Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 226
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors related to energy balance have been associated with ovarian cancer risk and influence the tumor immune microenvironment, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). However, no studies have assessed whether these factors differentially impact ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis in the Nurses' Health Studies to examine the associations of physical activity, sitting time, and a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk by TAM density assessed by immunohistochemistry. We considered density of CD68 (marker of total TAMs) and CD163 (marker of pro-carcinogenic M2-type TAMs), and their ratios. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of exposures with risk of ovarian tumors with high versus low TAMs, including analyses stratified by body mass index. RESULTS: Analyses included 312 incident ovarian cancer cases with TAM measurements. Physical activity, sitting time, and EDIP score were not differentially associated with ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities (Pheterogeneity>0.05). Among overweight and obese women, higher EDIP score was associated with increased risk of CD163 low density tumors (HR comparing extreme tertiles=1.57, 95%CI=0.88-2.80; Ptrend=0.01), but not CD163 high density tumors (comparable HR=1.16, 95%CI=0.73-1.86; Ptrend=0.24), though this difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe differential associations between lifestyle factors and ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities. IMPACT: Future investigations examining the interplay between other ovarian cancer risk factors and the tumor immune microenvironment may help provide insight into ovarian cancer etiology.

2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conventional adenomas (CAs) and serrated polyps (SPs) are precursors to colorectal cancer (CRC). Understanding metachronous cancer risk is poor due to lack of accurate large-volume datasets. We outline the use of natural language processing (NLP) in forming the Partners Colonoscopy Cohort, an integrated longitudinal cohort of patients undergoing colonoscopies. METHODS: We identified endoscopy quality data from endoscopy reports for colonoscopies performed from 2007 to 2018 in a large integrated healthcare system, Mass General Brigham). Through modification of an established NLP pipeline, we extracted histopathological data (polyp location, histology and dysplasia) from corresponding pathology reports. Pathology and endoscopy data were merged by polyp location using a four-stage algorithm. NLP and merging procedures were validated by manual review of 500 pathology reports. RESULTS: 305,656 colonoscopies in 213,924 patients were identified. After merging, 76,137 patients had matched polyp data for 334,750 polyps. CAs and SPs were present in 86,707 (28.5%) and 55,373 (18.2%) colonoscopies. Among patients with polyps at index screening colonoscopy, 14,931 (33.4%) had follow-up colonoscopy (median 46.4, interquartile range 33.8-62.4 months); 91 (0.2%) and 1127 (2.5%) patients developed metachronous CRC and high-risk polyps (polyps ≥ 10 mm or CAs having high-grade dysplasia/villous/tublovillous histology or SPs with dysplasia). Genetic data were available for 23,787 (31.7%) patients with polyps from the Partners Biobank. The validation study showed a positive predictive value of 100% for polyp histology and locations. CONCLUSION: We created the Partners Colonoscopy Cohort providing essential infrastructure for future studies to better understand the natural history of CRC and improve screening and post-polypectomy strategies.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527363

RESUMO

Population attributable risk (PAR) is becoming more widely used for quantifying preventability of cancer. However, its estimations have had a wide range, leading to questions about the true preventability. Our study aimed to compare the two PAR estimation methods (ie, literature-based method and low-risk method) for colorectal cancer (CRC) in the US population based on the same set of modifiable risk factors: physical activity, body mass index, alcoholic drinks, red meat, processed meat, dietary fiber, dietary calcium and cigarette smoking. For the literature-based method, 65% and 53%, and for the low-risk method, 62% and 49% of CRC cases for males and females, respectively, were attributable to the eight dietary and lifestyle risk factors. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted with respect to the different choices of risk factors, relative risks (RRs) and exposure prevalence estimates used in the literature-based method. The PARs including only the "convincing" factors and excluding "probable" factors defined by the WCRF/AICR were 50% for males and 34% for females. Using RRs derived from different studies changed the PARs considerably (57%-74% for males and 37%-60% for females). Our study assessed the robustness of PAR calculations through a direct comparison between the two methods using different assumptions and data and generally found high concordance. From the additional analyses, we found that the choice of risk factors and RRs could substantially influence the PAR estimates. Given the findings, future studies reporting PAR should consider presenting a range of PAR estimates based on choices of risk factors and RRs.

4.
PLoS Med ; 18(2): e1003522, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle and screening represent 2 major approaches to colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. It remains unknown whether the CRC-preventive benefit of healthy lifestyle differs by endoscopic screening status, and how the combination of healthy lifestyle with endoscopic screening can improve CRC prevention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed lifestyle and endoscopic screening biennially among 75,873 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1988 to 2014) and 42,875 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1988 to 2014). We defined a healthy lifestyle score based on body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) for CRC incidence and mortality in relation to healthy lifestyle score according to endoscopic screening. Participants' mean age (standard deviation) at baseline was 54 (8) years. During a median of 26 years (2,827,088 person-years) follow-up, we documented 2,836 incident CRC cases and 1,013 CRC deaths. We found a similar association between healthy lifestyle score and lower CRC incidence among individuals with and without endoscopic screening, with the multivariable HR per one-unit increment of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.90) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.88), respectively (P-interaction = 0.99). The fraction of CRC cases that might be prevented (PAR) by endoscopic screening alone was 32% (95% CI, 31% to 33%) and increased to 61% (95% CI, 42% to 75%) when combined with healthy lifestyle (score = 5). The corresponding PAR (95% CI) increased from 15% (13% to 16%) to 51% (17% to 74%) for proximal colon cancer and from 47% (45% to 50%) to 75% (61% to 84%) for distal CRC. Results were similar for CRC mortality. A limitation of our study is that our study participants are all health professionals and predominantly whites, which may not be representative of the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that healthy lifestyle is associated with lower CRC incidence and mortality independent of endoscopic screening. An integration of healthy lifestyle with endoscopic screening may substantially enhance prevention for CRC, particularly for proximal colon cancer, compared to endoscopic screening alone.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While evidence indicates that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colorectal carcinogenesis through its suppressive effect on T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity, the specific T-cell subsets involved remain uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured F. nucleatum DNA within tumor tissue by quantitative PCR on 933 cases (including 128 F. nucleatum-positive cases) among 4,465 incident colorectal carcinoma cases in two prospective cohorts. Multiplex immunofluorescence combined with digital image analysis and machine learning algorithms for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC isoform), and FOXP3 measured various T-cell subsets. We leveraged data on Bifidobacterium, microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor whole exome sequencing, and M1/M2-type tumor-associated macrophages [by CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) multimarker assay]. Using the 4,465 cancer cases and inverse probability weighting method to control for selection bias due to tissue availability, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the association between F. nucleatum and T-cell subsets. RESULTS: The amount of F. nucleatum was inversely associated with tumor stromal CD3+ lymphocytes (multivariable odds ratio, 0.47, 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.79, for F. nucleatum-high vs. negative category; P trend=0.0004) and specifically stromal CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ cells (corresponding multivariable odds ratio, 0.52, 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85; P trend=0.003). These relationships did not substantially differ by MSI status, neoantigen loads, or exome-wide tumor mutational burden. F. nucleatum was not significantly associated with T-cell subset densities in tumor intraepithelial regions or with macrophage densities. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of tissue F. nucleatum is associated with lower densities of stromal memory helper T cells. Our findings provide evidence for the interactive pathogenic roles of microbiota and specific immune cells.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher dairy intake during adulthood has been associated with lower colorectal cancer risk. As colorectal carcinogenesis spans several decades, we hypothesised that higher dairy intake during adolescence is associated with lower risk of colorectal adenoma, a colorectal cancer precursor. METHODS: In 27,196 females from the Nurses' Health Study 2, aged 25-42 years at recruitment (1989), who had completed a validated high school diet questionnaire in 1998 and undergone at least one lower bowel endoscopy between 1998 and 2011, logistic regression for clustered data was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Colorectal adenomas were diagnosed in 2239 women. Dairy consumption during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR highest vs. lowest [≥4 vs. ≤1.42 servings/day] quintile [95% CI] 0.94 [0.80, 1.11]). By anatomical site, higher adolescent dairy intake was associated with lower rectal (0.63 [0.42, 0.95]), but not proximal (1.01 [0.80, 1.28]) or distal (0.97 [0.76, 1.24]) colon adenoma risk. An inverse association was observed with histologically advanced (0.72 [0.51, 1.00]) but not non-advanced (1.07 [0.86, 1.33]) adenoma. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of younger women, higher adolescent dairy intake was associated with lower rectal and advanced adenoma risk later in life.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420872

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deteriorates suddenly primarily due to excessive inflammatory injury, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is implicated in endocrine control of the immune system. However, the effect of IGF-1 levels on COVID-19 prognosis remains unknown. Using UK Biobank resource, we investigated the association between circulating IGF-1 concentrations and mortality risk (available death data updated on 07 Sep 2020) among COVID-19 patients who had pre-diagnostic serum IGF-1 measurements at baseline (2006-2010). Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality. Among 1670 COVID-19 patients, 415 deaths occurred due to COVID-19. Compared to the lowest quartile of IGF-1 concentrations, the highest quartile was associated with a 41% lower risk of mortality (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.86, P-trend = 0.01). In the continuous model, per 1-standard deviation increment in log-transformed IGF-1 was associated with a 15% reduction in the risk (intraclass correlation coefficients corrected OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99). The association was largely consistent in the various stratified and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, our data suggest that higher IGF-1 concentrations are associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 mortality. Further studies are required to determine whether and how targeting IGF-1 pathway might improve COVID-19 prognosis.

10.
Eur Urol ; 79(3): 405-412, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia and inflammation are inter-related pathways that link diet with the risk of several chronic diseases. Evidence suggests that these pathways may also increase prostate cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hyperinsulinemic diet and inflammatory diet are associated with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively followed 41 209 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014). Scores for two validated dietary patterns were calculated from food frequency questionnaires at baseline and updated every 4 yr. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Total, advanced, and lethal prostate cancer outcomes were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for associations between two empirical hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns-empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern-and prostate cancer risk estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During 28 yr of follow-up, 5929 incident cases of total prostate cancer, including 1019 advanced and 667 fatal, were documented. In multivariable-adjusted models, there was a 7% higher risk of advanced prostate cancer (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) and a 9% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.18) per standard deviation (SD) increase in the hyperinsulinemic diet. When stratified by age, the hyperinsulinemic diet was associated with only earlier-onset aggressive prostate cancer (men under 65 yr), with per SD HRs of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.06-1.35) for advanced, 1.22 (1.04-1.42) for fatal, and 1.20 (1.04-1.38) for lethal. The inflammatory diet was not associated with prostate cancer risk in the overall study population, but was associated with earlier-onset lethal prostate cancer (per SD increase HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemia and inflammation may be potential mechanisms linking dietary patterns with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, particularly earlier-onset disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Avoiding inflammatory and hyperinsulinemic dietary patterns may be beneficial for the prevention of clinically relevant prostate cancer, especially among younger men.

11.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475710

RESUMO

Importance: Although aspirin is recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) among adults aged 50 to 59 years, recent data from a randomized clinical trial suggest a lack of benefit and even possible harm among older adults. Objective: To examine the association between aspirin use and the risk of incident CRC among older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pooled analysis was conducted of 2 large US cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (June 1, 1980-June 30, 2014) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (January 1, 1986-January 31, 2014). A total of 94 540 participants aged 70 years or older were included and followed up to June 30, 2014, for women or January 31, 2014, for men. Participants with a diagnosis of any cancer, except nonmelanoma skin cancer, or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. Statistical analyses were conducted from December 2019 to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for incident CRC. Results: Among the 94 540 participants (mean [SD] age, 76.4 [4.9] years for women, 77.7 [5.6] years for men; 67 223 women [71.1%]; 65 259 White women [97.1%], 24 915 White men [96.0%]) aged 70 years or older, 1431 incident cases of CRC were documented over 996 463 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for other risk factors, regular use of aspirin was associated with a significantly lower risk of CRC at or after age 70 years compared with nonregular use (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90). However, the inverse association was evident only among aspirin users who initiated aspirin use before age 70 years (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95). In contrast, initiating aspirin use at or after 70 years was not significantly associated with a lower risk of CRC (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.11). Conclusions and Relevance: Initiating aspirin at an older age was not associated with a lower risk of CRC in this pooled analysis of 2 cohort studies. In contrast, those who used aspirin before age 70 years and continued into their 70s or later had a reduced risk of CRC.

12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 18, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex hormones have been suggested to play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC), but their influence on early initiation of CRC remains unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the associations with risk of CRC precursors, including conventional adenomas and serrated polyps, for plasma estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone among 5404 postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study I and II. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Given multiple testing, P < 0.005 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 535 conventional adenoma cases and 402 serrated polyp cases. Higher concentrations of SHBG were associated with lower risk of conventional adenomas, particularly advanced adenomas (multivariable OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile, 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.67, P for trend < 0.0001). A nominally significant association was found for SHBG with lower risk of large serrated polyps (≥ 10 mm) (OR, 0.47, 95% CI 0.17-1.35, P for trend = 0.02) as well as free estradiol and free testosterone with higher risk of conventional adenomas (OR, 1.54, 95% CI 1.02-2.31, P for trend = 0.03 and OR, 1.33, 95% CI 0.99-1.78, P for trend = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a potential role of sex hormones, particularly SHBG, in early colorectal carcinogenesis.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Appendectomy remains the gold standard for treating uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. However, the vermiform appendix may play a significant role in the immune system (secondary immune function) and maintain a reservoir of the normal microbiome for the human body. The aim of this study was to summarize the long-term effects after appendectomy and discuss whether appendectomy is suitable for all appendicitis patients. AREAS COVERED: A comprehensive and unbiased literature search was performed in PubMed. The terms 'appendix,' 'appendicitis,' 'appendectomy,' and 'endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy' were searched in the title and/or abstract. This review summarizes the long-term effects of appendectomy on some diseases in humans and describes three methods including appendectomy, medical treatment, and an 'organ-sparing' technique, named endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) to treat appendicitis. EXPERT OPINION: Appendectomy remains the first-line therapy for appendicitis. The patient's problem is appendix, not appendicitis. If we treat appendicitis, the problem should be resolved. During COVID-19, an initial antibiotic treatment of mild appendicitis represents a promising strategy. For patients who are worried about the long-term adverse effect after appendectomy and have a strong desire to preserve the appendix and are aware of the risk of appendicitis recurrence, medical treatment, or ERAT could be proposed.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 57-66, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638350

RESUMO

The influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on risk of colorectal cancer precursors remains largely unknown. We examined the associations of erythrocyte PUFAs, including n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, with risk of colorectal conventional adenomas and serrated polyps in 4517 participants from three US prospective cohorts who had provided a blood sample and undergone at least one endoscopic examination. We calculated the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) per 1 SD increment in individual PUFAs and the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs. We considered P < .005 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. During a median of 20 years of follow-up, we documented 493 conventional adenomas and 316 serrated polyps. After adjusting for various CRC risk factors, no associations for PUFAs achieved the stringent statistical significance for either conventional adenomas or serrated polyps (ORs per 1 SD ranged from 0.90 to 1.14). Some associations achieved nominal significance (P < .05), including the association of dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) (20:3, n-6) with lower risk of conventional adenomas (OR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83-1.00), total n-6 PUFAs with higher risk of proximal serrated polyps (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.01-1.74) and eicosadienoic acid (20:2, n-6) and DGLA with lower risk of advanced adenomas (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.97 and OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.72-0.98, respectively). Our findings indicate that erythrocyte PUFAs in a typical American diet are unlikely to have a substantial influence on risk of colorectal cancer precursors. The subgroup associations require further confirmation.

16.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(3): 353-359, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors may help to identify individuals at high-risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: To examine the association between lifestyle, referral for follow-up colonoscopy and proximal neoplasia detection in CRC screening. METHODS: In this observational study, 14,832 individuals aged 50-74 years were invited to faecal immunochemical test (FIT) or sigmoidoscopy screening. Advanced lesions (AL), including advanced adenomas, advanced serrated lesions and CRC were divided according to location: distal-only, or proximal with or without distal AL. We collected information on smoking habit, body mass index and alcohol intake through a questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 3,318 FIT and 2,988 sigmoidoscopy participants, 516 (16%) and 338 (11%), respectively, were referred for follow-up colonoscopy after a positive screening test. Two-hundred-and-fifty-six (4%) had distal-only and 119 (2%) proximal AL. In FIT participants, obesity and high alcohol intake were associated with proximal AL; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.68 (1.36-5.26) and 2.16 (1.08-4.30), respectively. In sigmoidoscopy participants, current smoking was associated with proximal AL; 4.58 (2.24-9.38), and current smoking and obesity were associated with referral for colonoscopy; 2.80 (2.02-3.89) and 1.42 (1.01-2.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: Current smoking, obesity and high alcohol intake were associated with screen-detected proximal colorectal AL. Current smoking and obesity were associated with referral for follow-up colonoscopy in sigmoidoscopy screening.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although immune-mediated diseases (IMDs) including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are known to cluster, to what extent this is due to common environmental influences is unknown. AIM: To examine the incidence of IBD in individuals with another IMD. METHODS: We used data from the prospective Nurses' Health Study II cohort (1995-2017) to examine the effect of diagnoses of several common IMDs on subsequent risk of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for detailed diet and lifestyle confounders. RESULTS: We documented 132 cases of CD and 186 cases of UC over 2 016 163 person-years of follow-up (median age at IBD diagnosis 50 years). Compared to participants with no history of IMD, the HRs of CD for those with 1 and ≥ 2 IMDs were 2.57 (95% CI 1.77-3.74) and 2.74 (95% CI 1.36 to 5.49), respectively (Ptrend  < 0.0001). This association was only modestly attenuated by adjustment for environmental risk factors (HR 2.35 and 2.46, respectively). The risk of UC was not increased, with multivariable-adjusted HRs of 1.22 (95% CI 0.85-1.76) and 1.33 (95% CI 0.67-2.65) for those with 1 and ≥ 2 IMDs, respectively, compared to those with none (Ptrend 0.16) (Pheterogeneity comparing CD and UC 0.037). Asthma, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and rosacea were individually associated with higher risk of CD (HR ranging from 2.15 to 3.39) but not UC. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with one or more IMDs are at an increased risk for CD but not UC.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) duration on cancer incidence remains poorly understood. METHODS: We prospectively followed for cancer incidence 113 429 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1978-2014) and 45 604 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2014) who were free of diabetes and cancer at baseline. Cancer incidences were ascertained by review of medical records. RESULTS: In the multivariable-adjusted model incident, T2D was associated with higher risk of cancers in the colorectum, lung, pancreas, esophagus, liver, thyroid, breast, and endometrium. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.38) for colorectal cancer to 3.39 (95% CI = 2.24 to 5.12) for liver cancer. For both composite cancer outcomes and individual cancers, the elevated risks did not further increase after 8 years of T2D duration. The hazard ratio for total cancer was 1.28 (95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40) for T2D duration of 4.1-6.0 years, 1.37 (95% CI = 1.25 to 1.50) for 6.1-8.0 years, 1.21 (95% CI = 1.09 to 1.35) for 8.1-10.0 years, and 1.04 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.14) after 15.0 years. In a cross-sectional analysis, a higher level of plasma C-peptide was found among participants with prevalent T2D of up to 8 years than those without T2D, whereas a higher level of HbA1c was found for those with prevalent T2D of up to 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Incident T2D was associated with higher cancer risk, which peaked at approximately 8 years after diabetes diagnosis. Similar duration-dependent pattern was observed for plasma C-peptide. Our findings support a role of hyperinsulinemia in cancer development.

19.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226844

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in development and progression of various cancers. To investigate the relationship between three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs13252298, rs1016343, and rs1456315) in lncRNA prostate cancer-associated noncoding RNA 1 (PRNCR1) and lung cancer (LC) risk, we conducted this study. First, we performed a case-control study, including 576 LC patients and 612 cancer-free controls. Second, a meta-analysis was used to evaluate the association of selected SNPs with risk of overall cancer. We found that rs13252298 and rs1456315 were strongly correlated with risk of LC, nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and lung adenocarcinoma. For rs13252298, individuals carrying GG genotype had increased risks of LC compared with those carrying AA genotype (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.565, 95% CI = 1.091-2.245, p = 0.015). A significant result was also found in recessive model with adjusted OR of 1.719. Individuals with GG genotype of rs1456315 were at increased risks of LC compared with those carrying AA genotype. Similar results were found in NSCLC patients. Meta-analysis showed that rs1016343 and rs13252298 were associated with overall cancer. But for rs1016343, no significant association was observed in Asians. In conclusion, rs13252298 and rs1456315 in PRNCR1 may be genetic susceptibility factors for LC in Chinese population. These results need to be confirmed by further studies.

20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 398, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We initiated the first multi-center cluster randomized trial of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer and gastric cancer in China. The objective of the study was to report the baseline screening findings in this trial. METHODS: We recruited a total of 345 eligible clusters from seven screening centers. In the intervention group, participants from high-risk areas were screened by endoscopy; in non-high-risk areas, high-risk individuals were identified using a questionnaire and advised for endoscopy. Lugol's iodine staining in esophagus and indigo carmine dye in stomach were performed to aid in the diagnosis of suspicious lesions. The primary outcomes of this study were the detection rate (proportion of positive cases among individuals who underwent endoscopic screening) and early detection rate (the proportion of positive cases with stage 0/I among all positive cases). RESULTS: A total of 149,956 eligible subjects were included. The detection rate was 0.7% in esophagus and 0.8% in stomach, respectively. Compared with non-high-risk areas, the detection rates in high-risk areas were higher, both in esophagus (0.9% vs. 0.1%) and in stomach (0.9% vs. 0.3%). The same difference was found for early-detection rate (esophagus: 92.9% vs. 53.3%; stomach: 81.5% vs. 33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield of both esophagus and stomach were higher in high-risk areas than in non-high-risk areas, even though in non-high-risk areas, only high-risk individuals were screened. Our study may provide important clues for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of upper-endoscopic screening in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocol Registration System in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-EOR-16008577. Registered 01 June 2016-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=14372.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...