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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113571, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sparganii Rhizoma (SR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the rhizome of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. mainly distributed in East Asia. It has been used for eliminating blood stasis, promoting the flow of Qi, removing the retention of undigested food and relieving pain in China for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review summarizes comprehensive information in traditional clinical application, processing, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and toxicity of SR, in exploring future scientific and therapeutic potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent information was systematically collected from several electronic scientific databases (e.g., Web of Science, PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, Springer, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar), PhD and MS dissertations, and classic Chinese medical books. RESULTS: SR is a gynecological drug which is often used to treat dysmenorrhea, mass in the abdomen, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, and abdominal distension in TCM. Two kinds of processed products of SR are included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which have better pharmacological effects than the crude herb. Approximately 180 compounds have been identified from SR, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, organic acids, alkaloids, steroids, volatile oils, diarylheptanes, etc. The crude extracts and isolated components of SR have been reported to have anti-tumor, antithrombotic, estrogen antagonistic , anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anti organ fibrosis and other pharmacological activities. SR also has reproductive toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: As an important TCM, SR has been demonstrated by modern pharmacological researches to have significant bioactivities, especially on anti-tumor, antithrombotic, and estrogen antagonistic activities. These activities provide prospects for the development of new drugs and therapeutics for future applications. Nevertheless, quality control and evaluation, in-depth pharmacological mechanism, and toxicological effect of SR require further detailed research.

2.
Mol Carcinog ; 57(11): 1608-1615, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074279

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While early stage colorectal cancer can be removed by surgery, patients with advanced disease are treated by chemotherapy, with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) as a main ingredient. However, most patients with advanced colorectal cancer eventually succumb to the disease despite some responded initially. Thus, identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for drug resistance will help design novel strategies to treat colorectal cancer. In this study, we analyzed an acquired 5-FU resistant cell line, LoVo-R, and determined that elevated expression of YAP target genes is a major alteration in the 5-FU resistant cells. Hippo/YAP signaling, a pathway essential for cell polarity, is an important regulator for tissue homeostasis, organ size, and stem cells. We demonstrated that knockdown of YAP1 sensitized LoVo-R cells to 5-FU treatment in cultured cells and in mice. The relevance of our studies to colorectal cancer patients is reflected by our discovery that high expression of YAP target genes in the tumor was associated with an increased risk of cancer relapse and poor survival in a larger cohort of colorectal cancer patients who underwent 5-FU-related chemotherapy. Taken together, we demonstrate a critical role of YAP signaling for drug resistance in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Recidiva , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
Cell Biosci ; 7: 17, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28413604

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy as the major treatment for advanced disease. Many patients with advanced colorectal cancer eventually succumb to the disease despite some patients responded initially to chemotherapy. Thus, identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy resistance will help design novel strategies to treat colorectal cancer. In this study, we established an acquired 5-FU resistant cell line, LoVo-R, from LoVo cells. Through exome sequencing, we discovered that elevated GLI1 signaling axis is a major genetic alteration in the 5-FU resistant cells. Hh signaling, a pathway essential for embryonic development, is an important regulator for residual cancer cells. We demonstrated that knockdown of GLI1 or GLI2 sensitized LoVo-R cells to 5-FU treatment, reduced cell invasiveness. The relevance of our studies to colorectal cancer patients is reflected by our discovery that high expression of GLI1 signaling molecules was associated with a high incidence of cancer relapse and a shorter survival in a larger cohort of colorectal cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy (containing 5-FU). Taken together, our data demonstrate the critical role of the GLI1 signaling axis for 5-FU resistance in colorectal cancer.

4.
Onco Targets Ther ; 10: 1645-1653, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352196

RESUMO

The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is critical for cell differentiation, tissue polarity, and stem cell maintenance during embryonic development, but is silent in adult tissues under normal conditions. However, aberrant Hh signaling activation has been implicated in the development and promotion of certain types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and gastrointestinal cancers. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sonidegib, a smoothened (SMO) antagonist, for treatment of advanced BCC (aBCC) after a successful Phase II clinical trial. Sonidegib, also named Odomzo, is the second Hh signaling inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat BCCs following approval of the first SMO antagonist vismodegib in 2012. What are the major features of sonidegib (mechanism of action; metabolic profiles, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability profiles)? Will the sonidegib experience help other clinical trials using Hh signaling inhibitors in the future? In this review, we will summarize current understanding of BCCs and Hh signaling. We will focus on sonidegib and its use in the clinic, and we will discuss ways to improve its clinical application in cancer therapeutics.

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