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1.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(8): 559-570, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. METHODS Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. RESULTS The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSION Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(34): 7401-7407, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369271

RESUMO

The main purpose of this work is to explore the effect of graphene quantum dots (GR) filling the photosensitive layer. The multibranched dye JH-1 as the photoactive layer material was used to analyze the non-negligible role of graphene quantum dots from the perspectives of optimized structure, electrochemical parameters, optical properties, nonlinear optical (NLO) switch, and external electric field. The results demonstrated that the graphene quantum dots not only improve the optical properties of solar cells but also control the electron transfer in the photosensitive layer molecules under the manipulation of a specific external electric field. When the external electric field intensity is below 20 × 10-4 au, the excess electron orbital does not change. When the external electric field reaches 25 × 10-4 au, the excess electron orbital on the graphene quantum dots evolves. This discovery allows the electron transfer from the photosensitive layer, which should be controlled by the NLO switch. In addition, the optical properties of sensitizers showed regular evolution in the external electric field, which provides an effective way to improve the performance. Comprehensive analysis indicated that the doping of graphene quantum dots with the photosensitive layer can be used as a new way to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells.

3.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2715-2720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271305

RESUMO

Aims: Our study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic role of homeobox C6 (HOXC6) in prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: Relative expression of HOXC6 at mRNA and protein levels in tissues and cell lines of PCa were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. Association between HOXC6 expression and clinical factors was analyzed by Chi-square test. HOXC6 effects on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of PCa cells were severally examined through CCK-8 and transwell assays. Results: Relative expressions of HOXC6 at mRNA and protein levels were obviously higher in both PCa tissues and cells than in adjacent non-cancerous tissues and normal human prostate epithelial cells (p < .05). Chi-square test demonstrated that high expression of HOXC6 was significantly associated with PSA concentration, Gleason score and TNM stage (p < .05). The down-regulation of HOCX6 remarkably inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of PCa cells. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high HOXC6 expression had shorter overall survival than those with low HOXC6 expression (log rank test, p < .001). Conclusion: Up-regulated HOXC6, in PCa patients, could not only participate in the progression of PCa but also function as an independent prognostic marker for the cancer.

4.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 140(2): 162-170, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285125

RESUMO

QTc prolongation has been observed during arsenic trioxide and realgar's clinical use, and become a huge obstacle for the application. Our lab has obtained the soluble arsenic from realgar named realgar transforming solution or RTS. In this study, we first evaluated the cytotoxicity on NB4 cell and found that RTS could remarkably inhibit proliferation of NB4 than arsenic trioxide. Then we figured out the QTc prolongation of RTS treatment contrasted with arsenic trioxide; results revealed that arsenic trioxide prolonged corrected QTc of mice by 20.1% and showed 1.9-fold higher cytotoxicity on H9c2 cell than RTS. On the contrary, there could not find any QTc prolongation of mice in RTS treatment. Also, arsenic trioxide elevated the intercellular calcium accumulation of H9c2 cell by 2.02-fold v.s control and RTS. HE staining and Masson's trichrome staining had shown that there was no injured section after RTS treatments. IK1 currents of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were diminished by 45.0% after treating with arsenic trioxide while RTS showed no significance than the control group. The results above indicated that RTS could serve as an alternative arsenic agent on leukemia and had a lower risk of cardiotoxicity.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7901735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346361

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis play critical roles in the development of doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity. Our previous study found that geniposide (GE) could inhibit cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes but its role in DOX-induced heart injury remains unknown. Our study is aimed at investigating whether GE could protect against DOX-induced heart injury. The mice were subjected to a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX (15 mg/kg) to induce cardiomyopathy model. To explore the protective effects, GE was orally given for 10 days. The morphological examination and biochemical analysis were used to evaluate the effects of GE. H9C2 cells were used to verify the protective role of GE in vitro. GE treatment alleviated heart dysfunction and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and cell loss induced by DOX in vivo and in vitro. GE could activate AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of AMPKα could abolish the protective effects of GE against DOX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. GE could protect against DOX-induced heart injury via activation of AMPKα. GE has therapeutic potential for the treatment of DOX cardiotoxicity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176866

RESUMO

Cysteine oxygenase (CDO) is a mononuclear nonhemoglobin enzyme that catalyzes the production of taurine through the cysteine (Cys) pathway and plays a key role in the biosynthesis of taurine in mammals. However, the function of CDOs in bony fish remains poorly understood. In this study, we cloned CDO genes (CaCDO1 and CaCDO2) from Carassius auratus. The cDNA sequences of both CaCDO1 and CaCDO2 encoded putative proteins with 201 amino acids, which included structural features typical of the CDO protein family. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that CaCDO1 and CaCDO2 shared high sequence identities and similarities with C. carpio homologs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results revealed that CaCDO1 and CaCDO2 were both broadly expressed in all selected tissues and developmental stages in C. auratus but had differing mRNA levels. In addition, compared to those of the taurine-free group, the in vivo mRNA expression levels of both CaCDO1 and CaCDO2 significantly decreased with increasing dietary taurine levels from 1.0 to 9.0 g/kg. Furthermore, in vitro taurine treatments showed similar inhibitory effects on the expression of CaCDO1 and CaCDO2 in the intestines of C. auratus. Our results also showed that the mRNA expression of CaCDO2 in the intestines was higher than that of CaCDO1 in response to in vivo and in vitro taurine supplementation. Overall, these data may provide new insights into the regulation of fish CDO expression and provide valuable knowledge for improving dietary formulas in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Cisteína Dioxigenase/genética , Cisteína Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Carpa Dourada/genética , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpa Dourada/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Cell Death Differ ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209361

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis play critical roles in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Previous studies indicated that fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) and its cleaved form, irisin, could preserve mitochondrial function and attenuate oxidative damage as well as cell apoptosis, however, its role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains unknown. Our present study aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of FNDC5 on oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiomyocyte-specific FNDC5 overexpression was achieved using an adeno-associated virus system, and then the mice were exposed to a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX (15 mg/kg) to generate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Herein, we found that FNDC5 expression was downregulated in DOX-treated murine hearts and cardiomyocytes. Fndc5 deficiency resulted in increased oxidative damage and apoptosis in H9C2 cells under basal conditions, imitating the phenotype of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in vitro, conversely, FNDC5 overexpression or irisin treatment alleviated DOX-induced oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, we identified that FNDC5/Irisin activated AKT/mTOR signaling and decreased DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and moreover, we provided direct evidence that the anti-oxidant effect of FNDC5/Irisin was mediated by the AKT/GSK3ß/FYN/Nrf2 axis in an mTOR-independent manner. And we also demonstrated that heat shock protein 20 was responsible for the activation of AKT caused by FNDC5/Irisin. In line with the data in acute model, we also found that FNDC5/Irisin exerted beneficial effects in chronic model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (5 mg/kg, i.p., once a week for three times, the total cumulative dose is 15 mg/kg) in mice. Based on these findings, we supposed that FNDC5/Irisin was a potential therapeutic agent against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110600, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228599

RESUMO

Diisononyl phthalate (DIDP) is commonly used as a plasticizer in industrial and consumer products, however, its toxicity remains unclear. This study investigated the possible involvement of oxidative stress in DIDP-induced liver and kidney toxicity. Liver function and kidney function, tissue lesions, oxidative stress biomarkers, inflammatory mediators and apoptosis factors were investigated in this study. The results showed that oral exposure to DIDP induced a marked increase in lever of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urinary nitrogen (UREA) and creatinine (CREA), decrease in albumin (ALB) level, as well as causing hepatic and renal histopathological change. Investigation of the role of oxidative stress pathways showed that DBP exposure could lead to a significant increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), while a decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels were observed. Administration of vitamin E to DIDP-treated mice restored these biochemical parameters to within normal levels, and resulted in less damage to livers and kidneys. Overall, these results suggest that the oxidative stress pathway is involved in DIDP-induced toxicity.

9.
Arch Pharm Res ; 42(8): 684-694, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214877

RESUMO

PML/retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα), as a hallmark of acute promyeloid leukemia (APL), is directly related to the outcome of clinical APL remedy. It is reported that arsenicals can effectively degrade PML/RARα, such as arsenic trioxide and realgar. However, the high toxicity or insolubility have hampered their clinical applications. Realgar transforming solution (RTS) was produced from realgar by bioleaching process in our lab. Previous studies demonstrated that RTS had a significant anti-cancer ability on chronic myeloid leukemia through oncoprotein degradation. The capacity of RTS on treating APL is what is focused on in this study. The results showed that RTS had a noticeable sensitivity in NB4 cell, and RTS remarkably down-regulated PML/RARα expression and induced cell differentiation. Further, RTS could accumulate PML/RARα into the nuclear bodies and then execute degradation, which could be reversed by proteasome inhibitor MG132. The results also exhibited that the reduction of RTS-induced PML/RARα expression accompanied by the elevation of ubiquitin and SUMO-1 protein expression. Finally, PML and SUMO-1 had been demonstrated to be co-localized after RTS treatment by immunofluorescence co-localization assay and immunoprecipitation assay. In conclusion, these results suggested that RTS-induced cell differentiation may attribute to the PML/RARα degradation partially through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

10.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5109-5117, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248259

RESUMO

Ultrathin ferroelectrics hold great promise for modern miniaturized sensors, memories, and optoelectronic devices. However, in most ferroelectric materials, polarization is destabilized in ultrathin films by the intrinsic depolarization field. Here we report robust in-plane ferroelectricity in few-layer tin sulfide (SnS) 2D crystals that is coupled anisotropically to lattice strain. Specifically, the intrinsic polarization of SnS manifests as nanoripples along the armchair direction due to a converse piezoelectric effect. Most interestingly, such nanoripples show an odd-and-even effect in terms of its layer dependence, indicating that it is highly sensitive to changes in inversion symmetry. Ferroelectric switching is demonstrated in field-effect transistor devices fabricated on ultrathin SnS films, in which a stronger ferroelectric response is achieved at negative gate voltages. Our work shows the promise of 2D SnS in ultrathin ferroelectric field-effect transistors as well as nanoscale electromechanical systems.

11.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 22(6): 355-362, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196369

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a refractory cancer with high degree of malignancy, rapid disease progression, poor prognosis and easy recurrence. In the past 30 years, the traditional treatment of SCLC, mainly chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has not changed significantly, and the effective treatment method for clinical needs is extremely urgent. The rapid development of precision medicine has revealed the molecular biological characteristics of SCLC, so its diagnosis and treatment will into a new era. At present, some studies have shown that anti-angiogenic drugs, immunotherapy and so on have improved the efficacy of SCLC treatment to some extent, and there are more studies on the diagnosis and treatment of SCLC, so a new field of SCLC treatment are coming and bringing more survival benefits to patients. New studies on targeted therapy, anti-angiogenesis drugs and immunotherapy of molecular pathology of SCLC are emerging. This paper reviews the new diagnosis and treatment methods of SCLC to provide new guidance for its clinical treatment.
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12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2737968, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111045

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect of preoperative treatment and postoperative enhanced anti-inflammatory treatment on alleviating meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye induced by cataract surgery. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Methods: A total of 120 cataract patients with moderate obstructive-MGD were enrolled and randomized with 60:30:30 number of patients in cohorts I, II, and III, respectively: Cohort I: routine postoperative anti-inflammatory treatment; Cohort II: preoperative treatment (warming compress, lid hygiene, and anti-inflammatory treatment) and routine postoperative anti-inflammatory treatment; Cohort III: enhanced postoperative anti-inflammatory treatment. Main Outcomes Measures: All participants were examined preoperatively and postoperatively for ocular symptom score (OSS), noninvasive keratographic tear break-up time (NIKBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, lid margin, meibum quality and expressibility, and meibomian gland dropout. Results: Ocular surface disorders and MGD showed aggravated status at 1 month postoperatively in Cohort I and Cohort III, and the aggravated MGD resolved by 3 months postoperatively. At 1 month postoperatively, Cohort II and Cohort III presented high NIKBUT and low OSS, lid margin, and meibum quality and expressibility (Cohort II vs Cohort I: all P<0.001, respectively; Cohort III vs Cohort I: P=0.011, P=0.024, P=0.046, P=0.045, and P=0.012, respectively). Additionally, Cohort II had better outcomes of lid margin and meibum quality and expressibility than Cohort III at 1 month postoperatively (P=0.031, P=0.026, and P<0.001, respectively). At 3 months postoperatively, Cohort II presented a significantly higher NIKBUT than Cohort I and Cohort III (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative management of MGD is effective and optimal in alleviating obstructive-MGD and dry eye induced by cataract surgery.

13.
Opt Express ; 27(8): 10670-10683, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052921

RESUMO

Based on the Riemann sum method, we propose the idea of studying the pulse response width in a moving scene by using the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) wireless ultraviolet (UV) single-scatter communication model. We simulated the effect of the transmitter moving in eight directions from the origin on the pulse response width, when the receiver is fixed at point (100, 0, 0). Furthermore, the pulse response characteristics of the receiver were analyzed with varying elevation angle, beam angle, field-of-view (FOV) angle, and other geometric parameters. The results show that the pulse response width is widened under the condition of movement. In addition, the influence of the elevation angle of the transmitter on the pulse width is larger than that of the receiver. However, the effect of the FOV and beam angles on the pulse response width is not obvious when the FOV angle is large.

14.
Acta Trop ; 196: 180-188, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077642

RESUMO

Fascioliasis has emerged as a significant public health problem among ruminants and humans. Human fascioliasis is a neglected food-borne parasitic disease, which has emerged or reemerged in more than 60 countries worldwide. In China, the first case of human fascioliasis was reported in 1921 in Fujian Province. The first major outbreak of this parasitic disease in 29 patients occurred in 2012 in Yunnan Province. Nonetheless, the prevalence of fascioliasis in China is probably underestimated due to the poor sensitivity of diagnostic tests, limited epidemiological data, and a poor understanding of the impact of subclinical illness. This study aimed to review the prevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in China so as to improve the prevention and control of this disease.

15.
Interdiscip Sci ; 11(2): 258-265, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors is the important drugs of immunotherapy for malignant tumors. PD-L1 expression is an important biomarker of selecting patients for ICIs therapy. However, the correlation of PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic features in lung adenocarcinoma remains controversial. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was tested using clone SP263 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on Ventana automated Benchmark in tissue micro-arrays (TMA) in lung adenocarcinoma. The association of PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic characteristics, including gender, age, histological subtype, smoking history, stage, and genotype were analyzed. RESULTS: 404 patients were available for analyzing. The incidence of PD-L1 expression was 22.5% (using a cutoff of ≥ 25%). Statistical analysis showed PD-L1 expression was associated with advanced stage, lymph node (LN) metastasis, solid predominant subtype and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. In subgroup analysis, PD-L1 expression in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletions was higher than that of with EGFR L858R mutation at exon 21 (21.6% vs. 10.2%, P = 0.046). In multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS) by Cox hazard proportion model, patients with EGFR gene mutations (HR 1.635, 95% CI 1.310-2.040, P < 0.001) and early stage (HR 2.495, 95% CI 2.003-3.106, P < 0.001) had a longer survival, while PD-L1 expression was not associated with overall survival (HR 0.847, 95% CI 0.655-1.094, P = 0.203). CONCLUSION: For patients with lung adenocarcinoma, LN metastasis, wild-type EGFR, advanced stage, solid predominant subtype were independent predictors of PD-L1 expression by multivariate analysis. PD-L1 expression may be not a predictor of OS for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

16.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(8): 1378-1388, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110366

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-derived components are usually recognized by pattern recognition receptors to initiate a cascade of innate immune responses. One striking characteristic of Mtb is their utilization of different type VII secretion systems to secrete numerous proteins across their hydrophobic and highly impermeable cell walls, but whether and how these Mtb-secreted proteins are sensed by host immune system remains largely unknown. Here, we report that MPT53 (Rv2878c), a secreted disulfide-bond-forming-like protein of Mtb, directly interacts with TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and activates TAK1 in a TLR2- or MyD88-independent manner. MPT53 induces disulfide bond formation at C210 on TAK1 to facilitate its interaction with TRAFs and TAB1, thus activating TAK1 to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, MPT53 and its disulfide oxidoreductase activity is required for Mtb to induce the host inflammatory responses via TAK1. Our findings provide an alternative pathway for host signalling proteins to sense Mtb infection and may favour the improvement of current vaccination strategies.

17.
J Immunother ; 42(6): 215-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145232

RESUMO

The effect of chemotherapy on programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression has been previously studied in lung cancer, while the results remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of PD-L1 expression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and explore the association between chemotherapy response, prognosis and the variation of PD-L1 expression in lung cancer patients. A total of 63 lung cancer patients who received platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently underwent surgical resection were selected. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC) was assessed by immunohistochemistry using 22C3 monoclonal antibody in these 63 matched lung cancer specimens before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The positivity of PD-L1 on TC changed from 17.5% to 39.7% after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the positivity of PD-L1 on IC changed from 19.0% to 71.4% after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The elevation of PD-L1 expression on TC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was more frequently observed in patients achieving stable disease or progressive disease than in patients achieving partial response (P=0.026). Patients with elevated PD-L1 expression on TC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed a trend to have a shorter progression-free survival than patients without elevated PD-L1 expression on TC, although the difference was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=2.38, 95% confidence interval=0.99-5.73, P=0.053). PD-L1 expression can be elevated by chemotherapy in lung cancer. Furthermore, elevation of PD-L1 expression on TC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with reduced chemotherapy response and inferior progression-free survival in patients with lung cancer.

18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 220: 117145, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141784

RESUMO

The rates of charge separation and charge recombination of the cyanine dye/C60 heterojunction solar cell in an external electric field were provided using the Marcus and Marcus-Levich-Jortner formalisms. The vibrational mode as another influencing factor was also introduced into the rate expression for the planar heterojunction solar cell. Detailed theoretical analysis of the excited-state of the Cy3/C60 blend was achieved using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The Gibbs free energy was regulated by an external electric field, while the reorganisation energy presented the opposite conclusion. Frequency analysis was utilised to demonstrate the energy stability of the obtained structures. The rate calculated using the Marcus formalism was greater than that obtained by the Marcus-Levich-Jortner formalism. Consideration of the calculated rates in all vibration modes and at different external electric field strengths indicated that vibrational mode and external electric field played important roles in determining the rates of charge separate and charge recombination, which could provide a more accurate theoretical rate for organic photovoltaic devices.

19.
Biofouling ; 35(4): 401-415, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142151

RESUMO

Chlorination is an effective method to control biofilm formation in enclosed pipelines. To date, very little is known about how to control biofilms at the mesoscale in complex pipelines through chlorination. In this study, the dynamic of microbial communities was examined under different residual chlorine concentrations on the biofilms attached to labyrinth channels for drip irrigation using reclaimed water. The results indicated that the microbial phospholipid fatty acids, extracellular polymeric substances, microbial dynamics, and the ace and Shannon microbial diversity indices showed a gradual decrease after chlorination. However, chlorination increased microbial activity by 0.5-19.2%. The increase in the relative abundances of chloride-resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter and Thermomonas) could lead to a potential risk of chlorine resistance. Thus, keeping a low chlorine concentration (0.83 mg l-1 for 3 h) is effective for controlling biofilm formation in the labyrinth channels.

20.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(3): 162-168, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is recognized as a significant risk factor for diabetes and hypertension. The present study aimed to examine the associations between adults'obesity risk and childhood and parental obesity. METHODS: A total of 204 children aged 6-17 years were recruited in 2002 with an average follow-up period of 13.2 years. Height and body weight were measured by trained staffs. Overweight and obesity were defined based on the Chinese standard for children and adults. T-test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square analysis were used for single factor analysis. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to perform multifactor analysis. RESULTS: The percentage of non-obese children who grew up to be non-obese adults was 62.6%, and that of obese children who grew up to be obese adults was 80.0%. There was a significant association between childhood body mass index (BMI) and adulthood BMI with a ß regression coefficient of 3.76 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-6.16], and between childhood obesity and adulthood obesity with an odds ratio of 5.76 (95% CI: 1.37-24.34). There was no statistical difference between parental obesity at baseline and children's adulthood obesity, after adjustment of confounders. Male participants and those aged 10.0-13.0 years had a higher risk of adulthood obesity with odds ratios of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.12-5.26) and 3.62 (95% CI: 1.17-11.24), respectively. CONCLUSION: Childhood obesity is an important predictor of adulthood obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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