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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effects of vitamin D on risk of colorectal cancer precursors are not clear. We examined the influence of vitamin D supplementation on risk of colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps in a prespecified ancillary study of a large-scale prevention trial (the vitamin D and omegA-3 trial, VITAL) of individuals who were free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at enrollment. METHODS: In VITAL trial, 25,871 adults with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease (12,786 men 50 y or older and 13,085 women 55 y or older) were randomly assigned to groups given daily dietary supplements (2000 IU vitamin D3 and 1 g marine n-3 fatty acid) or placebo. Patients were assigned to groups from November 2011 through March 2014 and the study ended on December 31, 2017. We confirmed conventional adenomas and serrated polyps by reviewing histopathology reports from participants who had reported a diagnosis of polyps and were asked by their doctors to return for a repeated endoscopy in 5 years or less. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs by logistic regression, after adjusting for age, sex, n-3 treatment assignment, and history of endoscopy at time of randomization. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, we documented 308 cases of conventional adenomas in 12,927 participants in the vitamin D group and 287 cases in 12,944 participants in the placebo group (OR for the association of vitamin D supplementation with adenoma, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.92-1.27). There were 172 cases of serrated polyps in the vitamin D group and 169 cases in the placebo group (OR for the association of vitamin D supplementation with serrated polyp, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.26). Supplementation was not associated with polyp size, location, multiplicity, or histologic features. We found evidence for an interaction between vitamin D supplementation and serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, measured in 15,787 participants. Among individuals with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 30 ng/mL, the OR associated with supplementation for conventional adenoma was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60-1.13), whereas among individuals with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 30 ng/mL, the OR for conventional adenoma was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.92-1.55) (P for interaction=.07). There was a significant interaction between vitamin D supplementation and serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in their association with advanced adenoma (P for interaction=.04). CONCLUSIONS: Based on an ancillary study of data from the VITAL trial, daily vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU) was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer precursors in average-risk adults not selected for vitamin D insufficiency. A potential benefit for individuals with low baseline level of vitamin D requires further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01169259.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and CRC risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from GWAS regarding PUFA-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to create weighted genetic scores (wGSs) representing genetically-predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white CRC cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per standard deviation increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on CRC risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest CRC risk reductions were observed per standard deviation increase in circulating linoleic acid (ORLA=0.96; 95% CI=0.93-0.98; p=5.2x10-4), α-linolenic acid (ORALA=0.95; 95% CI=0.92-0.97; p=5.4x10-5); whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic acid (ORAA=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.08; p=3.3x10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA=1.04; 95% CI=1.01-1.07; p=2.5x10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA=1.03; 95% CI=1.01-1.06; p=1.2x10-2. Each of these effects were stronger among aspirin/NSAID non-users in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced CRC risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased CRC risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared CRC inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on CRC.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076944

RESUMO

Evidence for associations between long-term protein intake with mortality is not consistent. We aimed to examine associations of dietary protein from different sources with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We followed 7786 participants from three sub-cohorts of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary data were collected using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline (1989-1993, 2000-2001, 2006-2008). Deaths were followed until 2018. Associations were examined using Cox regression. Additionally, we performed a highest versus lowest meta-analysis and a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize results from the Rotterdam Study and previous prospective cohorts. During a median follow-up of 13.0 years, 3589 deaths were documented in the Rotterdam Study. In this cohort, after multivariable adjustment, higher total protein intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality [e.g. highest versus lowest quartile of total protein intake as percentage of energy (Q4 versus Q1), HR = 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)]; mainly explained by higher animal protein intake and CVD mortality [Q4 versus Q1, CVD mortality: 1.28 (1.03, 1.60)]. The association of animal protein intake and CVD was mainly contributed to by protein from meat and dairy. Total plant protein intake was not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality, mainly explained by null associations for protein from grains and potatoes; but higher intake of protein from legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits was associated with lower risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Findings for total and animal protein intake were corroborated in a meta-analysis of eleven prospective cohort studies including the Rotterdam Study (total 64,306 deaths among 350,452 participants): higher total protein intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality [pooled RR for highest versus lowest quantile 1.05 (1.01, 1.10)]; and for dose-response per 5 energy percent (E%) increment, 1.02 (1.004, 1.04); again mainly driven by an association between animal protein and CVD mortality [highest versus lowest, 1.09 (1.01, 1.18); per 5 E% increment, 1.05 (1.02, 1.09)]. Furthermore, in the meta-analysis a higher plant protein intake was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality [e.g. for all-cause mortality, highest versus lowest, 0.93 (0.87, 0.99); per 5 E% increment, 0.87 (0.78, 0.98), for CVD mortality, highest versus lowest 0.86 (0.73, 1.00)]. Evidence from prospective cohort studies to date suggests that total protein intake is positively associated with all-cause mortality, mainly driven by a harmful association of animal protein with CVD mortality. Plant protein intake is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. Our findings support current dietary recommendations to increase intake of plant protein in place of animal protein.Clinical trial registry number and website NTR6831, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6645.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081756

RESUMO

Antibodies (Abs) have been widely used in both immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy for the treatment of various diseases and, in recent years, scientific research applications. With the increasing use of Abs, there has been an urgent demand for low-cost and highly efficient purification methods. In this study, we present a novel formulation based on a ß-d-glucan particle loaded protein A/G (GP-protein A/G conjugates) by the carbodiimide method for the purification of immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies. The prepared GP-protein A/G conjugates exhibit high stability and isolation efficiency. The microspheres also constitute an essential specialty reagent useful for isolating IgG from mammalian species such as goat, mouse and rabbit. Recovery of IgG showed that up to a purity of 92% was reached in the elution step. In addition, they have been shown to be important tools for molecular purification methods such as immunoprecipitation and co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these results suggest that the GP-protein A/G system has the potential to be used as a platform for purification techniques.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sulfur-metabolizing microbes, which convert dietary sources of sulfur into genotoxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), have been associated with development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We identified a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and then investigated its association with risk of incident CRC using data from a large prospective study of men. METHODS: We collected data from 51,529 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, since 1986, to determine the association between sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and risk of CRC over 26 years of follow up. First, in a subcohort of 307 healthy men, we profiled serial stool metagenomes and meta-transcriptomes and assessed diet using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires to identify food groups associated with 43 bacterial species involved in sulfur metabolism. We used these data to develop a sulfur microbial dietary score. We then used Cox proportional hazards modeling to evaluate adherence to this pattern among eligible individuals (n=48,246) from 1986 through 2012 with risk for incident CRC. RESULTS: Foods associated with higher sulfur microbial diet scores included increased consumption of processed meats and low-calorie drinks and lower consumption of vegetables and legumes. Increased sulfur microbial diet scores were associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers, after adjusting for other risk factors (multivariable relative risk, highest vs lowest quartile, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81; Ptrend=.002). In contrast, sulfur microbial diet scores were not associated with risk of proximal colon cancer (multivariable relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.65-1.14; Ptrend=.31]. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we found that long-term adherence to a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool was associated with an increased risk of distal CRC. Further studies are needed to determine how sulfur-metabolizing bacteria might contribute to CRC pathogenesis.

6.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a link between regular yogurt consumption and mortality appears plausible, data are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between regular yogurt consumption and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among US women and men. METHODS: A total of 82,348 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 40,278 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in 1980 (women) or 1986 (men) were followed up until 2012. Yogurt consumption was assessed by updated validated FFQs. RESULTS: During 3,354,957 person-years of follow-up, 20,831 women and 12,397 men died. Compared with no yogurt consumption, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of mortality were 0.89 (0.86, 0.93), 0.85 (0.81, 0.89), 0.88 (0.84, 0.91), and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) for ≤1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2-4 servings/wk, and >4 servings/wk in women (P-trend = 0.34), respectively. For men, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.99 (0.94, 1.03), 0.98 (0.91, 1.05), 1.04 (0.98, 1.10), and 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), respectively. We further noted inverse associations for cancer mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR comparing extreme categories: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.98; P-trend = 0.04) and CVD mortality (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.08; P-trend = 0.41) in women, although the latter was attenuated in the multivariable-adjusted model. Replacement of 1 serving/d of yogurt with 1 serving/d of nuts (women and men) or whole grains (women) was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas replacement of yogurt with red meat, processed meat (women and men), and milk or other dairy foods (women) was associated with a greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, regular yogurt consumption was related to lower mortality risk among women. Given that no clear dose-response relation was apparent, this result must be interpreted with caution.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 133-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of colorectal cancer in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrate status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 colorectal cancer cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication-method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each colorectal cancer subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night shifts, those working ≥15 years night shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of colorectal cancer (P trend = 0.06; multivariable HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.48-4.89; P trend = 0.001, ≥15 years night shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.54-1.51; P trend = 0.72; P heterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI, 0.94-3.48; P trend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI, 0.71-1.80; P trend = 0.56; P heterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathologic epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night shift might increase colorectal cancer risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathways.

9.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(1): 65-72, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699705

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids, and emerging evidence suggests that BCAAs may mediate pathways related to cancer progression, possibly due to their involvement in insulin metabolism. We investigated the association between dietary intake of BCAAs with colorectal cancer risk in three prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study I [(NHS), number of participants (n) at baseline = 77,017], NHS II (n = 92,984), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [(HPFS) n = 47,255]. Validated food frequency questionnaires were administered every 4 years and follow-up questionnaires on lifestyle biennially. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Pooled HRs were obtained using random effect models. After up to 28 years of follow-up, 1,660 cases were observed in NHS, 306 in NHS II, and 1,343 in HPFS. In multivariable adjusted models, we observed a weak inverse association between BCAA intake and colorectal cancer [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR including all three cohorts (95% CI): 0.89 (0.80-1.00), P trend = 0.06, HR per standard deviation (SD) increment 0.95 (0.92-0.99)]. However, after including dairy calcium to the models, BCAA intake was no longer associated with risk of colorectal cancer [HR 0.96 (0.85-1.08), P trend = 0.50, HR per SD increment 0.97 (0.93-1.01)]. We did not find evidence that higher dietary BCAA intake is associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer. As this is the first prospective study to examine the association between BCAA intake and colorectal cancer, our findings warrant investigation in other cohorts.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 158(2): 322-340, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586566

RESUMO

Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to the development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal microbiome, including overweight and obesity; physical activity; and dietary intake of fiber, whole grains, and red and processed meat. These factors alter microbiome structure and function, along with the metabolic and immune pathways that mediate CRC development. We review epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for the influence of the microbiome, diet, and environmental factors on CRC incidence and outcomes. Based on these data, features of the intestinal microbiome might be used for CRC screening and modified for chemoprevention and treatment. Integrated prospective studies are urgently needed to investigate these strategies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many genetic variants have been associated with colorectal cancer risk, although few have been associated with survival times of patients. Identification of genetic variants associated with survival times might improve our understanding of disease progression and aid in outcome prediction. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify variants associated with colon cancer survival time. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from NCCTG N0147 (Alliance), a randomized phase 3 trial of patients with resected stage III colon cancer, and from NSABP C-08 (NRG), a phase 3 trial that compared therapy regimens for patients with resected stage II or III colon cancer. Genotype analyses were performed on DNA from blood samples from 4974 patients. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the association of each single nucleotide polymorphism with times of overall survival and disease-free survival, adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, treatment group, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We performed the analysis for studies N0147 and C-08 separately, and results were combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A locus on chromosome 7p15.2 was significantly associated with overall survival time (P≤5x10-08). The most significant variant at this locus, rs76766811 (P=1.6x10-08), is common among African Americans (minor allele frequency, approximately 18%) but rare in European Americans (minor allele frequency<0.1%). Within strata of self-reported ancestry, this variant was associated with times of overall survival and disease-free survival in only African Americans (hazard ratio for overall survival, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.88-4.23; P=5.0x10-07 and hazard ratio for disease-free survival, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.62-3.18: P=1.8x10-06). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2 trials of patients with stage II or III colon cancer, we identified rs76766811 as a potential prognostic variant in African American patients. This finding should be confirmed in additional study populations.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients are frequently advised to eliminate coffee, tea, and/or soda to reduce symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), such as heartburn or regurgitation. However, there are no data from prospective studies to support these recommendations. METHODS: We collected data from the prospective Nurses' Health Study II from 48,308 women, 42-62 years old, who were free of regular GER symptoms, without cancer, and not taking proton pump inhibitors or H2 receptor agonists. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between beverage intake and risk for GER symptoms. RESULTS: During 262,641 person-years of follow up, we identified 7961 women who reported symptoms of GER once or more per week. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) for women with the highest intake of each beverage (more than 6 servings/day) compared to women with the lowest intake (0 servings/day) were 1.34 for coffee (95% CI, 1.13-1.59; Ptrend<.0001), 1.26 for tea (95% CI, 1.03-1.55; Ptrend<.001), and 1.29 for soda (95% CI, 1.05-1.58; Ptrend<.0001). We obtained similar results when we stratified patients according to caffeine status. No association was observed between milk, water, or juice consumption and risk for GER symptoms. In a substitution analysis, replacement of 2 servings/day of coffee, tea, or soda with 2 servings of water was associated with reduced risk of GERD symptoms: coffee HR, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00); tea HR, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00); and soda HR, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89- 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from the prospective Nurses' Health Study II, intake of coffee, tea, or soda was associated with an increased risk of GER symptoms. In contrast, consumption of water, juice, or milk were not associated with GER symptoms. Drinking water instead of coffee, tea, or soda reduced the risk of GER symptoms.

13.
J Pathol ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880318

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), which has been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, can impair anti-tumour immunity, and actively invade colon epithelial cells. Considering the critical role of autophagy in host defence against microorganisms, we hypothesised that autophagic activity of tumour cells might influence the amount of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissue. Using 724 rectal and colon cancer cases within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we evaluated autophagic activity of tumour cells by immunohistochemical analyses of BECN1 (beclin 1), MAP1LC3 (LC3), and SQSTM1 (p62) expression. We measured the amount of F. nucleatum DNA in tumour tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We conducted multivariable ordinal logistic regression analyses to examine the association of tumour BECN1, MAP1LC3, and SQSTM1 expression with the amount of F. nucleatum, adjusting for potential confounders, including microsatellite instability status; CpG island methylator phenotype; long-interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation; and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Compared with BECN1-low cases, BECN1-intermediate and BECN1-high cases were associated with lower amounts of F. nucleatum with odds ratios (for a unit increase in three ordinal categories of the amount of F. nucleatum) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.99) and 0.31 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.60), respectively (Ptrend < 0.001 across ordinal BECN1 categories). Tumour MAP1LC3 and SQSTM1 levels were not significantly associated with the amount of F. nucleatum (Ptrend > 0.06). Tumour BECN1, MAP1LC3, and SQSTM1 levels were not significantly associated with patient survival (Ptrend > 0.10). In conclusion, tumour BECN1 expression is inversely associated with the amount of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissue, suggesting a possible role of autophagy in the elimination of invasive microorganisms. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction=.01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI, 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI, 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction=5.61x10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI, 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI, 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer-particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventative measures.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 and other proteins were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 level associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12; P=3.3 x 10-4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P =4.2 x 10-5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in IGFBP3 (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750855

RESUMO

Importance: Marine ω-3 fatty acid has been suggested to protect against colorectal cancer. Objective: To assess the effect of daily marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of colorectal cancer precursors, including conventional adenomas and serrated polyps. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a prespecified ancillary study of the placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial VITAL (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial). An intention-to-treat analysis was used to examine the effect of daily marine ω-3 supplements among 25 871 adults in the US general population (including 5106 African American persons) free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at enrollment. Randomization was from November 2011 to March 2014, and intervention ended as planned on December 31, 2017. Interventions: Marine ω-3 fatty acid, 1 g daily (which included eicosapentaenoic acid, 460 mg, and docosahexaenoic acid, 380 mg) and vitamin D3 (2000 IU daily) supplements. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of conventional adenomas (including tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma, villous adenoma, and adenoma with high-grade dysplasia) or serrated polyps (including hyperplastic polyp, traditional serrated adenoma, and sessile serrated polyp). In a subset of participants who reported receiving a diagnosis of polyp on follow-up questionnaires, endoscopic and pathologic records were obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic regression, after adjusting for age, sex, vitamin D treatment assignment, and use of endoscopy. Secondary analyses were performed according to polyp features and participants' characteristics. Results: The demographic characteristics of participants at randomization were well balanced between the treatment and placebo groups; for example, 50.6% vs 50.5% were women, and 19.7% vs 19.8% were African American persons were included in each group. The mean (SD) age was 67.1 (7.1) years in the placebo group and 67.2 (7.1) in the ω-3 treatment group. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range, 3.8-6.1 years), 294 cases of conventional adenomas were documented in the ω-3 group and 301 in the control group (multivariable OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.83-1.15) (1:1 ratio between number of cases and number of participants). In addition, 174 cases of serrated polyps were documented in the ω-3 group and 167 in the control group (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84-1.29). Null associations were found for polyp subgroups according to size, location, multiplicity, or histology. In secondary analyses, marine ω-3 treatment appeared to be associated with lower risk of conventional adenomas among individuals with low plasma levels of ω-3 index at baseline (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-1.02; P = .03 for interaction by ω-3 index). A beneficial association of supplementation was also noted in the African American population (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35-1.00) but not in other racial/ethnic groups (P = .11 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: Supplementation with marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day, was not associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer precursors. A potential benefit of this supplementation for individuals with low baseline ω-3 levels or for African American persons requires further confirmation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01169259.

17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2408, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681297

RESUMO

Astrocyte-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress elicit cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury after stroke. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activates astrocytes and generates pro-inflammatory factors. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the effect of pterostilbene (PTE, a natural stilbene) on astrocytic inflammation and neuronal oxidative injury following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. A middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO/R) mouse model and HT22/U251 co-culture model subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-introduction (OGD/R) were employed, with or without PTE treatment. The data showed that PTE delivery immediately after reperfusion, at 1 h after occlusion, decreased infarct volume, brain edema, and neuronal apoptosis and improved long-term neurological function. PTE decreased oxidation (i.e., production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde) and inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6) and increased anti-oxidative enzyme activities (i.e., of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), by inhibiting phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In conclusion, PTE attenuated astrocyte-mediated inflammation and oxidative injury following IR via NF-κB inhibition. Overall, PTE is a promising neuroprotective agent.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683809

RESUMO

Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a recently acknowledged pattern of rapid tumor progression after the initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitors. HPD has been observed across various types of tumors and has been associated with poor survival. We performed a meta-analysis to identify baseline (i.e., prior to programmed cell death 1 [PD-1, PDCD1] / programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 [PD-L1, CD274] inhibitor therapy) patient factors associated with risks of developing HPD during PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy. We searched eight databases until 6 June 2019. We calculated the summary odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random-effects model and explored between-study heterogeneity and small-study effects. A total of nine articles was eligible (217 HPD cases, 1519 cancer patients) for meta-analysis. There was no standard definition of HPD, and the incidence of HPD ranged from 1 to 30%. We identified twenty-three baseline patient factors, of which five factors were statistically significantly associated with HPD. These were serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) above the upper normal limit (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.02-3.49, p = 0.043), more than two metastatic sites (OR = 1.86, 1.34-2.57, p < 0.001), liver metastases (OR = 3.33, 2.07-5.34, p < 0.001), Royal Marsden Hospital prognostic score of 2 or above (OR = 3.33, 1.96-5.66, p < 0.001), and positive PD-L1 expression status that was inversely correlated with HPD (OR = 0.60, 0.36-0.99, p = 0.044). Between-study heterogeneity was low. Evidence of small-study effect was found in one association (PD-L1 expression). Subset analyses of patients with non-small cell lung cancer showed similar results. Future studies are warranted to identify underlying molecular mechanisms and to test their roles as predictive biomarkers of HPD.

19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(24): e1900612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703241

RESUMO

SCOPE: Vegetarian diets confer health benefits to many cardiometabolic diseases, although whether and how gut microbiota in vegetarians contributes to host metabolism remains unclear. Thus, the aim is to explore the possible links between the gut microbiota and circulating gut microbiota-host co-metabolites among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fecal and serum samples from 36 adults following a vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, or omnivorous diet are collected. A 16S rRNA gene, metagenome, metatranscriptome, and metabolome integrated multi-omics approach is adopted to profile fecal microbial composition and functionality and circulating gut microbiota-host co-metabolites. 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing suggest a significant difference in gut microbial composition between the two vegetarian groups and the omnivorous group at the family, genus, and species level. Metabolomic analysis reveals that circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-valine, leucine, and isoleucine-are significantly lower in the two vegetarian groups than those in the omnivorous group. In line with the lower concentrations of BCAAs, metatranscriptomic analysis shows that the gut microbial pathway for the degradation of BCAAs is significantly upregulated among vegetarians compared with the omnivores. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that gut microbiota plays an important role in the modulation of circulating BCAAs among vegetarians.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lifestyle and dietary risk factors for diverticulitis also have been associated with chronic inflammation. We performed a prospective study of associations among the inflammatory potential of diets, circulating markers of inflammation, and the incidence of diverticulitis. METHODS: We followed up 46,418 men, initially free of diverticulitis, from 1986 through 2014 in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We collected data on empiric dietary inflammatory pattern scores, which indicate the inflammatory potential of diets, and determined their association with the risk of incident diverticulitis using Cox proportional hazards regression. We used blood samples provided by 18,225 participants from 1993 through 1995 to conduct a nested case-control study; we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate prediagnostic plasma levels of markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily member 1B, in 310 diverticulitis cases and 310 matched diverticulitis-free individuals (controls). RESULTS: We documented 1110 cases of incident diverticulitis over 992,589 person-years of follow-up evaluation. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of empiric dietary inflammatory pattern scores, men in the highest quintile had a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07-1.60; Ptrend = .01). The association did not differ significantly by strata of body mass index or vigorous activity (P for interaction > .05 for each). In the nested case-control study, plasma levels of CRP and IL6 were associated with risk of diverticulitis. When we compared extreme quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk for diverticulitis was 1.85 for CRP (95% CI, 1.04-3.30) and 2.04 for IL6 (95% CI, 1.09-3.84). CONCLUSIONS: In a large prospective cohort of men, we found that the inflammatory potential of diet and prediagnostic plasma levels of markers of inflammation were associated with incident diverticulitis.

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