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1.
Virology ; 543: 13-19, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056842

RESUMO

Orthohantaviruses are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses harbored by rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Of the shrew-borne orthohantaviruses in the Republic of Korea (ROK), Jeju orthohantavirus (Jeju virus, JJUV) was found on Jeju Island. This small-scale epidemiologic survey investigated the geographic distribution and molecular phylogeny of JJUV in the ROK. In 32 trapping sites, tissues of 84 Crocidura shantungensis were analyzed for JJUV RNA. JJUV RNA was detected in seven (8.3%) shrews captured on the Korean peninsula. The molecular epidemiologic survey demonstrated the prevalence of JJUV by geographic distribution. The RNA loads of JJUV were evaluated in various tissues. Entire coding sequences of tripartite genomes were recovered from two JJUV strains on the mainland. Phylogenetic relationships of the JJUV revealed a distinct geographic lineage of mainland strains from the strains on Jeju Island. This study sheds light on the molecular epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and virus-host co-divergence of JJUV, ROK.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(3): 464-473, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endemic outbreaks of hantaviruses pose a critical public health threat worldwide. Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Using comparative genomic analyses of partial and nearly complete sequences of HTNV from humans and rodents, we were able to localize, with limitations, the putative infection locations for HFRS patients. Partial sequences might not reflect precise phylogenetic positions over the whole-genome sequences; finer granularity of rodent sampling reflects more precisely the circulation of strains. METHODS: Five HFRS specimens were collected. Epidemiological surveys were conducted with the patients during hospitalization. We conducted active surveillance at suspected HFRS outbreak areas. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based next-generation sequencing to obtain the genomic sequence of HTNV from patients and rodents. The phylogeny of human- and rodent-derived HTNV was generated using the maximum likelihood method. For phylogeographic analyses, the tracing of HTNV genomes from HFRS patients was defined on the bases of epidemiological interviews, phylogenetic patterns of the viruses, and geographic locations of HTNV-positive rodents. RESULTS: The phylogeographic analyses demonstrated genetic clusters of HTNV strains from clinical specimens, with HTNV circulating in rodents at suspected sites of patient infections. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a major shift in molecular epidemiological surveillance of HTNV. Active targeted surveillance was performed at sites of suspected infections, allowing the high-resolution phylogeographic analysis to reveal the site of emergence of HTNV. We posit that this novel approach will make it possible to identify infectious sources, perform disease risk assessment, and implement preparedness against vector-borne viruses.

3.
Infect Chemother ; 51(4): 405-413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668027

RESUMO

In Korea, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first reported in a United Nations (UN) soldier stationed in the central front, also known as the "Iron Triangle". In 1976, professor Ho Wang Lee discovered an antigen in the lung and kidney tissues of Apodemus agrarius. In 1980, this novel virus was named Hantaan virus after the Hantaan river. The Old World Hantaviruses, which are usually found in East Asia and Europe, are generally transmitted to humans via the respiratory pathway during dry seasons, usually in late spring and fall. Currently, 300 - 600 cases per year are reported in Korea with a mortality rate of 1 - 2%. The typical clinical course of HFRS is classified into five phases: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric, diuretic, and convalescent. And treatment for HFRS is mostly conservative. A vaccine for the Hantaan virus was developed in 1988 and marketed in 1990. Because HFRS outbreaks mostly occur in regions near the truce line in Korea, vaccination is virtually the only protection against the virus among military personnel working in such regions and local residents. Therefore, proving the effectiveness of the HFRS vaccine and devising efficient vaccination plans have been considered a major task for Korea's health authorities.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16631, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719616

RESUMO

Orthohantaviruses, negative-sense single-strand tripartite RNA viruses, are a global public health threat. In humans, orthohantavirus infection causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus helps in identification and characterization of emerging or re-emerging viruses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a potent method to sequence the viral genome, using molecular enrichment methods, from clinical specimens containing low virus titers. Hence, a comparative study on the target enrichment NGS methods is required for whole-genome sequencing of orthohantavirus in clinical samples. In this study, we used the sequence-independent, single-primer amplification, target capture, and amplicon NGS for whole-genome sequencing of Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV) from rodent specimens. We analyzed the coverage of the HTNV genome based on the viral RNA copy number, which is quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Target capture and amplicon NGS demonstrated a high coverage rate of HTNV in Apodemus agrarius lung tissues containing up to 103-104 copies/µL of HTNV RNA. Furthermore, the amplicon NGS showed a 10-fold (102 copies/µL) higher sensitivity than the target capture NGS. This report provides useful insights into target enrichment NGS for whole-genome sequencing of orthohantaviruses without cultivating the viruses.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9755, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278307

RESUMO

A synaptic device that functionally mimics a biological synapse is a promising candidate for use as an electronic element in a neuromorphic system. In this study, flexible electronic synaptic devices based on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA):CdSe/CdZnS core-shell quantum-dot (QD) nanocomposites are demonstrated. The current-voltage characteristics for the synaptic devices under consecutive voltage sweeps show clockwise hysteresis, which is a critical feature of an artificial synaptic device. The effect of the CdSe/CdZnS QD concentration on the device performance is studied. The flexible electronic synaptic devices under bending show the similar and stable electrical performances. The memory retention measurements show that the e-synapse exhibits long-term potentiation and depression. The carrier transport mechanisms are analyzed, and thermionic emission and space-charge-limited-current conduction are found to be dominant.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(2): 470-476, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869603

RESUMO

Rodent-borne pathogens pose a critical public health threat in urban areas. An epidemiological survey of urban rodents was conducted from 2006 to 2010 at the U.S. Army Garrison (USAG), Seoul, Republic of Korea (ROK), to determine the prevalence of Seoul virus (SEOV), a rodent-borne hantavirus. A total of 1,950 rodents were captured at USAG, Yongsan, near/in 19.4% (234/1,206) of the numbered buildings. Annual mean rodent infestation rates were the highest for food service facilities, e.g., the Dragon Hill Lodge complex (38.0 rodents) and the Hartell House (18.8 rodents). The brown rat, Rattus norvegicus, accounted for 99.4% (1,939/1,950) of all the rodents captured in the urban area, whereas only 0.6% (11/1,950) of the rodents was house mice (Mus musculus). In November 2006, higher numbers of rats captured were likely associated with climatic factors, e.g., rainfall and temperatures as rats sought harborage in and around buildings. Only 4.7% (34/718) of the rodents assayed for hantaviruses was serologically positive for SEOV. A total of 8.8% (3/34) R. norvegicus were positive for SEOV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of which two SEOV strains were completely sequenced and characterized. The 3' and 5' terminal sequences revealed incomplete complementary genomic configuration. Seoul virus strains Rn10-134 and Rn10-145 formed a monophyletic lineage with the prototype SEOV strain 80-39. Seoul virus Medium segment showed the highest evolutionary rates compared with the Large and Small segments. In conclusion, this report provides significant insights into continued rodent-borne disease surveillance programs that identify hantaviruses for analysis of disease risk assessments and development of mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Instalações Militares , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus Seoul/genética , Animais , Genômica , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Camundongos/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Chuva , Ratos/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vírus Seoul/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
J Infect Dis ; 217(9): 1417-1420, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373686

RESUMO

As there is no effective treatment against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the development of effective vaccine is important. An inactivated hantavirus vaccine (IHV) has been used in Korea, but there has been controversy regarding its effectiveness. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of IHV against HFRS in the Korean military. Unadjusted and adjusted VEs of IHV were 59.1% and 58.9%, respectively. VE was higher in divisions with high incidence of HFRS (unadjusted VE, 71.4%; adjusted VE, 78.7%). Our study demonstrated the moderate effectiveness of IHV in high-risk populations residing in endemic area.


Assuntos
Hantavirus/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Militares , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Adulto Jovem
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2): 249-257, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350137

RESUMO

Seoul virus (SEOV) poses a worldwide public health threat. This virus, which is harbored by Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus rats, is the causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, which has been reported in Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Defining SEOV genome sequences plays a critical role in development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against the unique worldwide hantavirus. We applied multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing to obtain SEOV genome sequences from clinical and reservoir host specimens. Epidemiologic surveillance of R. norvegicus rats in South Korea during 2000-2016 demonstrated that the serologic prevalence of enzootic SEOV infections was not significant on the basis of sex, weight (age), and season. Viral loads of SEOV in rats showed wide dissemination in tissues and dynamic circulation among populations. Phylogenetic analyses showed the global diversity of SEOV and possible genomic configuration of genetic exchanges.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Vírus Seoul/genética , Animais , Genoma Viral , Saúde Global , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/genética , Ratos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Testes Sorológicos
9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10928, 2017 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883554

RESUMO

It has been noticed that neuraminidase (NA) stalk truncation has arisen from evolutionary adaptation of avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry. We identified this molecular alteration after the adaptation of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) in BALB/c mice. The mouse-adapted pH1N1 lost its eight consecutive amino acids including one potential N-linked glycosite from the NA stalk region. To explore the relationship of NA stalk truncation or deglycosylation with viral pathogenicity changes, we generated NA stalk mutant viruses on the pH1N1 backbone by reverse genetics. Intriguingly, either NA stalk truncation or deglycosylation changed pH1N1 into a lethal virus to mice by resulting in extensive pathologic transformation in the mouse lungs and systemic infection affecting beyond the respiratory organs in mice. The increased pathogenicity of these NA stalk mutants was also reproduced in ferrets. In further investigation using a human-infecting H7N9 avian IAV strain, NA stalk truncation or deglycosylation enhanced the replication property and pathogenicity of H7N9 NA stalk mutant viruses in the same mouse model. Taken together, our results suggest that NA stalk truncation or deglycosylation can be the pathogenic determinants of seasonal influenza viruses associated with the evolutionary adaptation of IAVs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Mutação , Neuraminidase/genética , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furões , Glicosilação , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Genética Reversa , Deleção de Sequência , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(30): 25404-25411, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695727

RESUMO

Conventional Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells exhibit poor spectral response due to parasitic light absorption in the window and buffer layers at the short wavelength range between 300 and 520 nm. In this study, the CdSe/CdZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) acting as a luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer were inserted between the MgF2 antireflection coating and the window layer of the CIGS solar cell to improve light harvesting in the short wavelength range. The LDS layer absorbs photons in the short wavelength range and re-emits photons in the 609 nm range, which are transmitted through the window and buffer layer and absorbed in the CIGS layer. The average external quantum efficiency in the parasitic light absorption region (300-520 nm) was enhanced by 51%. The resulting short circuit current density of 34.04 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 14.29% of the CIGS solar cell with the CdSe/CdZnS QDs were improved by 4.35 and 3.85%, respectively, compared with those of the conventional solar cells without QDs.

11.
Ann Rehabil Med ; 41(2): 188-196, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy of the balance control trainer (BCT), developed for training patients with balance problems, as a balance assessment tool in subacute stroke patients. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 38 subacute stroke patients in their first episode of a stroke, and having the ability to maintain a standing position without aid for at least 5 minutes. Patients were assessed using the BCT (BalPro) 43.7±35.7 days after stroke. The balance was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), a 10-meter walking test (10mWT), a 6-minute walking test (6MWT), and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index. The correlation and validity between the BCT and various balance assessments were analyzed. RESULTS: Statistically significant linear correlations were observed between the BCT score and the BBS (r=0.698, p<0.001). A moderate to excellent correlation was seen between the BCT score and 11 of the 14 BBS items. The BCT scores and other secondary outcome parameters (6MWT r=0.392, p=0.048; TUG r=-0.471, p=0.006; 10mWT r=-0.437, p=0.012) had a moderate correlation. CONCLUSION: Balance control training using the BCT (BalPro) showed significant statistical correlation with the BBS, and could therefore be a useful additional balance assessment tool in subacute stroke patients.

12.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0176514, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448595

RESUMO

Small mammal surveillance was conducted (2008-2010, 2012) at Camp (Cp) Humphreys, a US Army installation and new expansion site, Republic of Korea (ROK), to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome health threats to US military/civilian populations during its ongoing expansion phase. Small mammals were collected using Sherman live capture traps and transported to Korea University where they were euthanized, tissues removed, and assayed to determine hantavirus IgG antibody-positive and hantavirus-positive rates by RT-PCR. A total of 2,364 small mammals were captured over 11,300 trap nights (capture rate = 20.92%). Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected (76.65%), with capture rates of 9.62% and 21.70% for Cp Humphreys and the expansion site, respectively. Overall, Hantaan virus (HTNV) IgG antibody-positive (Ab+) rate for A. agrarius was 2.15% (39/1,812). A total of 5.43% (10/184) Crocidura lasiura, 0.79% (2/254) Microtus fortis and 2.44% (1/41) Micromys minutus were serologically IgG Ab+ for hantaviruses. HTNV-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that 28.2% (11/39) HTNV Ab+ A. agrarius harbored the 328-nt sequence of the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment of HTNV. Among them, the whole genome sequences of 3 HTNV strains were obtained by conventional RT-PCR and Rapid Amplification cDNA Ends PCR. Phylogenetic analyses of the HTNV strains from Cp Humphreys and the expansion site, Pyeongtaek, show a greater diversity of rodent-borne hantaviruses compared to HTNV previously identified in Gyeonggi province of the ROK. Thus, this study provides significant insights for raising HFRS threat awareness, analysis, and risk reduction strategies in southern Gyeonggi province.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Variação Genética , Hantavirus/genética , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Instalações Militares , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais
13.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0172059, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257427

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza is caused by two influenza A subtype (H1N1 and H3N2) and two influenza B lineage (Victoria and Yamagata) viruses. Of these antigenically distinct viruses, the H3N2 virus was consistently detected in substantial proportions in Korea during the 2010/11-2013/14 seasons when compared to the other viruses and appeared responsible for the influenza-like illness rate peak during the first half of the 2011/12 season. To further scrutinize possible causes for this, we investigated the evolutionary and serological relationships between the vaccine and Korean H3N2 strains during the 2011/12 season for the main antigenic determinants of influenza viruses, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes. In the 2011/12 season, when the number of H3N2 cases peaked, the majority of the Korean strains did not belong to the HA clade of A/Perth/16/2009 vaccine, and no Korean strains were of this lineage in the NA segment. In a serological assay, post-vaccinated human sera exhibited much reduced hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the non-vaccine clade Korean H3N2 strains. Moreover, Korean strains harbored several amino acid differences in the HA antigenic sites and in the NA with respect to vaccine lineages during this season. Of these, the HA antigenic site C residues 45 and 261 and the NA residue 81 appeared to be the signatures of positive selection. In subsequent seasons, when H3N2 cases were lower, the HA and NA genes of vaccine and Korean strains were more phylogenetically related to each other. Combined, our results provide indirect support for using phylogenetic clustering patterns of the HA and possibly also the NA genes in the selection of vaccine viruses and the assessment of vaccine effectiveness.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Hemaglutininas/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , Neuraminidase/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
14.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44369, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295052

RESUMO

Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011-2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Hantavirus/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Musaranhos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Hantavirus/classificação , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Prevalência , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Recombinação Genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(2): 389-394, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895275

RESUMO

Hantaan virus (HTNV), identified in the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), belongs to the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae and contains tripartite RNA genomes, small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments. HTNV is a major causative for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with fatality rates ranging from 1% to 15% in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. Defining of HTNV whole-genome sequences and isolation of the infectious particle play a critical role in the characterization and preventive and therapeutic strategies of hantavirus outbreaks. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an advanced tool for massive genomic sequencing of viruses. However, the isolation of viral infectious particles is a huge obstacle to investigate and develop anti-virals for hantaviruses. Here, we report 12 HTNV isolates from lung tissues of the striped field mouse in the highly HFRS-endemic areas. Sequence-independent, single-primer amplification (SISPA) NGS was attempted to recover the genomic sequences of HTNV isolates. The nucleotide sequence of HTNV S, M, and L segments were covered up to 99.4-100%, 97.5-100%, and 95.6-99.8%, respectively, based on the full length of the prototype HTNV 76-118. The whole-genome sequencing of HTNV isolates was accomplished by additional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. In conclusion, this study will lead to the attempt and usage of SISPA NGS technologies to delineate the whole-genome sequence of hantaviruses, providing a new era of viral genomics for the surveillance, trace, and disease risk management of HFRS incidents.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus Hantaan/genética , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Camundongos , Murinae/virologia , Filogenia , República da Coreia
16.
Antiviral Res ; 133: 234-41, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544703

RESUMO

The 10th International Conference on Hantaviruses, organized by the International Society on Hantaviruses, was held from May 31-June 3, 2016 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. These conferences have been held every three years since 1980. The current report summarizes research presented on all aspects of hantavirology: ecology and epidemiology, virus replication, phylogeny, pathogenesis, immune response, clinical studies, vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Hantavirus/classificação , Hantavirus/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Hantavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(6): e0004650, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hantaan virus (HTNV), a negative sense tripartite RNA virus of the Family Bunyaviridae, is the most prevalent hantavirus in the Republic of Korea (ROK). It is the causative agent of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in humans and maintained in the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, the primary zoonotic host. Clinical HFRS cases have been reported commonly in HFRS-endemic areas of Gyeonggi province. Recently, the death of a member of the ROK military from Gangwon province due to HFRS prompted an investigation of the epidemiology and distribution of hantaviruses in Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces that border the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the geographic distribution and molecular diversity of HTNV, whole genome sequences of HTNV Large (L), Medium (M), and Small (S) segments were acquired from lung tissues of A. agrarius captured from 2003-2014. Consistent with the clinical incidence of HFRS established by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC), the prevalence of HTNV in naturally infected mice in Gangwon province was lower than for Gyeonggi province. Whole genomic sequences of 34 HTNV strains were identified and a phylogenetic analysis showed geographic diversity of the virus in the limited areas. Reassortment analysis first suggested an occurrence of genetic exchange of HTNV genomes in nature, ROK. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of HTNV in Gangwon province. Whole genome sequencing of HTNV showed well-supported geographic lineages and the molecular diversity in the northern region of ROK due to a natural reassortment of HTNV genomes. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. Also, the full-length of HTNV tripartite genomes will provide a database for phylogeographic analysis of spatial and temporal outbreaks of hantavirus infection.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus Hantaan/genética , Murinae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Vírus Hantaan/classificação , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157032, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309961

RESUMO

Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenoviridae/patogenicidade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Spheniscidae/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Filogenia , Spheniscidae/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27480, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27270757

RESUMO

In addition to influenza A subtypes, two distinct lineages of influenza B virus also cause seasonal epidemics to humans. Recently, Dudas et al. have done evolutionary analyses of reassortment patterns of the virus and suggested genetic lineage relationship between PB1, PB2, and HA genes. Using genetic plasmids and reassortant viruses, we here demonstrate that a homologous lineage PB1-PB2 pair exhibits better compatibility than a heterologous one and that the lineage relationship between PB1 and HA is more important for viral replication than that between PB2 and HA. However, co-adaptation of PB1-PB2-HA genes appears to be affected by complete gene constellation.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Genes Virais , Vírus da Influenza B/fisiologia , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26017, 2016 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221218

RESUMO

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases caused by RNA viruses pose a critical public health threat. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful technology to define genomic sequences of the viruses. Of particular interest is the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to perform phylogeographic analysis, that allows the detection and tracking of the emergence of viral infections. Hantaviruses, Bunyaviridae, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. We propose to use WGS for the phylogeographic analysis of human hantavirus infections. A novel multiplex PCR-based NGS was developed to gather whole genome sequences of Hantaan virus (HTNV) from HFRS patients and rodent hosts in endemic areas. The obtained genomes were described for the spatial and temporal links between cases and their sources. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated geographic clustering of HTNV strains from clinical specimens with the HTNV strains circulating in rodents, suggesting the most likely site and time of infection. Recombination analysis demonstrated a genome organization compatible with recombination of the HTNV S segment. The multiplex PCR-based NGS is useful and robust to acquire viral genomic sequences and may provide important ways to define the phylogeographical association and molecular evolution of hantaviruses.


Assuntos
Vírus Hantaan/fisiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Recombinação Genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Roedores
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