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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852213

RESUMO

Ten days after receiving the first dose of coronavirus disease vaccine, a 22-year-old woman in South Korea experienced myocarditis, myopathy, pericarditis, and gastroenteritis; rash subsequently developed. There was no evidence of prior infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The diagnosis was multisystem inflammatory syndrome resulting from coronavirus disease vaccination.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7003, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853298

RESUMO

Cancer cells acquire genetic heterogeneity to escape from immune surveillance during tumor evolution, but a systematic approach to distinguish driver from passenger mutations is lacking. Here we investigate the impact of different immune pressure on tumor clonal dynamics and immune evasion mechanism, by combining massive parallel sequencing of immune edited tumors and CRISPR library screens in syngeneic mouse tumor model and co-culture system. We find that the core microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and targeting machinery maintains the sensitivity of cancer cells to PD-1-independent T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Genetic inactivation of the machinery or re-introduction of ANKRD52 frequent patient mutations dampens the JAK-STAT-interferon-γ signaling and antigen presentation in cancer cells, largely by abolishing miR-155-targeted silencing of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). Expression of each miRNA machinery component strongly correlates with intratumoral T cell infiltration in nearly all human cancer types. Our data indicate that the evolutionarily conserved miRNA pathway can be exploited by cancer cells to escape from T cell-mediated elimination and immunotherapy.

3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812548

RESUMO

The differentiation and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts are tightly regulated to maintain the homeostasis of healthy bones. In this study, the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) during osteoclastogenesis was studied in myeloid-specific Ptpn1-deficient (cKO) mice. The mRNA and protein expression of PTP1B increased during the formation of mature osteoclasts from mouse bone macrophages on stimulation with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL). The Ptpn1 cKO mice exhibited increased femoral trabecular bone volume with a decreased number and activity of osteoclasts compared with control mice. The in vitro culture of osteoclast precursors corroborated the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in cKO cells compared with control, with concomitantly decreased RANKL-dependent proliferation, lower osteoclast marker gene expression, reduced nuclear expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), diminished intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, and increased phosphorylation of Src on inhibitory tyrosine residue. In a ligature-induced periodontitis model, Ptpn1 cKO mice exhibited attenuated osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone loss following the induction of inflammation. The Ptpn1-deficient mice were similarly protected from ovariectomy-induced bone loss compared with control mice. These results provide a novel regulatory role of PTP1B in osteoclastogenesis and suggest a potential as a therapeutic target for bone-lytic diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
BMB Rep ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814975

RESUMO

Microglia are known to be activated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats with cardiovascular diseases. However, the exact role of microglial activation in the plasticity of presympathetic PVN neurons associated with the modulation of sympathetic outflow remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed the direct link between microglial activation and spontaneous firing rate along with the underlying synaptic mechanisms in PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Systemic injection of LPS induced microglial activation in the PVN, increased the frequency of spontaneous firing activity of PVN-RVLM neurons, reduced GABAergic inputs into these neurons, and increased plasma NE levels and heart rate. Systemic minocycline injection blocked all the observed LPS-induced effects. Our results indicate that LPS increases the firing rate and decreases GABAergic transmission in PVN-RVLM neurons associated with sympathetic outflow and the alteration is largely attributed to the activation of microglia. Our findings provide some insights into the role of microglial activation in regulating the activity of PVN-RVLM neurons associated with modulation of sympathetic outflow in cardiovascular diseases.

5.
Int Neurourol J ; 25(Suppl 2): S72-80, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in the brain is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and plays a neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. The effect of preischemic treadmill exercise on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced spatial learning memory impairment, microvascular injury, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in relation with SIRT1 expression was evaluated. METHODS: Prior to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) surgery, the rats in the exercise groups performed low-intensity treadmill running for 30 minutes once daily during 8 weeks. BCCAO surgery was performed on male Wistar rats at 12 weeks of age. Spatial learning memory was measured using the Morris water maze test. Neuronal nuclear antigen, SIRT1, and rat endothelial cells antigen 1 were determined by immunohistochemistry and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta was determined by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Preischemic treadmill exercise ameliorated spatial learning memory impairment and enhanced SIRT1 expression in the BCCAO rats. Preischemic treadmill exercise ameliorated BCCAO-induced damage to microvasculature and pericytes that make up the BBB. The effect of preischemic treadmill exercise was lost with sirtinol treatment. CONCLUSION: These results can apply treadmill exercise prior to cerebral ischemia as a rational preventive and therapeutic intervention strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction in CCH patients.

6.
Brain Sci ; 11(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827531

RESUMO

Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a neuromodulation procedure that is currently studied for the purpose of improving cognitive function in various diseases. A few studies have shown positive effects of tACS in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tACS has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of tACS in five familial AD mutation (5xFAD) mouse models. We prepared twenty 4-month-old mice and divided them into four groups: wild-type mice without stimulation (WT-NT group), wild-type mice with tACS (WT-T group), 5xFAD mice without stimulation (AD-NT group), and 5xFAD mice with tACS (AD-T group). The protocol implemented was as follows: gamma frequency 200 µA over the bilateral frontal lobe for 20 min over 2 weeks. The following tests were conducted: excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) recording, Western blot analysis (cyclic AMP response element-binding (CREB) proteins, phosphorylated CREB proteins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and parvalbumin) to examine the synaptic plasticity. The EPSP was remarkably increased in the AD-T group compared with in the AD-NT group. In the Western blot analysis, the differences among the groups were not significant. Hence, tACS can affect the long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission in mice models of AD.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827807

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of full-fat almonds (FFA) as an alternative protein and fat source for broiler feed on broiler productivity, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal-fecal microflora, and foot-pad dermatitis (FPD). A total of 96, one-day-old broiler chickens (Arbor Acres) with initial body weight 41.61 ± 0.36 g were placed in 16 cages. In each trial, four treatments were set up: a basal diet partially replacing animal fat with FFA 0% (Control, CON), a basal diet partially replacing animal fat with FFA 1% (T1), a basal diet partial replacing animal fat with FFA 2% (T2), a basal diet partially replacing animal fat with FFA 4% (T3). The experiment was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers at weeks 0 to 1 than in the CON group of broilers. From weeks 3 to 4, and for the entire experimental period, FCR was lower (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON and T1 groups of broilers. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of the ether extract (EE) was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in the other treatment groups, and AID of crude protein (CP) was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in the CON group. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE was lower (p < 0.05) in the CON group than in the other treatment groups, and the ATTD of CP and energy was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON group of broilers. The AID and ATTD of total amino acids were higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in the other treatment groups. Blood cholesterol levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON and T1 groups of broilers, and higher (p < 0.05) in the CON group of broilers than in the T2 and T3 groups of broilers. The amount of E. coli in the cecal and fecal was lower (p < 0.05) in the T3 group than in CON and T1 groups. FPD score was higher (p < 0.05) in the T3 group of broilers than in the CON group of broilers. In conclusion, replacing a partial of animal fat with at least 4% FFA in broiler diets can increase growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler nutrition.

8.
J Pineal Res ; : e12779, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826168

RESUMO

The prevalence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has continued to rise for decades. However, drug resistance to chemotherapeutics and relapse, mediated by cancer stem cells (CSCs), remains a significant impediment in clinical oncology to achieve successful treatment. Therefore, we focused on analyzing CSCs in HNSCC and demonstrated the effect of melatonin (Mel) and verteporfin (VP) on SCC-25 cells. HNSCC CSCs were enriched in the reactive oxygen species-low state and in sphere-forming cultures. Combination treatment with Mel and VP decreased HNSCC viability and increased apoptosis without causing significant damage to normal cells. Sphere-forming ability and stem cell population were reduced by co-treatment with Mel and VP, while mitochondrial ROS level was increased by the treatment. Furthermore, the expression of mitophagy markers, parkin, and PINK1, was significantly decreased in the co-treated cells. Mel and VP induced mitochondrial depolarization and inhibited mitochondrial function. Parkin/TOM20 was localized near the nucleus and formed clusters of mitochondria in the cells after treatment. Moreover, Mel and VP downregulated the expression of markers involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis. The migration capacity of cells was significantly decreased by co-treatment with Mel and VP, accompanied with the down-regulation of MMP-2 and -9 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that co-treatment with Mel and VP induces mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in the apoptosis of CSCs. Mel and VP could thus be further investigated as potential therapies for HNSCC through their action on CSCs.

9.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14678, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842355

RESUMO

Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are the major virulence factors responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, which can lead to life-threatening systemic complications including acute renal failure (hemolytic uremic syndrome) and neuropathy. Here, we report that O-GlcNAcylation, a type of post-translational modification, was acutely increased upon induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in host cells by Stxs. Suppression of the abnormal Stx-mediated increase in O-GlcNAcylation effectively inhibited apoptotic and inflammatory responses in Stx-susceptible cells. The protective effect of O-GlcNAc inhibition for Stx-mediated pathogenic responses was also verified using three-dimensional (3D)-cultured spheroids or organoids mimicking the human kidney. Treatment with an O-GlcNAcylation inhibitor remarkably improved the major disease symptoms and survival rate for mice intraperitoneally injected with a lethal dose of Stx. In conclusion, this study elucidates O-GlcNAcylation-dependent pathogenic mechanisms of Stxs and demonstrates that inhibition of aberrant O-GlcNAcylation is a potential approach to treat Stx-mediated diseases.

10.
Chemosphere ; : 133069, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843835

RESUMO

The core-shell Fe2O3@CoFe2O4 hybrids microspheres with abundant oxygen vacancies were synthesized through in-situ ion exchange-calcination method and employed to induce peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to eliminate organic pollutants. The superior catalytic activity and stability of Fe2O3@CoFe2O4 were attributed to the synergistic effects of M2+/M3+ (M denotes Co or Fe) redox cycles. SO4·-, ·OH, O2·- and 1O2 were proved to be the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in the phenol degradation process through quenching experiments and EPR measurements, while the surface-bound SO4·- played a dominant role. Trace metal ions leached during the reaction enhanced the PMS activation, and the oxygen vacancies electron transfer process played a critical role in the formation of O2·-/1O2 and the cycle of M2+/M3+ redox pairs. The formation of ROS and function of 1O2 were also revealed from bulk reaction and interface reaction. This study highlighted the simultaneous evolution of PMS reduction and oxidation to generate ROS, which provided an insight into the efficient catalytic degradation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827863

RESUMO

One hundred twenty weaned piglets (9.34 ± 0.74 kg) were used in a four-week experiment to investigate the effects of replacing medical ZnO with a different ratio of inorganic and organic zinc (IZ:OZ) or a low-crude-protein diet (LP) with mixed feed additives (MFAs) in the weaned piglets' diet. The dietary treatments included a control (CON), T1 (T1; ZnO 1000 mg/kg), T2 (IZ:OZ 850:150), T3 (IZ:OZ 700:300), T4 (IZ:OZ, 500:500), and T5 (LP with MFAs (0.1% essential oils + 0.08% protease + 0.02% xylanase)). The growth performance was decreased (p < 0.05) in the CON treatment compared with the T4 treatment. The diarrhea incidence was decreased (p < 0.05) in the T4 and the T5 treatment compared with the CON and the T1 treatments. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were increased (p < 0.05) in the T4 and T5 treatments compared with the CON, T1, and T2 treatments. The T4 treatment had a higher (p < 0.05) ATTD of zinc than the T1, T2, and T3 treatments. The fecal microflora was improved (p < 0.05) in the T5 treatment compared with the CON and T3 treatments. In conclusion, IZ:OZ 500:500 could improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and zinc utilization while reducing diarrhea incidence in weaned piglets. Moreover, LP with MFA could replace medical ZnO.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(47)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782456

RESUMO

A mechanistic understanding of formation pathways of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons is relevant for disciplines such as atmospheric chemistry, geology, and astrobiology. The patterns of stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of hydrocarbons are commonly used to distinguish biological, thermogenic, and abiotic sources. Here, we report unusual isotope patterns of nonmethane hydrocarbons in hydrothermally heated sediments of the Guaymas Basin; these nonmethane hydrocarbons are notably 13C-enriched relative to sedimentary organic matter and display an isotope pattern that is reversed relative to thermogenic hydrocarbons (i.e., δ13C ethane > δ13C propane > δ13C n-butane > δ13C n-pentane). We hypothesized that this pattern results from abiotic reductive conversion of volatile fatty acids, which were isotopically enriched due to prior equilibration of their carboxyl carbon with dissolved inorganic carbon. This hypothesis was tested by hydrous pyrolysis experiments with isotopically labeled substrates at 350 °C and 400 bar that demonstrated 1) the exchange of carboxyl carbon of C2 to C5 volatile fatty acids with 13C-bicarbonate and 2) the incorporation of 13C from 13C-2-acetic acid into ethane and propane. Collectively, our results reveal an abiotic formation pathway for nonmethane hydrocarbons, which may be sufficiently active in organic-rich, geothermally heated sediments and petroleum systems to affect isotopic compositions of nonmethane hydrocarbons.

13.
Microb Pathog ; : 105152, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742892

RESUMO

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) has been globally disseminated recently, especially in Asia. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular characteristics, clinical manifestations, and clinical risk factors of hvKp infections among patients in a large teaching hospital. A retrospective study was conducted in 123 patients infected with K. pneumoniae at the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University (Luzhou, China) from October 2016 to November 2018. An isolate that positive for both PCR amplification of aerobactin gene and Galleria mellonella infection model was defined as hvKp. Overall, 43.1% (53/123) of K. pneumoniae isolates were hvKp. String tests were performed on all isolates, and MLSTs of all hvKp were conducted. The K1 ST23 isolates were the dominant clone of hvKp (35.8%). Univariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for hvKp: hepatic abscess (OR = 41.818 [95% CI, 5.379-335.086]), bacteremia (OR = 19.94 [95% CI, 5.565-71.446]), metastatic spread (OR = 19.938 [95% CI, 6.344-62.654]), CRP (OR = 1.008 [95% CI, 1.001-1.015]), nitroimidazole treatment (OR = 7.907 [95% CI, 1.652-37.843]), diabetes (OR = 3.067 [95% CI, 1.38-6.817]), and admission to positive culture interval (OR = 3.636 [95% CI, 1.524-8.678]). Moreover, Multivariate analysis implicated hepatic abscess (OR = 74.332 [95% CI, 3.121-1769.588]), bacteremia (OR = 28.388 [95% CI, 3.039-264.200]), and metastatic spread (OR = 19.391 [95% CI, 3.633-103.498]) as independent risk factors for hvKp infections. Thirteen of twenty-one tested antibiotics were founded resistance to non-hvKp, which is significantly greater than hvKp. Importantly, the ESBL-hvKp and MDR-hvKp were responsible for 7.5% and 15.1% in the hvKp group, respectively.

14.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A pericardial effusion (PE) has a variable etiology and the primary role is diagnosis of metastatic malignancy. We analyzed the PE cytology in a large cohort in accordance with the international system for reporting serous fluid cytopathology (ISRSFC) and evaluated the long-term patient outcomes. METHODS: PE specimens from 2010 to 2014 with an available clinical history, cytologic data, and pericardial biopsy results were collected. RESULTS: A total of 574 PE specimens were obtained from 486 patients, representing 1.5% (574/38,589) of all body fluid specimens. Three hundred and eighty-two (66.6%) cases were "negative," 54 (9.4%) cases were "atypia of undetermined significance," 10 (1.7%) cases were "suspicious for malignancy," and 128 (22.3%) cases were "malignancy". The most common origin for malignant PE was the lung (82.1%), in both men (70.5%) and women (50.6%). Breast cancer (20%) in women and gastric cancer (4.9%) in men were the second most common malignant PE, respectively. The mean interval from the occurrence of malignant PE to death was 10.06 months (range; 0-116.03 months, median 3.5 months), and the 1-year survival rate was 16.7%. In addition, the 1-year survival rates after malignant PE onset were 0% for gastric cancer, 13.9% for lung cancer, 19.8% for breast cancer, and 21.1% for the other cancers (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Our present study is the first to our knowledge to classify the pericardial fluid from 574 cases in accordance with the recently published ISRSFC, and to present the long-term outcomes of patients with malignant PE at the same time. Moreover, we report for the first time that it is gastric and not lung cancer patients that have the poorest prognosis after the occurrence of malignant PE.

15.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3712-3717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790044

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluate the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NMR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in patients with non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Method: Laboratory and clinicopathological data from 118 patients with non-endometrioid endometrial cancer who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and December 2019 were reviewed. NLR, PLR and MLR were analyzed for correlations with recurrence and survival. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for the NLR, PLR, and MLR. Optimal cut-off values were determined as the points at which the Youden index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was maximal. Based on the results of the ROC curve analysis, the patients were grouped into high MLR and low MLR groups. Recurrence rate, disease-free survival, and overall survival were compared between the two groups. The prognostic factors were investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The optimal cut-off value of MLR was 0.191 (AUC, 0.718; p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the high MLR group experienced recurrence (60.3% vs. 15.6%, p < 0.0001) and cancer-related deaths (46.6% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, advanced stage and high MLR were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: Elevated MLR was significantly associated poor clinical outcomes in patients with non endometrioid endometrial cancer. Our findings suggest that MLR may be clinically reliable and useful as an independent prognostic marker for patients with non-endometrioid endometrial cancer.

16.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(5): 1985-1995, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790366

RESUMO

Background: Trichostatin A (TSA) is emerging as a potential component of anticancer therapy. In this study, we aimed to identify the radiosensitizing effects of TSA in esophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines and identify the genomic alteration of histone acetylation associated with TSA treatment. Methods: EC109 and KYSE450 cells were pretreated with TSA (0.1 µM) for 12 hours prior to irradiation, and the cell viability, flow cytometry, and comet assays were performed to analyze cell growth, cell apoptosis, and DNA damage, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was performed to identify the acetylation sites of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), which was altered by TSA. Results: Our data showed that TSA could sensitize esophageal cancer cells to radiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing cell apoptosis. DNA damage induced by radiation was enhanced by TSA treatment. In addition, a total of 105 differential peak-related genes were found to be associated with TSA treatment, which was identified using ChIP-Seq with specific antibodies against acetylated histone H3K9. Conclusions: Our data suggest that pretreatment with TSA can enhance ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage of esophageal cancer cells, which was associated with the altered histone modification of whole genome. TSA has potential implications for clinical use in increasing the anticancer efficacy of radiation.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 188, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic disparities in health reflect a combination of genetic and environmental causes, and DNA methylation may be an important mediator. We compared in an exploratory manner the blood DNA methylome of Japanese Americans (JPA) versus European Americans (EUA). METHODS: Genome-wide buffy coat DNA methylation was profiled among healthy Multiethnic Cohort participant women who were Japanese (JPA; n = 30) or European (EUA; n = 28) Americans aged 60-65. Differentially methylated CpGs by race/ethnicity (DM-CpGs) were identified by linear regression (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.1) and analyzed in relation to corresponding gene expression, a priori selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and blood biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism using Pearson or Spearman correlations (FDR < 0.1). RESULTS: We identified 174 DM-CpGs with the majority of hypermethylated in JPA compared to EUA (n = 133), often in promoter regions (n = 48). Half (51%) of the genes corresponding to the DM-CpGs were involved in liver function and liver disease, and the methylation in nine genes was significantly correlated with gene expression for DM-CpGs. A total of 156 DM-CpGs were associated with rs7489665 (SH2B1). Methylation of DM-CpGs was correlated with blood levels of the cytokine MIP1B (n = 146). We confirmed some of the DM-CpGs in the TCGA adjacent non-tumor liver tissue of Asians versus EUA. CONCLUSION: We found a number of differentially methylated CpGs in blood DNA between JPA and EUA women with a potential link to liver disease, specific SNPs, and systemic inflammation. These findings may support further research on the role of DNA methylation in mediating some of the higher risk of liver disease among JPA.

18.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(12): e12157, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648247

RESUMO

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease induced by local infection in tooth-supporting tissue. Periodontitis is associated with systemic bone diseases, but little is known about the mechanism of the causal effect of periodontitis on systemic bone resorption. Bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) act as natural carriers of virulence factors that are responsible for systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the role of EVs derived from Filifactor alocis, a Gram-positive, anaerobic periodontal pathogen, in systemic bone loss and osteoclast differentiation. F. alocis EVs accumulated in the long bones of mice after intraperitoneal administration. These EVs induced proinflammatory cytokines, osteoclastogenesis, and bone resorption via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The phase separation of F. alocis EVs showed that amphiphilic molecules were responsible for the induced bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. The osteoclastogenic effects of F. alocis EVs were reduced by lipoprotein lipase. Proteomic analysis of the amphiphilic molecules identified seven lipoproteins. Our results indicate that lipoprotein-like molecules in F. alocis EVs may contribute to systemic bone loss via TLR2.

20.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679763

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate the composition and contents and the major lipophilic compounds, including the sterols, fatty acids, and tocols of shellfish species. Moreover, to explore the antitumor activity of these lipophilic constituents, their cytotoxicity potentials were determined against five different human cancer cells, including colon carcinoma (HCT116), epithelial melanoma (A2058), glioblastoma multiforme (T98G), lung carcinoma (A549), and adenocarcinoma (HeLa). The results show a significant variation in the contents and composition of lipophilic constituents among the studied species. The highest omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were recorded from arrow squid and pacific oysters, accounting for 53.2% and 53.0% of their total fatty acids, respectively. However, the highest cholesterol content was also recorded in arrow squid (154.4 mg/100 g; 92.6% of total sterols). In contrast, in the Japanese littleneck, Yesso scallop, and common orient clam, cholesterol was just 17.1%, 18.3%, and 18.9% of total sterols, respectively, making them the richest source of non-cholesterol sterols (NCS). Lipids extracted from shellfish species showed ABTS+•- and DPPH•-scavenging activities. In the cytotoxicity analysis, lipids extracted from the Argentine red shrimp showed the highest cytotoxicity against glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells, with an IC50 value of 12.3 µg/mL. The composition and cytotoxicity data reported herein may help explore the nutritional and anticancer potentials of shellfish species.

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