waxy and non-waxy wheat. In this study, two waxy wheat and two non-waxy wheat cultivars were used to investigate the differences in starch-associated enzymes processes, sucrose and starch dynamics, yield components, and the final grain yield. The results indicated that the mean total grain starch and amylose content, the average 1000-kernel weight and grain yield of the waxy wheat were lower than those of the non-waxy wheat at maturity. The amylose content was significantly and positively correlated with the activity of GBSS (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Significant positive correlation also exists among activities of AGPase, SSS, GBSS, and SBE, except for GBSS-SBE. In summary, our study has revealed that the reduced conversion of sucrose to starch in the late grain filling stage is the main cause for the low kernel weight and total starch accumulation of the waxy wheat. The reduced conversion also appears to be a factor contributing to the lower grain yield of the waxy wheat.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Biomassa , Grão Comestível/enzimologia , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Ceras
16.
Front Genet ; 9: 12, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441089

RESUMO

The 14-3-3 gene family members play key roles in various cellular processes. However, little is known about the numbers and roles of 14-3-3 genes in wheat. The aims of this study were to identify TaGF14 numbers in wheat by searching its whole genome through blast, to study the phylogenetic relationships with other plant species and to discuss the functions of TaGF14s. The results showed that common wheat harbored 20 TaGF14 genes, located on wheat chromosome groups 2, 3, 4, and 7. Out of them, eighteen TaGF14s are non-ε proteins, and two wheat TaGF14 genes, TaGF14i and TaGF14f, are ε proteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these genes were divided into six clusters: cluster 1 (TaGF14d, TaGF14g, TaGF14j, TaGF14h, TaGF14c, and TaGF14n); cluster 2 (TaGF14k); cluster 3 (TaGF14b, TaGF14l, TaGF14m, and TaGF14s); cluster 4 (TaGF14a, TaGF14e, and TaGF14r); cluster 5 (TaGF14i and TaGF14f); and cluster 6 (TaGF14o, TaGF14p, TaGF14q, and TaGF14t). Tissue-specific gene expressions suggested that all TaGF14s were likely constitutively expressed, except two genes, i.e., TaGF14p and TaGF14f. And the highest amount of TaGF14 transcripts were observed in developing grains at 20 days post anthesis (DPA), especially for TaGF14j and TaGF14l. After drought stress, five genes, i.e., TaGF14c, TaGF14d, TaGF14g, TaGF14h, and TaGF14j, were up-regulated expression under drought stress for both 1 and 6 h, suggesting these genes played vital role in combating against drought stress. However, all the TaGF14s were down-regulated expression under heat stress for both 1 and 6 h, indicating TaGF14s may be negatively associated with heat stress by reducing the expression to combat heat stress or through other pathways. These results suggested that cluster 1, e.g., TaGF14j, may participate in the whole wheat developing stages, e.g., grain-filling (starch biosynthesis) and may also participate in combating against drought stress. Subsequently, a homolog of TaGF14j, TaGF14-JM22, were cloned by RACE and used to validate its function. Immunoblotting results showed that TaGF14-JM22 protein, closely related to TaGF14d, TaGF14g, and TaGF14j, can interact with AGP-L, SSI, SSII, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb in developing grains, suggesting that TaGF14s located on group 4 may be involved in starch biosynthesis. Therefore, it is possible to develop starch-rich wheat cultivars by modifying TaGF14s.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(1)2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301265

RESUMO

Sidewall roughness measurement is becoming increasingly important in the micro-electromechanical systems and nanoelectronics devices. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an emerging technique for sidewall scanning and roughness measurement due to its high resolution, three-dimensional imaging capability and high accuracy. We report an AFM sidewall imaging method with a quartz tuning fork (QTF) force sensor. A self sensing and actuating force sensor is fabricated by microassembling a commercial AFM cantilever (tip apex radius ≤10 nm) to a QTF. The attached lightweight cantilever allows high-sensitivity force detection (7.4% Q factor reduction) and sidewall imaging with high lateral resolution. Owing to its unique configuration, the tip of the sensor can detect sidewall surface orthogonally during imaging, which reduces lateral friction. In experiments, sidewalls of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) structure fabricated by deep reactive ion etching process and a standard step grating are scanned and the sidewall roughness, line edge roughness and sidewall angles are measured.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 304, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335511

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, the text labels on the bottom-right graph in Fig. 1c were inadvertently displaced during the production process. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

19.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1944, 2017 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208894

RESUMO

Stiffness matching between the probe and deformed portion of the sample in piezo-drive peak force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) limits the modulus measurement range of single probes. Here we develop a magnetic drive peak force modulation AFM to broaden the dynamic range of the probe with direct cantilever excitation. This approach not only successfully drives the softest commercial probe (6 pN nm-1) for mapping extremely soft samples in liquid but also provides an indentation force of hundreds of nanonewtons for stiff samples with a soft probe. Features of direct measurements of the indentation force and depth can unify the elastic modulus range up to four orders of magnitude, from 1 kPa to 10 MPa (in liquid) and 1 MPa to 20 GPa (in air or liquid) using a single probe. This approach can be particularly useful for analysing heterogeneous samples with large elastic modulus variations in multi-environments.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1743, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075275

RESUMO

Aegilops caudata is an important gene source for wheat breeding. Intensive evaluation of its utilization value is an essential first step prior to its application in breeding. In this research, the agronomical and quality traits of Triticum aestivum-Ae. caudata additions B-G (homoeologous groups not identified) were analyzed and evaluated. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosome D of Ae. caudata might possess leaf rust resistance, and chromosome E might carry stem rust and powdery mildew resistance genes. Investigations into agronomical traits suggested that the introduction of the Ae. caudata chromosome in addition line F could reduce plant height. Grain quality tests showed that the introduction of chromosomes E or F into wheat could increase its protein and wet gluten content. Therefore, wheat-Ae. caudata additions D-F are all potentially useful candidates for chromosome engineering activities to create useful wheat-alien chromosome introgressions. A total of 55 EST-based molecular markers were developed and then used to identify the chromosome homoeologous group of each of the Ae. caudata B-G chromosomes. Marker analysis indicated that the Ae. caudata chromosomes in addition lines B to G were structurally altered, therefore, a large population combined with intensive screening pressure should be taken into consideration when inducing and screening for wheat-Ae. caudata compensating translocations. Marker data also indicated that the Ae. caudata chromosomes in addition lines C-F were 5C, 6C, 7C, and 3C, respectively, while the homoeologous group of chromosomes B and G of Ae. caudata are as yet undetermined and need further research.

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