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1.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469669

RESUMO

The gut microbiota composition is influenced by the diet as well as the environment in both wild and domestic animals. We studied the effects of two feeding systems on the rumen and hindgut microbiome of semi-feral Tibetan goats kept at high altitude (∼4800 m) using 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Intensive drylot feeding resulted in significantly higher zootechnical performance, narrower ruminal acetate: propionate ratios and a drop in the average rumen pH at slaughter to ∼5.04. Hindgut microbial adaption appeared to be more diverse in the drylot group suggesting a higher influx of undegraded complex non-starch polysaccharides from the rumen. Despite their higher fiber levels in the diet, grazing goats exhibited lower counts of Methanobrevibacter and genes associated with the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway, presumably reflecting the scarce dietary conditions (low energy density) when rearing goats on pasture from extreme alpine environments. These conditions appeared to promote a relevant abundance of bacitracin genes. In parallel, we recognized a significant increase in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the digestive tracts of drylot animals. In summary, this study provides a deeper insight into the metataxonomic and functional adaption of the gastrointestinal microbiome of goats subject to intensive drylot and extensive pasture rearing conditions at high altitude.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1391-1400, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749682

RESUMO

The development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergoes epigenetic modifications. The study of histone methylation in regulating PGCs is beneficial to understand the development and differentiation mechanism of germ stem cells. Notably, it provides a theoretical basis for directed induction and mass acquisition in vitro. However, little is known about the regulation of PGC formation by histone methylation. Here, we found the high enrichment of H3K4me2 in the blastoderm, genital ridges, and testis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing was performed and the results revealed that genomic H3K4me2 is dynamic in embryonic stem cells, PGCs, and spermatogonial stem cells. This trend was consistent with the H3K4me2 enrichment in the gene promoter region. Additionally, narrow region triggered PGC-related genes (Bmp4, Wnt5a, and Tcf7l2) and signaling pathways (Wnt and transforming growth factor-ß). After knocking down histone methylase Mll2 in vitro and vivo, the level of H3K4me2 decreased, inhibiting Cvh and Blimp1 expression, then repressing the formation of PGCs. Taken together, our study revealed the whole genome map of H3K4me2 in the formation of PGCs, contributing to improve the epigenetic study in PGC formation and providing materials for bird gene editing and rescue of endangered birds.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261034

RESUMO

Chicken (Gallus gallus) pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be broadly applied in the research of developmental and embryonic biology, but the difference between amphoteric ESCs and PGCs is still elusive. This study determined the sex of collected samples by identifying specific sex markers via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). RNA-seq was utilized to investigate the transcriptomic profile of amphoteric ESCs and PGCs in chicken. The results showed no significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in amphoteric ESCs and 227 DEGs exhibited in amphoteric PGCs. Moreover, those 227 DEGs were mainly enriched in 17 gene ontology (GO) terms and 27 pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was performed to verify RNA-seq results, and the results demonstrated that Notch1 was highly expressed in male PGCs. In summary, our results provided a knowledge base of chicken amphoteric ESCs and PGCs, which is helpful for future research in relevant biological processes.

4.
Genome ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113339

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Epigenetic modifications like DNA methylation play fundamental roles in the dynamic process of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to use methyl-CpG binding domain protein enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) to identify novel and high-confidence DNA methylation in lung tumor. We first compared the whole-genome DNA methylation of three lung cancer cell lines, including A549, H1299, and SK-MES-1, against BEAS-2B, a lung/brunch normal epithelial cell line. We then used pyrosequencing and OneStep qMethyl kit methods to verify the results in the cell line specimens. MBD-Seq identified 279, 8,046 and 22,887 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), respectively, with 120 common DMRs among three comparison groups. Three DMRs were consistent with the MBD-Seq results by both pyrosequencing and OneStep qMethyl validations. Furthermore, OneStep qMethyl kit was also performed for functional validation of these three potential DMRs in sputum DNA from clinical participants. We successfully identified one new DMR adjacent to ATG16L2. The novel DMR might have an important function in lung carcinogenesis. Further validation of the finding in clinical specimens of lung cancer patients, and functional analysis of this novel DMR in the development of lung cancer through transcriptional silencing of ATG16L2 are warranted.

5.
Front Genet ; 11: 939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005170

RESUMO

Beef is an essential food source in the world. Beef quality, especially tenderness, has a significant impact on consumer satisfaction and industry profit. Many types of research to date have focused on the exploration of physiological and developmental mechanisms of beef tenderness. Still, the role and impact of DNA methylation status on beef tenderness have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we exhaustively analyzed the DNA methylation status in divergent tenderness observed in Angus beef. We characterized the methylation profiles related to beef tenderness and explored methylation distributions on the whole genome. As a result, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with tenderness and toughness of beef were identified. Importantly, we annotated these DMRs on the bovine genome and explored bio-pathways of underlying genes and methylation biomarkers in beef quality. Specifically, we observed that the ATP binding cassette subfamily and myosin-related genes were highly methylated gene sets, and generation of neurons, regulation of GTPase activity, ion transport and anion transport, etc., were the significant pathways related with beef tenderness. Moreover, we explored the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression in DMRs. Some methylated genes were identified as candidate biomarkers for beef tenderness. These results provide not only novel epigenetic information associated with beef quality but offer more significant insights into meat science, which will further help us explore the mechanism of muscle biology.

6.
Poult Sci ; 99(9): 4249-4258, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867969

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes T-cell lymphoma in susceptible chicken and is also related to an imbalance of the lipid metabolism. Adiponectin is a circulatory cytokine secreted from adipose tissue and exerts critical metabolic functions. Although the associations between adiponectin and diseases, including lipid disorder and noncardiac vascular diseases, have been reported, little is known about the relationship between MDV infection and adiponectin. Here, we challenged white Leghorns from Marek's disease (MD)-susceptible and MD-resistant lines with MDV at 7 D of age and then explored the body weight and plasma lipoprotein levels at 21 D after MDV infection. Meanwhile, adiponectin and the expression of its receptors were detected using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. The results showed that MDV infection induced body weight loss in all the experimental birds. Meanwhile, the concentrations of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were lower after the infection, although there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, the infection did not affect adiponectin circulating levels in plasma. MD-susceptible birds had much lower plasma adiponectin than MD-resistant birds (P < 0.01). In abdominal fat, there was no significant difference in adiponectin mRNA level. Still, we observed a significant decrease in adiponectin protein concentration, as well as adipoR1 and adipoR2, at both mRNA and protein levels in the infected compared with the noninfected MD-susceptible chickens. In the spleen, MDV infection significantly reduced the adiponectin mRNA expression but increased the protein in MD-susceptible chickens, which decreased both adipoR1 mRNA expression and protein levels. Also interestingly, the adipoR1 mRNA expression level was significantly increased in MD-susceptible chickens in the liver after MDV infection. All findings in the present study provided interesting insights into adiponectin metabolism in chickens after MDV infection, which helps to advance the understanding of lipid metabolism in response to herpesvirus infection.

7.
Biosci Rep ; 40(10)2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990306

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 Family 19 SubFamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) gene encodes an aromatase which regulates the sexual differentiation in vertebrates by initiating and maintaining 17ß-Estradiol (E2) synthesis. Here, we described the spatiotemporal expression pattern of CYP19A1 and its functional role in the embryonic gonad development in amphoteric chickens (Gallus gallus). Results showed that CYP19A1 exhibited a sexually dimorphic expression pattern in female gonads early at embryonic day 5.5 (HH 28) and robustly expressed within the cytoplasm in ovarian medullas. Most importantly, we induced the gonadal sex reversal by ectopically delivering the aromatase inhibitor (AI) or estradiol (E2) into chicken embryos. To further explore the role of CYP19A1 in chicken embryonic sexual differentiation, we successfully developed an effective method to deliver lentiviral particles with CYP19A1 manipulation into chicken embryos via embryonic intravascular injection. The analysis of interference and overexpression of CYP19A1 provided solid evidences that CYP19A1 is both necessary and sufficient to initiate sex differentiation toward female in chicken embryos. Collectively, this work demonstrates that CYP19A1 is a crucial sex differentiation gene in the embryonic development, which provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in chickens.

8.
Front Genet ; 11: 751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849782

RESUMO

The production of germ cells, especially primordial germ cells (PGCs), is important for avian stem cells and reproduction biology. However, key factors involved in the regulation of PGCs remain unknown. Here, we report a PGC-related marker gene: C1EIP (Chromosome 1 Expression in PGCs), whose activation and expression are regulated by the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), histone acetylation, and promoter methylation. C1EIP regulates PGCs formation by mediating the expression of PGC-associated genes, such as CVH (Chicken Vasa Homologous) and CKIT (Chicken KIT proto-oncogene). C1EIP knockdown during embryonic development reduces PGC generation efficiency both in vitro and in ovo. Conversely, C1EIP overexpression increases the formation efficiency of PGCs. C1EIP encodes a cytoplasmic protein that interacts with ENO1 (Enolase 1) in the cytoplasm, inhibits the Notch signaling pathway, and positively regulates PGC generation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate C1EIP as a novel gene involved in PGC formation, which regulates genes involved in embryonic stem cell differentiation through interaction with ENO1 and subsequent inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway by the impression of Myc (MYC proto-oncogene).

9.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855812

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40104-020-00482-x.].

10.
RNA Biol ; : 1-14, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794424

RESUMO

RNA editing is an essential process for modifying nucleotides at specific RNA sites during post-transcription in many species. However, its genomic landscape and characters have not been systematically explored in the bovine genome. In the present study, we characterized global RNA editing profiles from 50 samples of cattle and revealed a range of RNA editing profiles in different tissues. Most editing sites were significantly enriched in specific BovB-derived SINEs, especially the dispersed Bov-tAs, which likely forms dsRNA structures similar to the primate-specific Alu elements. Interestingly, ADARB1 (ADAR2) was observed to be predominant in determining global editing in the bovine genome. Common RNA editing sites among similar tissues were associated with tissue-specific biological functions. Taken together, the wide distribution of RNA editing sites and their tissue-specific characters implied the bovine RNA editome should be further explored.

11.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699629

RESUMO

Background: Grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle differ in the diet regimes. However, the intricate mechanisms of different beef quality and other phenotypes induced by diet differences are still unclear. Diet affects mitochondrial function and dynamic behavior in response to changes in energy demand and supply. In this study, we examined the mtDNA copy number, mitochondria-related genes expression, and metabolic biomarkers in grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle. Results: We found that the grass-fed group had a higher mtDNA copy number than the grain-fed group. Among different tissues, the mtDNA copy number was the highest in the liver than muscle, rumen, and spleen. Based on the transcriptome of the four tissues, a lower expression of mtDNA-encoded genes in the grass-fed group compared to the grain-fed group was discovered. For the mitochondria-related nuclear genes, however, most of them were significantly down-regulated in the muscle of the grass-fed group and up-regulated in the other three tissues. In which, COX6A2, POLG2, PPIF, DCN, and NDUFA12, involving in ATP synthesis, mitochondrial replication, transcription, and maintenance, might contribute to the alterations of mtDNA copy number and gene expression. Meanwhile, 40 and 23 metabolic biomarkers were identified in the blood and muscle of the grain-fed group compared to a grass-fed group, respectively. Integrated analysis of the altered metabolites and gene expression revealed the high expression level of MDH1 in the grain-fed group might contribute to the mitochondrial NADH oxidation and spermidine metabolism for adapting the deletion mtDNA copy number. Conclusions: Overall, the study may provide further deep insight into the adaptive and regulatory modulations of the mitochondrial function in response to different feeding systems in Angus cattle.

12.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 77, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marek's disease (MD) is a highly neoplastic disease primarily affecting chickens, and remains as a chronic infectious disease that threatens the poultry industry. Copy number variation (CNV) has been examined in many species and is recognized as a major source of genetic variation that directly contributes to phenotypic variation such as resistance to infectious diseases. Two highly inbred chicken lines, 63 (MD-resistant) and 72 (MD-susceptible), as well as their F1 generation and six recombinant congenic strains (RCSs) with varied susceptibility to MD, are considered as ideal models to identify the complex mechanisms of genetic and molecular resistance to MD. RESULTS: In the present study, to unravel the potential genetic mechanisms underlying resistance to MD, we performed a genome-wide CNV detection using next generation sequencing on the inbred chicken lines with the assistance of CNVnator. As a result, a total of 1649 CNV regions (CNVRs) were successfully identified after merging all the nine datasets, of which 90 CNVRs were overlapped across all the chicken lines. Within these shared regions, 1360 harbored genes were identified. In addition, 55 and 44 CNVRs with 62 and 57 harbored genes were specifically identified in line 63 and 72, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the nearby genes were significantly enriched in 36 GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways including JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Ten CNVRs (nine deletions and one duplication) involved in 10 disease-related genes were selected for validation by using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), all of which were successfully confirmed. Finally, qPCR was also used to validate two deletion events in line 72 that were definitely normal in line 63. One high-confidence gene, IRF2 was identified as the most promising candidate gene underlying resistance and susceptibility to MD in view of its function and overlaps with data from previous study. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide valuable insights for understanding the genetic mechanism of resistance to MD and the identified gene and pathway could be considered as the subject of further functional characterization.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(12): 9895-9909, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458486

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs); however, the identity of the key lncRNAs and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the formation of PGCs remain unknown. Here, we identify a key candidate lncRNA (lncRNA PGC transcript-1, LncPGCAT-1) via RNA sequencing of embryonic stem cells, PGCs, and Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Functional experiments confirmed that LncPGCAT-1 positively regulated the formation of PGCs by elevating the expression of Cvh and C-kit while downregulating the pluripotency(Nanog) in vitro and in vivo; PAS staining of genital ridges in vivo also showed that interference with LncPGCAT-1 can significantly reduce the number of PGCs in genital ridges, while overexpression of LncPGCAT-1 had the opposite result. The result of luciferase reporter assay combined with CHIP-qPCR showed that the expression of LncPGCAT-1 was promoted by the transcription factor P53 and high levels of H3K4me2. Mechanistically, the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) was the target gene of LncPGCAT-1 and gga-mir-1591. In the ceRNA system, high levels of N6 methylation of LncPGCAT-1 enhanced the adsorption capacity of LncPGCAT-1 for gga-mir-1591. Adsorption of gga-mir-1591 activated the MAPK1/ERK signaling cascade by relieving the gga-mir-1591-dependent inhibition of MAPK1 expression. Moreover, LncPGCAT-1 interacted with interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3) to regulate the ubiquitination of P53 and phosphorylation of JNK. Interaction with ILF3 resulted in positive self-feedback regulation of LncPGCAT-1 and activation of JNK signaling, ultimately promoting PGC formation. Altogether, the study expands our knowledge of the function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in PGC development.

14.
Front Genet ; 10: 1122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798630

RESUMO

A rapidly increasing number of reports on dysregulated long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) expression across numerous types of cancers indicates that aberrant lincRNA expression may be a major contributor to tumorigenesis. Marek's disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma of chickens induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV). Although we have investigated the roles of lincRNAs in bursa tissue of MDV-infected chickens in previous studies, the molecular mechanisms of lincRNA functions in T cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, Linc-GALMD1 was identified from CD4+ T cells and MSB1 cells, and its expression was significantly downregulated in MD-resistant line of birds in response to MDV challenge. Furthermore, loss-of-function experiments indicated that linc-GALMD1 significantly affected the expression of 290 genes in trans. Through integrated analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by MDV and linc-GALMD1, we found that IGLL1 gene expression levels had a positive correlation with the degree of MD infection and could potentially serve as an indicator for clinical diagnosis of MD. Moreover, an interaction between MDV and linc-GALMD1 was also observed. Accordingly, chicken embryonic fibroblast cells were inoculated with MDV with and without the linc-GALMD1 knockdown, and the data showed that linc-GALMD1 could repress MDV gene expression during the course of MDV infection. These findings uncovered a role of linc-GALMD1 as a viral gene regulator and suggested a function of linc-GALMD1 contributing to tumor suppression by coordinating expression of MDV genes and tumor-related genes and regulating immune responses to MDV infection.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0214559, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622349

RESUMO

Rumen is an organ for supplying nutrients for the growth and production of bovine, which might function differently under grass-fed and grain-fed regimens considering the association of gene expression, DNA methylation, and microRNA expression. The objective of this study was to explore the potential mechanism influencing rumen function of grass-fed and grain-fed animals. Methylated DNA binding domain sequencing (MBD-Seq) and microRNA-Seq were respectively utilized to detect the DNA methylation and microRNA expression in rumen tissue of grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle. Combined analysis revealed that the expression of the differentially expressed genes ADAMTS3 and ENPP3 was correlated with the methylation abundance of the corresponding differentially methylated regions (DMRs) inside these two genes, and these two genes were reported to be respectively involved in biosynthesis and regulation of glycosyltransferase activity; the differentially expressed microRNA bta-mir-122 was predicted to possibly target the differentially expressed genes OCLN and RBM47, potentially affecting the rumen function; the microRNA bta-mir-655 was exclusively detected in grain-fed group; its targets were significantly enriched in insulin and TGF-beta signaling pathways, which might worked together to regulate the function of rumen, resulting in different characteristics between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Collectively, our results provided insights into understanding the mechanisms determining rumen function and unraveled the biological basis underlying the economic traits to improve the productivity of animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Rúmen/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Proteínas ADAMTS/biossíntese , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ocludina/biossíntese , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/biossíntese
16.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7152-7163, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596288

RESUMO

This study demonstrated different effects of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and retinoic acid (RA) signaling on the induction of germ cell formation in chickens. In vitro, BMP4 significantly promoted primordial germ cell (PGC) formation, while RA promoted spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) formation. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining of reproductive ridge and testicular slices showed that BMP4 signaling was activated during PGC formation but was inhibited during PGC differentiation into SSC. In contrast, RA signaling was significantly activated during PGC differentiation to SSC. Mechanistically, elevated expression of phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 5 (p-Smad5) activated BMP4 signaling, while inhibition of p-Smad5 significantly reduced the PGC formation. Additionally, BMP4 regulated the PGC formation through histone acetylation and DNA methylation in deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) gene. Luciferase report showed RA binding to RARα regulated stimulated by RA 8 (Stra8) promoter activity during SSC formation, while mutations in RAR binding sites inhibited the Stra8 expression and SSC formation. Further, both HAT and HDAC regulated the RARα isoform, and HAT binding to RARα activated the Stra8 transcription. RNA-seq of embryonic stem cells (ESC), PGC, and SSC showed inverse expression of genes related to the BMP4 and RA pathways during PGC and SSC formation. Additionally, Smad5 and Smurf were critical for the interactions between the two pathways. Specifically, through Smurf promotion of Smad5 ubiquitination, RA could inhibit the BMP4 signal transduction. In conclusion, the BMP4 and RA signaling pathways play opposing roles in germ cell formation, driven by epigenetic processes such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and histone acetylation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Galinhas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/citologia , Masculino , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/genética , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad5/genética , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533276

RESUMO

Marek's disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic α herpesvirus primarily affecting chickens. MD is a chronic infectious disease that threatens the poultry industry. However, the mechanisms of genetic resistance for MD are complex and not completely understood. In this study, to identify high-confidence candidate genes of MD genetic resistance, high throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to obtain transcriptomic data of CD4+ T cells isolated from MDV-infected and non-infected groups of two reciprocal crosses of individuals mating by two highly inbred chicken lines (63 MD-resistant and 72 MD-susceptible). After RNA-seq analysis with two biological replicates in each group, we identified 61 and 123 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05) annotated in 39 and 132 genes in intercrosses 63 × 72 and 72 × 63, respectively, which exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) in response to MDV infection. Similarly, we identified 62 and 79 SNPs annotated in 66 and 96 genes in infected and non-infected groups, respectively. We identified 534 and 1543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) related to MDV infection in intercrosses 63 × 72 and 72 × 63, respectively. We also identified 328 and 20 DEGs in infected and non-infected groups, respectively. The qRT-PCR using seven DEGs further verified our results of RNA-seq analysis. The qRT-PCR of 11 important ASE genes was performed for gene functional validation in CD4+ T cells and tumors. Combining the analyses, six genes (MCL1, SLC43A2, PDE3B, ADAM33, BLB1, and DMB2), especially MCL1, were highlighted as the candidate genes with the potential to be involved in MDV infection. Gene-set enrichment analysis revealed that many ASE genes are linked to T cell activation, T cell receptor (TCR), B cell receptor (BCR), ERK/MAPK, and PI3K/AKT-mTOR signaling pathways, which play potentially important roles in MDV infection. Our approach underlines the importance of comprehensive functional studies for gaining valuable biological insight into the genetic factors behind MD and other complex traits, and our findings provide additional insights into the mechanisms of MD and disease resistance breeding in poultry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Doença de Marek/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Animais , Galinhas/virologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252692

RESUMO

Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles in eukaryotes and participate in many cell processes including immune response, growth development, and tumorigenesis. Marek's disease (MD), caused by an avian alpha-herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), is characterized with lymphomas and immunosuppression. In this research, we hypothesize that mitochondria may play roles in response to MDV infection. To test it, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance and gene expression in immune organs were examined in two well-defined and highly inbred lines of chickens, the MD-susceptible line 72 and the MD-resistant line 63. We found that mitochondrial DNA contents decreased significantly at the transformation phase in spleen of the MD-susceptible line 72 birds in contrast to the MD-resistant line 63. The mtDNA-genes and the nucleus-genes relevant to mtDNA maintenance and transcription, however, were significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, we found that POLG2 might play a potential role that led to the imbalance of mtDNA copy number and gene expression alteration. MDV infection induced imbalance of mitochondrial contents and gene expression, demonstrating the indispensability of mitochondria in virus-induced cell transformation and subsequent lymphoma formation, such as MD development in chicken. This is the first report on relationship between virus infection and mitochondria in chicken, which provides important insights into the understanding on pathogenesis and tumorigenesis due to viral infection.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Doença de Marek/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/virologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/virologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 4153-4160, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982890

RESUMO

Environmental stimuli resulting from immunological stress can induce transgenerational phenotypic inheritance, but few similar studies are found in avian. Here, we challenged F0 hens with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid [Poly(I: C)] and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 53 wk of age, and then investigated the ethology of the challenged hens. In the unchallenged F1 descendants, the egg quality at 23 wk of age and laying rate (LR) at different stages were measured. Mortality rate (MR) and the days of population LR reaching 50% (D50%LR) at 33 wk of age were also tested in F1 hens. Pearson correlation analysis was subsequently calculated between F1 peripheral blood lymphocytes transcriptome and LR (in L vs. C) and EW (in P vs. C), respectively. The results showed that the ethology and egg-laying variations of stimuli-challenged hens and their descendants could be affected by the 2 kinds of immune stimuli. Poly(I: C) was likely to increase LR, especially in the early laying period and advance the D50%LR in F1 hens. It also reduced the MR, albumen height, and Haugh units of the unchallenged offspring. Whereas LPS could induce a sickness behavior of the challenged F0 hens, it also reduced the LR of F1 hens throughout the study, prolonged the D50%LR, and faded the eggshell color. Correlation analysis showed that Poly(I: C) mainly affected EW, while LPS mainly influenced LR of F1 offspring. All findings in the present study were the first time to be revealed in laying chickens, suggesting the different effects of Poly(I: C) and LPS on chickens and their descendants, and laying the foundation for the study of the influence of maternal experience on offspring in avian.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Materno/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/fisiologia
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 245, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that can cause T-cell lymphomas in chicken. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is strongly associated with various cancers and many other diseases. In chickens, lncRNAs have not been comprehensively identified. Here, we profiled mRNA and lncRNA repertoires in three groups of spleens from MDV-infected and non-infected chickens, including seven tumorous spleens (TS) from MDV-infected chickens, five spleens from the survivors (SS) without lesions after MDV infection, and five spleens from noninfected chickens (NS), to explore the underlying mechanism of host resistance in Marek's disease (MD). RESULTS: By using a precise lncRNA identification pipeline, we identified 1315 putative lncRNAs and 1166 known lncRNAs in spleen tissue. Genomic features of putative lncRNAs were characterized. Differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs, putative lncRNAs, and known lncRNAs were profiled among three groups. We found that several specific intergroup differentially expressed genes were involved in important biological processes and pathways, including B cell activation and the Wnt signaling pathway; some of these genes were also found to be the hub genes in the co-expression network analyzed by WGCNA. Network analysis depicted both intergenic correlation and correlation between genes and MD traits. Five DE lncRNAs including MSTRG.360.1, MSTRG.6725.1, MSTRG.6754.1, MSTRG.15539.1, and MSTRG.7747.5 strongly correlated with MD-resistant candidate genes, such as IGF-I, CTLA4, HDAC9, SWAP70, CD72, JCHAIN, CXCL12, and CD8B, suggesting that lncRNAs may affect MD resistance and tumorigenesis in chicken spleens through their target genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide both transcriptomic and epigenetic insights on MD resistance and its pathological mechanism. The comprehensive lncRNA and mRNA transcriptomes in MDV-infected chicken spleens were profiled. Co-expression analysis identified integrated lncRNA-mRNA and gene-gene interaction networks, implying that hub genes or lncRNAs exert critical influence on MD resistance and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Baço/virologia , Animais , Epigenômica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Mardivirus/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Baço/química , Via de Sinalização Wnt
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