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1.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic disturbance of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is related with dyslipidemia. Therefore, eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from LPC metabolic enzymes to study their associations with obesity and serum levels of lipids. METHODS: A total of 3305 children were recruited from four independent studies. Eight SNPs of LPC metabolic enzymes were selected and genotyped with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The multivariable linear regression model was applied to detect the associations of eight SNPs with obesity-related phenotypes and levels of lipids in each study. Meta-analyses were used to combine the results of four studies. RESULTS: Only SNP rs4420638 of APOC-1 gene was associated with serum lipids even after Bonferroni correction. The rs4420638 was positively associated with TC (ß = 0.15, P = 8.59 × 10-9) and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, ß = 0.16, P = 9.98 × 10-14) individually. CONCLUSION: The study firstly revealed the association between APOC-1/rs4420638 and levels of serum lipids in Chinese children, providing evidence for susceptible gene variants of dyslipidemia.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125108, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845320

RESUMO

Polyacrylate containing wastewater (PCW) is the typical sewage discharged by the textile industry. It has extremely poor biodegradability, and chemical methods were used conventionally as the only way for treating PCW. This study is demonstrating a novel biological method. In batch experiment monod kinetics was applied to the experimental data, which indicated that anaerobic treatment used for PCW is feasible. The pilot-scale experiment combined a Spiral Symmetry Stream Anaerobic Bioreactor (SSSAB) and an air-lift external circulation vortex enhancement nitrogen removal fluidized bed bioreactor (AFB). The COD and NH4+-N removal reached up to 95.2% and 96.6%, respectively, which were higher than the value obtained by other chemical methods. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes increased, which contribute to the degradation of PCW. Therefore, PCW can be degraded efficiently by using a SSSAB-AFB technique and thus provides an alternative to the chemical methods.

3.
Water Res ; 197: 117095, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862392

RESUMO

A 300m3/d demonstration project of soybean-process wastewater has been established recently with a Spiral Symmetric Stream Anaerobic Bioreactor (SSSAB) as the core. In order to obtain the optimal operation strategy for a full-scale SSSAB and to make it run efficiently and stably in a demonstration project, a Pilot-scale SSSAB (P-SSSAB, effective volume 100 L) was performed for the treatment of soybean-process wastewater over 216 days. The volumetric load rate (VLR) range of the P-SSSAB was 0.32~27.17 kg COD/(m3·d), where the highest VLR [27.17 kg COD/(m3·d)] was 2.01 times to the highest value [13.5 kg COD/(m3·d)] reported. The pH and VFA/ALK of the effluent from the P-SSSAB were in the range of 6.9 up to 9.2 and 0.03 up to 0.17, respectively. The methane yield of the P-SSSAB increased from 0.03 m3/kg COD to 0.47 m3/kg COD, which was 3.36 times to the maximum value (0.14 m3/kg COD) reported. To meet the influent requirement of the aerobic biological treatment in demonstration project (influent COD ≤ 1.5 g/L), the maximum VLR of SSSAB was optimal at about 22 kg COD/(m3·d). By analyzing the sludge bed characteristics of the P-SSSAB, it was obvious that zone I (the bottom of the bed) was the major contributor of the COD removal, while zone III (the upper part of the bed) was the major contributor for the NH4+-N increase. The anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) in the bed showed a good granulation. The average MLVSS/MLSS value in sludge bed was about 0.7, and PN/PS in TB-EPS (zone I, II and III) increased to 6.830, 4.257, and 3.747, respectively. SMA and coenzyme F420 values of zone III were the maximum [666.35 ml CH4/(g VSS·d) and 0.690 mol/g VSS, respectively]. According to the analysis obtained from the 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, the microbial community in the AGS had been more specific to the soybean-process wastewater since the bacteria Firmicutes were increased. The relative abundance of microbe which perform direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) for the syntrophic degradation of VFAs and production of the methane has been increased significantly, such as the bacteria Syntrophomonas and archaea Methanosaeta.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rios , Soja , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
Toxicology ; : 152799, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lithium chloride (LiCl) was a mood stabilizer for bipolar affective disorders and it could activate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro. Colon is one of a very susceptible tissues to Wnt signaling pathway, and so it would be very essential to explore the toxic effect of a high dose of LiCl on colon. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 200 mg/kg LiCl one dose a day for 5 days to activate this signal pathway in intestines. H&E staining was used to assess the colonic tissues of mice treated with high dose of LiCl. The expression of inflammation-associated genes and tight junction-associated genes was measured using qPCR, Western blot and immunostaining methods. The gut microbiome was tested through 16S rDNA gene analysis. RESULTS: The differentiation of enteroendocrine cells in colon was inhibited by treatment of 200 mg/kg LiCl. The F4/80 positive macrophages in colon were activated by high dose of LiCl, and migrated from the submucosa to the lamina propria. The expression of pro-inflammatory genes TNFα and IL-1ß was increased in the colon of high dose of LiCl treated mice. Clostridium_sp_k4410MGS_306 and Prevotellaceae_UCG_001 were specific and predominant for the high dose of LiCl treated mice. The expression of IgA coding genes, Pigr and Claudin-15 was significantly decreased in the colon tissues of the high dose of LiCl treated mice. CONCLUSION: 200 mg/kg LiCl might cause the inflammation in colon of mice through activating F4/80 positive macrophages and inhibiting the expression of IgA coding genes in plasma cells and the expression of Pigr and Claudin-15 in colonic epithelial cells, providing evidences for the toxic effects of high dose of LiCl on colon.

5.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(3): 572-583, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677964

RESUMO

Safe and effective molecular therapeutics for prophylactic treatment of retinal degenerative diseases are greatly needed. Disruptions in the clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) by the visual (retinoid) cycle of the retina can lead to the accumulation of atRAL and its condensation products known to initiate progressive retinal dystrophy. Retinylamine (Ret-NH2) and its analogues are known to be effective in lowering the concentration of atRAL within the eye and thus preventing retinal degeneration in mouse models of human retinopathies. Here, we chemically modified Ret-NH2 with amino acids and peptides to improve the stability and ocular bioavailability of the resulting derivatives and to minimize their side effects. Fourteen Ret-NH2 derivatives were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo. These derivatives exhibited structure-dependent therapeutic efficacy in preventing light-induced retinal degeneration in Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- double-knockout mice, with the compounds containing glycine and/or L-valine generally exhibiting greater protective effects than Ret-NH2 or other tested amino acid derivatives of Ret-NH2. Ret-NH2-L-valylglycine amide (RVG) exhibited good stability in storage; and effective uptake and prolonged retention in mouse eyes. RVG readily formed a Schiff base with atRAL and did not inhibit RPE65 enzymatic activity. Administered by oral gavage, this retinoid also provided effective protection against light-induced retinal degeneration in Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- mice. Notably, the treatment with RVG had minimal effects on the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal and recovery of retinal function. RVG holds promise as a lead therapy for effective and safe treatment of human retinal degenerative diseases.

6.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728806

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus has spread rapidly around the world. Cancer patients seem to be more susceptible to infection and disease deterioration, but the factors affecting the deterioration remain unclear. We aimed to develop an individualized model for prediction of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) deterioration in cancer patients. The clinical data of 276 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in 33 designated hospitals of Hubei, China from December 21, 2019 to March 18, 2020, were collected and randomly divided into a training and a validation cohort by a ratio of 2:1. Cox stepwise regression analysis was carried out to select prognostic factors. The prediction model was developed in the training cohort. The predictive accuracy of the model was quantified by C-index and time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (t-AUC). Internal validation was assessed by the validation cohort. Risk stratification based on the model was carried out. Decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the model. We found age, cancer type, computed tomography baseline image features (ground glass opacity and consolidation), laboratory findings (lymphocyte count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, urea, and d-dimer) were significantly associated with symptomatic deterioration. The C-index of the model was 0.755 in the training cohort and 0.779 in the validation cohort. The t-AUC values were above 0.7 within 8 weeks both in the training and validation cohorts. Patients were divided into two risk groups based on the nomogram: low-risk (total points ≤ 9.98) and high-risk (total points > 9.98) group. The Kaplan-Meier deterioration-free survival of COVID-19 curves presented significant discrimination between the two risk groups in both training and validation cohorts. The model indicated good clinical applicability by DCA curves. This study presents an individualized nomogram model to individually predict the possibility of symptomatic deterioration of COVID-19 in patients with cancer.

7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 899: 174058, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757752

RESUMO

Although advances in osteosarcoma treatment have been made in recent decades, the survival rate for patients suffering from metastatic disease, especially lung metastasis, remains disappointing. Previous studies have confirmed that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with tumor metastasis, and several studies have suggested that osteosarcoma cells also exhibit EMT-like characteristics. In addition, Notch signaling is known to be related to the development and progression of human malignancies, including osteosarcoma. However, whether chemotherapy affects the EMT-like events and whether these events are medicated by Notch signaling remain to be elucidated. To address these issues, in the current work, osteosarcoma 143B cells were exposed to sublethal concentrations of the first-line chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (DDP), which promoted cell migration, in vitro invasion, and in vivo lung metastasis. Furthermore, low concentrations of DDP upregulated mesenchymal phenotype-related genes and proteins and promoted EMT-like properties in osteosarcoma cells. In addition, low concentrations of DDP could activate the Notch receptor and its target genes. Finally, combined treatment of DDP with the Notch signaling pathway inhibitor DAPT, which can effectively downregulate mesenchymal phenotype-related genes and proteins, inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro, and it decreased pulmonary metastatic nodules in vivo. The results of the current study supported the idea that low concentrations of DDP could induce EMT-like characteristics in osteosarcoma cells and could promote cell mobility in vitro, as well as pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Importantly, however, these biological processes are mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. Blocking the Notch signaling pathway can effectively attenuate the osteosarcoma EMT-like phenotype and its associated migration, invasion, and metastasis.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 280: 117000, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784568

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a widely distributed heavy metal in south of China. Growing evidence indicates that systemic exposure to Cd, particularly the long-term exposure, may cause neurotoxic effects. Nevertheless, mechanisms underlying Cd neurotoxicity remain not completely understood. In this report, we investigated the neural alterations in the spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg and Strand, 1906) exposed to long-term Cd (LCd) and short-term Cd (SCd) pressure. Cd stress lowered foraging ability and prey consuming time in the spiders. In addition, enzymatic analysis results indicated that Cd exposure reduced the level of acetylcholinesterase at subcellular level. We then identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Cd exposed spiders using pairwise comparisons and found that a large number of DEGs were related to neurotransmitter receptors and ion transport and binding proteins. Notably, LCd exposure harbored more altered genes in ion transporter activity comparing with SCd exposure. From six K-means clusters, 53 putative transcriptional factors (TFs) belonging to 21 families were characterized, and ZBTB subfamily displayed the most distinctive alterations in the characterized genes, which is assumed to play a key role in the regulation of ion transmembrane process under Cd stress. A protein-to-protein interaction network constructed by the yielded DEGs also showed that ion and receptor binding activities were affected under long-term Cd exposure. Four key modules from the network indicated that Cd may further down-regulate energy metabolism pathway in spiders. Collectively, this comprehensive analysis provides multi-dimensional insights to understand the molecular response of spiders to Cd exposure.

9.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 135, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are ectoparasites that feed on blood of a broad taxonomical range of terrestrial and flying vertebrates and are distributed across a wide range of environmental settings. To date, the species identity, diversity, and relationships among the ticks on lizards in China have been poorly understood. METHODS: In this study, 30 ticks, collected from the multi-ocellated racerunner (Eremias multiocellata) lizard in the Tarim Basin and adjacent Yanqi Basin of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China, were identified by morphological observation and confirmed by DNA-based techniques. The mitochondrially encoded 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and COI gene fragments of ticks were amplified and sequenced. To understand the genetic polymorphisms, 47 ticks collected from hedgehogs and 1 from brushwood in the Tarim Basin were also included. Species identification was based on both morphological and molecular characters. The median-joining network approach was used to evaluate the intraspecific genealogies of the ticks and their relatedness with the geographical origin or hosts. RESULTS: The sequence similarity analysis confirmed that the 30 ticks belong to three genera and three species including 11 individuals of Hyalomma asiaticum, 3 of Rhipicephalus turanicus, and 16 of Haemaphysalis sulcata. A network approach revealed paraphyletic populations of R. turanicus and Hy. asiaticum at the intraspecies level regarding geographical origin and low host specificity. For R. turanicus and Hy. asiaticum, common ancestry was observed between COI sequences from lizards and other sequence types from different hosts and countries. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, our study is the first to conduct a molecular survey of ticks from lizards in the arid regions of Xinjiang, China. Eremias multiocellata is an atypical host of the three tick species. Notably, two species of ticks, Hy. asiaticum and R. turanicus, have been collected and identified from lizards in China for the first time. Star-like networks suggest both of them might have experienced recent population expansion. The discoveries are closely related to the geographical environments in Xinjiang and will provide information for the control of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Northwest China.

10.
Lab Chip ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705507

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has high transmissibility. People infected with SARS-CoV-2 can develop symptoms including cough, fever, pneumonia and other complications, which in severe cases could lead to death. In addition, a proportion of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 may be asymptomatic. At present, the primary diagnostic method for COVID-19 is reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which tests patient samples including nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum and other lower respiratory tract secretions. Other detection methods, e.g., isothermal nucleic acid amplification, CRISPR, immunochromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electrochemical sensors are also in use. As the current testing methods are mostly performed at central hospitals and third-party testing centres, the testing systems used mostly employ large, high-throughput, automated equipment. Given the current situation of the epidemic, point-of-care testing (POCT) is advantageous in terms of its ease of use, greater approachability on the user's end, more timely detection, and comparable accuracy and sensitivity, which could reduce the testing load on central hospitals. POCT is thus conducive to daily epidemic control and achieving early detection and treatment. This paper summarises the latest research advances in POCT-based SARS-CoV-2 detection methods, compares three categories of commercially available products, i.e., nucleic acid tests, immunoassays and novel sensors, and proposes the expectations for the development of POCT-based SARS-CoV-2 detection including greater accessibility, higher sensitivity and lower costs.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(13): 3859-3870, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570935

RESUMO

The metabolism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) through the intestinal tract was studied. As cadmium is a well-known toxic heavy metal, this study was carried out to investigate the comparative protective effect of CGA and its representative intestinal metabolite (3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, HPPA) against Cd-induced erythrocyte cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that CGA and its intestinal metabolite appreciably prevented erythrocyte hemolysis, osmotic fragility, and oxidative stress induced by Cd. Also, we found that HPPA had a stronger protective ability than CGA against Cd-induced erythrocyte injury in vivo, such as increasing the ratio of protein kinase C from 7.7% (CGA) to 12.0% (HPPA). Therefore, we hypothesized that CGA and its microbial metabolite had protective effects against Cd-induced erythrocyte damage via multiple actions including antioxidation and chelation. For humans, CGA supplementation may be favorable for avoiding Cd-induced biotoxicity.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(7): 4187-4194, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586748

RESUMO

Double-layered V2O5 and its analogues have received increasing attention as a proper cathode for Mg2+, Na+, Li+ ion batteries, even for ammonium ion batteries. Our theoretical research focuses on the effects of NH4+ ions on the structural stability and the ion diffusion properties of double-layered V2O5. The elastic constant calculations indicate the NH4+ and water contents have a dramatic influence on the stability of the electrode. When the ratio of H2O and ammonia ions decreases to (NH4)0.125V2O5·0.125H2O, double-layered bronze will transform into other phases. The predicted specific capacity for the redox process from (NH4)0.5V2O5·0.5H2O to (NH4)0.125V2O5·0.125H2O is 54.6 mA h g-1, which agrees with the experimental value of 55.6 mA h g-1. From the diffusion barrier calculations, it is found that the H2O molecules can shield the polarization of NH4+ and lower the diffusion barrier of NH4+ ions. Furthermore, the migrations of common charge carriers in NH4+ pre-intercalated V2O5 have also been studied, which implies that Li+, Zn2+, Na+, Mg2+ ions may move easily in the electrode with energy barriers lower than 525 meV. Our findings match well with the reported experimental results. A special structure of Mg6NH4V8O20 with a much higher Mg ion concentration has been reported. Our findings show that the theoretical specific density of Mg batteries based on NH4+ pre-intercalated V2O5 can be improved to 431 mA h g-1, which is 2.5 times larger than the reported values. This work highlights the effects of the ratio of NH4+ and H2O on double-layered V2O5 and provides insights into designing vanadium oxide based fast-diffusion multivalent ion conductors, which are suitable for battery applications.

13.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566208

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Periostin, as an emerging biomarker, is involved in multiple steps in bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between periostin levels and bone mineral density as well as bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that included 164 postmenopausal women with T2DM as study subjects and 32 age-matched nondiabetic postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) as healthy control subjects. A total of 164 subjects with T2DM were then divided into three groups according to BMD: the normal BMD group (n = 29), the osteopenia group (n = 70), and the osteoporosis group (n = 65). The clinical data of all subjects along with the relevant biochemical parameter data were collected. Plasma periostin was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Plasma periostin levels were significantly increased in T2DM patients with normal BMD compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05). In the diabetic group, plasma periostin levels were significantly elevated with decreased BMD, were positively correlated with osteocalcin levels (r = 0.162, p = 0.039) and were inversely associated with femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.308, p < 0.001) and total femur BMD (r = - 0.295, p < 0.001). In the case of chronic complications, periostin levels were slightly increased in individuals with complications of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and fracture (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated that plasma periostin levels were significantly associated with BMD in patients with T2DM, and periostin might act as a novel biochemical marker of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of binding between class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and neoepitope is critical for target identification within personalized T-cell based immunotherapy. Many recent prediction tools developed upon the deep learning algorithms and mass spectrometry data have indeed showed improvement on the average predicting power for class I HLA-peptide interaction. However, their prediction performances show great variability over individual HLA alleles and peptides with different lengths, which is particularly the case for HLA-C alleles due to the limited amount of experimental data. To meet the increasing demand for attaining the most accurate HLA-peptide binding prediction for individual patient in the real-world clinical studies, more advanced deep learning framework with higher prediction accuracy for HLA-C alleles and longer peptides is highly desirable. RESULTS: We present a pan-allele HLA-peptide binding prediction framework-MATHLA which integrates bi-directional long short-term memory network and multiple head attention mechanism. This model achieves better prediction accuracy in both fivefold cross-validation test and independent test dataset. In addition, this model is superior over existing tools regarding to the prediction accuracy for longer ligand ranging from 11 to 15 amino acids. Moreover, our model also shows a significant improvement for HLA-C-peptide-binding prediction. By investigating multiple-head attention weight scores, we depicted possible interaction patterns between three HLA I supergroups and their cognate peptides. CONCLUSION: Our method demonstrates the necessity of further development of deep learning algorithm in improving and interpreting HLA-peptide binding prediction in parallel to increasing the amount of high-quality HLA ligandome data.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Redes Neurais de Computação , Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica , Algoritmos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo
15.
J Control Release ; 330: 329-340, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358976

RESUMO

It is still a challenge to develop gene replacement therapy for retinal disorders caused by mutations in large genes, such as Stargardt disease (STGD). STGD is caused by mutations in ABCA4 gene. Previously, we have developed an effective non-viral gene therapy using self-assembled nanoparticles of a multifunctional pH-sensitive amino lipid ECO and a therapeutic ABCA4 plasmid containing rhodopsin promoter (pRHO-ABCA4). In this study, we modified the ABCA4 plasmid with simian virus 40 enhancer (SV40, pRHO-ABCA4-SV40) for enhanced gene expression. We also prepared and assessed the formulations of ECO/pDNA nanoparticles using sucrose or sorbitol as a stablilizer to develop consistent and stable formulations. Results demonstrated that ECO formed stable nanoparticles with pRHO-ABCA4-SV40 in the presence of sucrose, but not with sorbitol. The transfection efficiency in vitro increased significantly after introduction of SV40 enhancer for plasmid pCMV-ABCA4-SV40 with a CMV promoter. Sucrose didn't affect the transfection efficiency, while sorbitol resulted in a fluctuation of the in vitro transfection efficiency. Subretinal gene therapy in Abca4-/- mice using ECO/pRHO-ABCA4 and ECO/pRHO-ABCA4-SV40 nanoparticles induced 36% and 29% reduction in A2E accumulation respectively. Therefore, the ECO/pABCA4 based nanoparticles are promising for non-viral gene therapy for Stargardt disease and can be expended for applications in a variety of visual dystrophies with mutated large genes.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(12): 5362-5370, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374052

RESUMO

To investigate the vertical distribution of atmospheric formaldehyde in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) urban area, simultaneous measurements were performed at three heights on Canton Tower for the first time. Carbonyls including formaldehyde were sampled with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazin (DNPH) at noon for 32 days in autumn of 2018, and then analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average mass concentrations of formaldehyde at ground level, 118 m, and 488 m sites at Canton Tower were (5.10±1.93), (6.61±2.84), and (5.33±2.55) µg·m-3, respectively. The measured formaldehyde was positively correlated with atmospheric oxidant Ox at the three sites (R 0.65-0.75), indicating that photochemical formation is an important source for urban formaldehyde in PRD. Three different profiles were found for formaldehyde vertical distribution during the measurements. The most frequently observed one showed a higher value at 118 m while lower ones at ground level and 488 m, occurring when the boundary layer is in moderate convection state with high photochemical reactivity. The 118 m layer may be also influenced by transported high-chimney emissions from industries in suburban areas. Vertical columns of formaldehyde were also calculated according to its vertical profile. The average value was (11.23±4.80)×1015 molecules·cm-2, 19% lower than that from satellite retrieval, while in the same magnitude as values reported in reference papers.

17.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(9): 815-819, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377706

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize and analyze the experience in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual activity-related hematuria. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 12 cases of sexual activity-related hematuria treated in Changhai Hospital from October 2015 to April 2019. The patients ranged in age between 31 and 59 years, with a disease course of 2 weeks to 25 years, 6 complaining of urethral bleeding at penile erection and another 6 hematuria immediately after ejaculation, including 2 accompanied by hemospermia. All the patients underwent urethroscopy and cauterization of the lesioned urethral mucosa with the electric excision ring or holmium laser. In addition, one of the patients received seminal tract endoscopic exploration and seminal vesicle irrigation, and another one seminal tract endoscopy and transurethral resection of the prostate. RESULTS: All the patients were diagnosed with posterior urethral varicosity, one accompanied with bulbar and posterior urethral varicosity, one with seminal vesiculitis, and still another with BPH. The patients were followed up for 3-45 (mean 23.5) months, during which the symptoms of sexual activity-related hematuria disappeared in 11 cases, with smooth urination and no recurrence, and post-ejaculation hematuria developed in one case at 2 and 10 months postoperatively but never again thereafter. No complications, such as epididymitis, urethral stricture and ED, were observed in any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Urethral varicosity should be first considered in patients with painless hematuria immediately after penile erection or sexual activity though other conditions such as seminal vesicle bleeding can also be taken into account. Urethroscopy combined with seminal tract endoscopy is effective in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual activity-related hematuria.


Assuntos
Hematúria/diagnóstico , Hematúria/terapia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Hematúria/etiologia , Hemospermia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Epigenomics ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242255

RESUMO

Aim: To elucidate the transcriptional characteristics of COVID-19. Materials & methods: We utilized an integrative approach to comprehensively analyze the transcriptional features of both COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Results: Widespread infiltration of immune cells was observed. We identified 233 genes that were codifferentially expressed in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung samples of COVID-19 patients. Functional analysis suggested upregulated genes were related to immune response such as neutrophil activation and antivirus response, while downregulated genes were associated with cell adhesion. Finally, we identified LCN2, STAT1 and UBE2L6 as core genes during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: The identification of core genes involved in COVID-19 can provide us with more insights into the molecular features of COVID-19.

19.
Med Image Anal ; 68: 101878, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197714

RESUMO

Multimodal image registration is a vital initial step in several medical image applications for providing complementary information from different data modalities. Since images with different modalities do not exhibit the same characteristics, finding their accurate correspondences remains a challenge. For convolutional multimodal registration methods, two components are quite significant: descriptive image feature as well as the suited similarity metric. However, these two components are often custom-designed and are infeasible to the high diversity of tissue appearance across modalities. In this paper, we translate image registration into a decision-making problem, where registration is achieved via an artificial agent trained by asynchronous reinforcement learning. More specifically, convolutional long-short-term-memory is incorporated after stacked convolutional layers in this method to extract spatial-temporal image features and learn the similarity metric implicitly. A customized reward function driven by landmark error is advocated to guide the agent to the correct registration direction. A Monte Carlo rollout strategy is also leveraged to perform as a look-ahead inference in the testing stage, to increase registration accuracy further. Experiments on paired CT and MR images of patients diagnosed as nasopharyngeal carcinoma demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in medical image registration.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115847, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130443

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is currently the most serious type of heavy metal pollution throughout the world. Previous studies have shown that Cd elevates the mortality of paddy field spiders, but the lethal mechanism remains to be explored profoundly. In the present study, we measured the activities of protective enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione peroxidase, phenol oxidase) and a heavy metal chelating protein (metallothionein) in the pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata after Cd exposure. The results indicated that Cd initially increased the enzyme activities and protein concentration of the spider after 10- and 20-day exposure before inhibiting them at 30-day exposure. Further analysis showed that the enzyme activities in the cephalothorax were inhibited to some extent. Since the cephalothorax region contains important venom glands, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the venom glands collected from the spiders after long-term Cd exposure. RNA-seq yielded a total of 2826 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and most of the DEGs were annotated into the process of protein synthesis, processing and degradation. Furthermore, a mass of genes involved in protein recognition and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -associated protein degradation were down-regulated. The reduction of protease activities supports the view that protein synthesis and degradation in organelles and cytoplasm were dramatically inhibited. Collectively, our outcomes illustrate that Cd poses adverse effects on the expression of protective enzymes and protein, which potentially down-regulates the immune function in the venom glands of the spiders via the alteration of protein processing and degradation in the ER.

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