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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 581(Pt A): 195-204, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771731

RESUMO

Compared with the transition metal induced homogeneous catalytic system, the heterogeneous catalytic system based on transition metal-doped metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were stable for the efficient utilization of transition metal and avoiding the metal leaching. The aim of this work is to synthesize Co-doped MIL-53(Al) by one-step solvent thermal method and use it to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to remove tetracycline (TC) in water. The successful synthesis of Co-MIL-53(Al) samples was demonstrated by XDR, SEM and FTIR characterizations. The 25% Co-MIL-53(Al)/PMS system showed the optimal TC removal effect compared to the PMS alone and MIL-53(Al)/PMS system. The catalytic performances of Co-MIL-53(Al)/PMS system in conditions of different pH, co-existing substances and water bodies were investigated. Quenching experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) showed that the degradation mechanism by Co-MIL-53(Al) activation PMS was mainly attributed to sulfate radical (SO4•-) and singlet oxygen (1O2) non-radical. The degradation intermediates of TC were also identified and the possible degradation pathways were proposed. Co-MIL-53(Al) showed good activity after four cycles. These findings demonstrated that Co-MIL-53(Al) can be a promising heterogeneous catalyst for activating PMS to degrade TC.

2.
Biosci Trends ; 14(5): 314-317, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100291

RESUMO

Fifth Generation (5G) mobile communications technology became available in Japan as of the end of March 2020. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) is proceeding with a plan to use 5G for a doctor-to-doctor remote diagnosis system. This remote diagnosis offers patients the benefit of receiving advanced medical care without having to travel long distances. The provision of a remote diagnosis will provide elderly patients in rural areas with an earlier diagnosis without burdening patients in Japan where the aging population and the uneven distribution of doctors are increasing. However, the system will increase the burden on specialists by expanding the doctor's catchment area. As a solution to that problem, deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) is expected to reduce the burden on doctors. In order to realize 5G- and AI-based real-time diagnostic support, diagnostic imaging using AI and an AI model that provides instructions are required. This is because ultrasonography and endoscopy, which can be used for remote diagnosis, do not acquire data on fixed areas like a CT or MRI scan. The AI model needs to instruct the doctor at the patient's home in order to collect appropriate information in accordance with the patient's symptoms and status. In order to build an interactive AI model, the interactions between doctors who are making a remote diagnosis should be recorded as training data and a 5G-based remote diagnosis system should be created. A remote diagnostic support system incorporating 5G and interactive diagnostic imaging incorporating AI will result in a system that places less of a burden on patients and doctors.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 123980, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795881

RESUMO

To reduce environmental pollution and waste of biomass from Ginkgo biloba leaf residues (GBLRs), we developed a cost-effective enzyme system to hydrolyze GBLRs into available reducing sugars (RS). Biomass characteristics of GBLRs were investigated, which indicated that the acid hydrolyzed fraction was 49.43% of the dry weight of GBLRs. The fraction could be effectively converted into RS by an enzyme cocktail with high polygalacturonase activity without traditionally intricate pretreatment. The strain A32 isolated from the ancient ginkgo soil was used for the production of the enzyme cocktail, and a response surface methodology was used to optimize the enzymatic production. The enzyme cocktail released 87.2% of RS from GBLRs at 35 â„ƒ for 72 h with 1% (m/v) of loading, and the RS concentration arrived 8.95 ± 0.39 mg/ml with 9% of GBLRs loading. The cost-effective system of self-prepared enzyme cocktail is promising for facilitating GBLRs' bio-based industry.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Árvores , Biomassa , Análise Custo-Benefício , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta
4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 580: 470-479, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711198

RESUMO

Herein, Mn-doped MIL-53(Fe) were fabricated via one-pot solvothermal method and used for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation towards tetracycline (TC) degradation from aqueous solution. The characterizations of SEM, FTIR and XRD were utilized to reveal the morphology and structure of the materials. The results showed that Mn-MIL-53(Fe)-0.3 displayed the optimal catalytic performance, the removal efficiency of TC could reach 93.2%. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Mn-MIL-53(Fe) towards TC under different initial pH values, co-existing anions (Cl-,CO32- and SO42-) and humic acid (HA) were investigated. The results of thermodynamic experiment suggested that the catalytic process was endothermic. In addition, integrated with capture experiments results and the characterization results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), which revealed that SO4·- and HO- were the reactive radicals involving in the reaction. More importantly, the possible activation mechanism was discussed in detail based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The active species were generated by the active sites of Fe(II) and Mn(II) on Mn-MIL-53(Fe) effectively activated PMS. Furthermore, the degradation intermediates and possible degradation pathway were investigated by LC-MS. Finally, the catalyst also showed good performance in actual wastewater and demonstrated good recyclability. The Mn-MIL-53(Fe)/PMS system exhibited a promising application prospect for antibiotic-containing waste water treatment.

5.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 151-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669524

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading contributor to lost disability-adjusted life years worldwide, and this is especially true in the elderly population. In order to reduce the burden of disease, effective management of CAP is crucial to public health in terms of maintaining and promoting the health of the elderly and involves safe drug use, vaccinations, early treatment in the ICU, and health education. Since the long-term mortality of CAP is particularly high in the elderly, biomarkers and a predictive diagnostic model of CAP should be developed in future research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592310

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently spreading globally, causing severe pneumonia and acute lung injury in many patients. Even worse, severe respiratory may develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in COVID-19. The cytokine storm caused by immune over-activation due to virus infection may be an important cause of death in the late period of progress, but the pathogenesis of cytokine storm is still unclear. This article reviews the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm in detail based on the current discovered researches, and put forward some valuable medication ideas for the targeted cytokines drug researches and treatment. The goal of this work will be helpful for reducing excessive immune response.

7.
Biosci Trends ; 14(4): 304-309, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507777

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP)- and albumin (Alb)-based scoring systems are available for predicting the prognosis of patients with diverse forms of gastrointestinal cancer, but their utility for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate whether a high CRP/Alb ratio is associated with the surgical outcome of ICC patients. Patients who underwent initial and curative resection for ICC were included in this study, and were divided into the High and Low CRP/Alb groups based on their preoperative CRP and Alb values. The surgical outcomes were compared between the two groups. The median CRP/Alb ratio amongst 88 patients was 0.033 (range, 0.019-3.636); 44 patients with CRP/Alb > 0.033 were allocated to the High CRP/Alb group and 44 patients were allocated to the Low CRP/Alb group. The operative data did not differ between the two groups, while the tumor status was more advanced in the High CRP/Alb group. The median overall survival was 2.4 years (95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and 8.9 years (3.8-NA) in the High and Low CRP/Alb groups, respectively (P < 0.001), and recurrence-free survival was 0.5 years (95% CI, 0.3-0.7) and 7.7 years (1.3-NA), respectively (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, the independent factors for overall survival were High CRP/Alb (P = 0.017) and multiple nodules (P = 0.008). Taken together, the survival of ICC patients in the High CRP/Alb group was reduced compared to that of patients in the Low CRP/Alb group due to the advanced stage of the tumor as well as malnutrition.

8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 509: 280-287, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531256

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread widely throughout the world. Despite the strict global outbreak management and quarantine measures that have been implemented, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, resulting in more than 290,000 deaths and representing an extremely serious threat to human life and health. The clinical symptoms of the affected patients are heterogeneous, ranging from mild upper respiratory symptoms to severe pneumonitis and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or death. Systemic immune over activation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection causes the cytokine storm, which is especially noteworthy in severely ill patients with COVID-19. Pieces of evidence from current studies have shown that the cytokine storm may be an important factor in disease progression, even leading to multiple organ failure and death. This review provides an overview of the knowledge on the COVID-19 epidemiological profile, the molecular mechanisms of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm and immune responses, the pathophysiological changes that occur during infection, the main antiviral compounds used in treatment strategies and the potential drugs for targeting cytokines, this information is presented to provide valuable guidance for further studies and for a therapeutic reduction of this excessive immune response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 1, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561950

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, there was an error in the abstract section. The incorrect sentence "the dominant microbes in the DEHP-contaminated soil were Sphingomonas and Bacillus, which belonged to the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteriav, respectively" should be revised to "the dominant microbes in the DEHP-contaminated soil were belonged to the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria, respectively." This has been corrected with this erratum.

10.
Clin Lab ; 66(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the mechanism of systemic inflammatory response in the course of cancer progression is gradually revealed, research has begun to focus on the two indictors of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) which may be associated with clinical disease development, treatment, and prognosis in patients who are undergoing surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. We aim to define the clinical application values of those two biomarkers in multiple cancers. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science are used to perform the systematic literature research. Related articles and references were identified for analyzing the association of between NLR and PLR with treatment outcome, as well as progression of cancers. RESULTS: NLR and PLR are convenient, easy to calculate, economical, and practical biomarkers, effectively predicting treatment outcome and risk of death based on inflammatory cells. Elevated NLR and PLR are significantly in line with worse clinical pathological characteristics, deeper invasiveness, more lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage. A significant association was observed that high NLR and PLR predict poor overall survival and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: NLR and PLR can be used as available biomarkers in prognostic survival and formulation of treatment strategy of multiple cancers.

11.
Biosci Trends ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209432

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic around the world. With the explosive growth of confirmed cases, emergency medical supplies are facing global shortage, which restricts the treatment of seriously ill patients and protection of medical staff. Taking China, the United States, Australia, and Canada as examples, this study compares and analyzes the reserve and supply systems of emergency medical supplies and problems exposed in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. Some common problems were found, such as insufficient types and quantities of emergency medical supplies in reserve, insufficient emergency production capacity, and imperfect command mechanism for emergency supplies deployment and transportation. A sound reserve system of emergency medical supplies is the basis and guarantee for dealing with public health emergencies such as major outbreaks. Based on the comparison of systems and practical experience, countries around the world should further improve the reserve and supply system of emergency medical supplies, and improve the coordination and cooperation mechanism for emergency supplies for international public health emergencies, so as to cope with increasingly severe public health emergencies in the context of globalization.

12.
Biosci Trends ; 14(4): 231-240, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389940

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic around the world. With the explosive growth of confirmed cases, emergency medical supplies are facing global shortage, which restricts the treatment of seriously ill patients and protection of medical staff. Taking China, the United States, Australia, and Canada as examples, this study compares and analyzes the reserve and supply systems of emergency medical supplies and problems exposed in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. Some common problems were found, such as insufficient types and quantities of emergency medical supplies in reserve, insufficient emergency production capacity, and imperfect command mechanism for emergency supplies deployment and transportation. A sound reserve system of emergency medical supplies is the basis and guarantee for dealing with public health emergencies such as major outbreaks. Based on the comparison of systems and practical experience, countries around the world should further improve the reserve and supply system of emergency medical supplies, and improve the coordination and cooperation mechanism for emergency supplies for international public health emergencies, so as to cope with increasingly severe public health emergencies in the context of globalization.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estoque Estratégico , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , Canadá , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 820-827, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424434

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP) is applied as plasticizer, which results in the pollution of environment. In this study, the effects of DEHP on soil microbial functions, structure and genetic diversity were investigated. The concentration of DEHP in the soil were 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, and the experimental period were 28 days. DEHP reduced the quantity, abundance, species dominance and homogeneity of soil microbes during the first 14 days. In addition, microbial utilization efficiency of carbon (carbohydrates, aliphatics, amino acids, metabolites) was impacted after 28 days, though the effects gradually weakened. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis, in the presence of DEHP, the dominant microbes in the DEHP-contaminated soil were Sphingomonas and Bacillus, which belonged to the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteriav, respectively. With 0.1 or 1 mg/kg of DEHP, the relative abundances of Acidobacteria were higher, and with 10 or 50 mg/kg of DEHP, the relative abundances of Proteobacteria were higher.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sphingomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sphingomonas/metabolismo
14.
Biosci Trends ; 14(2): 134-138, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9868

RESUMO

To assess the effectiveness of response strategies of avoiding large gatherings or crowded areas and to predict the spread of COVID-19 infections in Japan, we developed a stochastic transmission model by extending the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemiological model with an additional modeling of the individual action on whether to stay away from the crowded areas. The population were divided into three compartments: Susceptible, Infected, Removed. Susceptible transitions to Infected every hour with a probability determined by the ratio of Infected and the congestion of area. The total area consists of three zones crowded zone, mid zone and uncrowded zone, with different infection probabilities characterized by the number of people gathered there. The time for each people to spend in the crowded zone is curtailed by 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 hours, and the time spent in mid zone is extended accordingly. This simulation showed that the number of Infected and Removed will increase rapidly if there is no reduction of the time spent in crowded zone. On the other hand, the stagnant growth of Infected can be observed when the time spent in the crowded zone is reduced to 4 hours, and the growth number of Infected will decrease and the spread of the infection will subside gradually if the time spent in the crowded zone is further cut to 2 hours. In conclusions The infection spread in Japan will be gradually contained by reducing the time spent in the crowded zone to less than 4 hours.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Processos Estocásticos
15.
Biosci Trends ; 14(2): 134-138, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188819

RESUMO

To assess the effectiveness of response strategies of avoiding large gatherings or crowded areas and to predict the spread of COVID-19 infections in Japan, we developed a stochastic transmission model by extending the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemiological model with an additional modeling of the individual action on whether to stay away from the crowded areas. The population were divided into three compartments: Susceptible, Infected, Removed. Susceptible transitions to Infected every hour with a probability determined by the ratio of Infected and the congestion of area. The total area consists of three zones crowded zone, mid zone and uncrowded zone, with different infection probabilities characterized by the number of people gathered there. The time for each people to spend in the crowded zone is curtailed by 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 hours, and the time spent in mid zone is extended accordingly. This simulation showed that the number of Infected and Removed will increase rapidly if there is no reduction of the time spent in crowded zone. On the other hand, the stagnant growth of Infected can be observed when the time spent in the crowded zone is reduced to 4 hours, and the growth number of Infected will decrease and the spread of the infection will subside gradually if the time spent in the crowded zone is further cut to 2 hours. In conclusions The infection spread in Japan will be gradually contained by reducing the time spent in the crowded zone to less than 4 hours.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Processos Estocásticos
16.
Biosci Trends ; 14(1): 1-2, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766

RESUMO

Rapidly sharing scientific information is an effective way to reduce public panic about COVID-19, and doing so is the key to providing real-time guidance to epidemiologists working to contain the outbreak, clinicians managing patients, and modelers helping to understand future developments and the possible effectiveness of various interventions. This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies. As an academic journal, we will continue to quickly and transparently share data with frontline healthcare workers who need to know the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Comunicação em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Emergências , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
17.
Biosci Trends ; 14(1): 1-2, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092748

RESUMO

Rapidly sharing scientific information is an effective way to reduce public panic about COVID-19, and doing so is the key to providing real-time guidance to epidemiologists working to contain the outbreak, clinicians managing patients, and modelers helping to understand future developments and the possible effectiveness of various interventions. This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies. As an academic journal, we will continue to quickly and transparently share data with frontline healthcare workers who need to know the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Comunicação em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Emergências , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(4): 3558-3573, 2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087603

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins (RBPs) dysregulation have been reported in various malignant tumors and associated with the occurrence and development of cancer. However, the role of RBPs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is poorly understood. We downloaded the RNA sequencing data of LUAD from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and determined the differently expressed RBPs between normal and cancer tissues. The study then systemically investigated the expression and prognostic value of these RBPs by a series of bioinformatics analysis. A total of 223 differently expressed RBPs were identified, including 101 up-regulated and 122 down-regulated RBPs. Eight RBPs (IGF2BP1, IFIT1B, PABPC1, TLR8, GAPDH, PIWIL4, RNPC3, and ZC3H12C) were identified as prognosis related hub gene and used to construct a prognostic model. Further analysis indicated that the patients in the high-risk subgroup had poor overall survival(OS) compared to those in low-risk subgroup based on the model. The area under the curve of the time-dependent receiver operator characteristic curve of the prognostic model are 0.775 in TCGA cohort and 0.814 in GSE31210 cohort, confirming a good prognostic model. We also established a nomogram based on eight RBPs mRNA and internal validation in the TCGA cohort, which displayed a favorable discriminating ability for lung adenocarcinoma.

19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(2): 301-306, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784767

RESUMO

An ultrasonic-assisted extraction methodology coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analytical technique was used to determine concentration of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in typical greenhouse soil. The results showed that the developed method has a reliable recovery rate (80.78%-112.89%) and a low detection limit (10- 4 mg/kg) which met the requirements of residue determination. The analysis of 32 soil samples revealed that except for dimethyl phthalate, the concentration of other five PAEs was detected and followed the sequence di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate > dibutyl phthalate > di-n-octyl phthalate > butylbenz phthalate > diethyl phthalate. Σ6PAEs concentrations ranged from 136.91 to 1121.74 µg/kg (mean 319.59 µg/kg). PAEs was closely correlated with soil pH and organic matter, but not with cultivation ages which indicates that the increase of cultivation age is not the main reason for the change of soil PAEs concentration.


Assuntos
Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química
20.
Biosci Trends ; 13(6): 464-468, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875587

RESUMO

On November 28th, 2019, the National Healthcare Security Administration (NHSA) and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MOHRSS) of China announced the results of drug pricing negotiations. Seventy first-negotiated drugs with 60.7% average price decrease and twenty-seven re-negotiated medicines with 26.4% average price fall, involving 11 disease categories, were successfully incorporated into National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL). Medicines that successfully get accessed to NRDL are mostly new listings with high clinical value, and more than half of them are manufactured by Chinese enterprises. Compared to the negotiated drug list of 2017, the biggest increase in western medicines is the digestive system medications (10 drugs added), and the traditional Chinese medicine is internal medicine (17 drugs added). The negotiation follows the process including preparation, examination, negotiation, and announcement. There are several innovations in the procedure, such as the parallel calculation of the floor price, the introduction to competitive negotiations, allowing companies to apply for price confidentiality, and increasing government-enterprise communication before negotiations. Incorporating patent drugs into NRDL by negotiation not only helps patients reduce the economic burden, but also encourages pharmaceutical companies to innovate.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Negociação/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , China , Humanos
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