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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118707, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742432

RESUMO

Replacing catalyst supports with sustainable and degradable materials is an urgent task. Xylan is a type of abundant natural polymers with potential applications in dispersing, anchoring, and coating materials, but its material values have always been underestimated. In this study, polyethyleneimine modified dialdehyde xylan (DAX-PEI) was used as a dispersing and anchoring agent to bind Pd nanoparticles onto paper surface to produce a DAX-PEI-Pd coated paper, which was used to catalyze Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. The catalytic coated paper exhibited a good catalytic activity with a yield of 91% and a high turnover frequency (TOF) of 3300 h-1. Besides, it showed an excellent recyclability with the same catalytic coated paper being used 15 times and still having a yield of nearly 90%. This environment-friendly catalytic coated paper owns its great prospect in organic synthesis.

3.
Med Image Anal ; 75: 102287, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731775

RESUMO

Automatic and accurate lung nodule detection from 3D Computed Tomography (CT) scans plays a vital role in efficient lung cancer screening. Despite the state-of-the-art performance obtained by recent anchor-based detectors using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for this task, they require predetermined anchor parameters such as the size, number, and aspect ratio of anchors, and have limited robustness when dealing with lung nodules with a massive variety of sizes. To overcome these problems, we propose a 3D sphere representation-based center-points matching detection network (SCPM-Net) that is anchor-free and automatically predicts the position, radius, and offset of nodules without manual design of nodule/anchor parameters. The SCPM-Net consists of two novel components: sphere representation and center points matching. First, to match the nodule annotation in clinical practice, we replace the commonly used bounding box with our proposed bounding sphere to represent nodules with the centroid, radius, and local offset in 3D space. A compatible sphere-based intersection over-union loss function is introduced to train the lung nodule detection network stably and efficiently. Second, we empower the network anchor-free by designing a positive center-points selection and matching (CPM) process, which naturally discards pre-determined anchor boxes. An online hard example mining and re-focal loss subsequently enable the CPM process to be more robust, resulting in more accurate point assignment and mitigation of class imbalance. In addition, to better capture spatial information and 3D context for the detection, we propose to fuse multi-level spatial coordinate maps with the feature extractor and combine them with 3D squeeze-and-excitation attention modules. Experimental results on the LUNA16 dataset showed that our proposed SCPM-Net framework achieves superior performance compared with existing anchor-based and anchor-free methods for lung nodule detection with the average sensitivity at 7 predefined FPs/scan of 89.2%. Moreover, our sphere representation is verified to achieve higher detection accuracy than the traditional bounding box representation of lung nodules. Code is available at: https://github.com/HiLab-git/SCPM-Net.

4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 514, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coleorhiza hairs, are sheath-like outgrowth organs in the seeds of Poaceae family that look like root hair but develop from the coleorhiza epidermal cells during seed imbibition. The major role of coleorhiza hair in seed germination involves facilitating water uptake and nutrient supply for seed germination. However, molecular basis of coleorhiza hair development and underlying genes and metabolic pathways during seed germination are largely unknown and need to be established. RESULTS: In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis of coleorhiza hairs from japonica and indica rice suggested that DEGs in embryo samples from seeds with embryo in air (EIA) as compared to embryo from seeds completely covered by water (CBW) were enriched in water deprivation, abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin metabolism, carbohydrate catabolism and phosphorus metabolism in coleorhiza hairs in both cultivars. Up-regulation of key metabolic genes in ABA, auxin and dehydrin and aquaporin genes may help maintain the basic development of coleorhiza hair in japonica and indica in EIA samples during both early and late stages. Additionally, DEGs involved in glutathione metabolism and carbon metabolism are upregulated while DEGs involved in amino acid and nucleotide sugar metabolism are downregulated in EIA suggesting induction of oxidative stress-alleviating genes and less priority to primary metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, results in this study could provide novel aspects about the molecular signaling that could be involved in coleorhiza hair development in different types of rice cultivars during seed germination and may give some hints for breeders to improve seed germination efficiency under moderate drought conditions.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748150

RESUMO

Distilled grain waste (DGW) can be converted to organic fertilizer via aerobic composting process without inoculating exogenous microorganisms. To illustrate the material conversion mechanism, this study investigated the dynamic changes of bacterial community structure and metabolic function involved in DGW composting. Results showed that a significant increase in microbial community alpha diversity was observed during DGW composting. Moreover, unique community structures occurred at each composting stage. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Bacteroidota, Myxococcota, and Chloroflexi, whose abundance varied according to different composting stages. Keystone microbes can be selected as biomarkers for each stage, and Microbispora, Chryseolinea, Steroidobacter, Truepera, and Luteimonas indicating compost maturity. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed a significant relationship between keystone microbes and environmental factors. The carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were confirmed as the primary metabolic pathways by metabolic function profiles. Furthermore, nitrogen metabolism pathway analysis indicated that denitrification and NH3 volatilization induced higher nitrogen loss during DGW composting. This study can provide new understanding of the microbiota for organic matter and nitrogen conversion in the composting process of DGW.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6450, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750392

RESUMO

The ADJUVANT study reported the comparative superiority of adjuvant gefitinib over chemotherapy in disease-free survival of resected EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, not all patients experienced favorable clinical outcomes with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), raising the necessity for further biomarker assessment. In this work, by comprehensive genomic profiling of 171 tumor tissues from the ADJUVANT trial, five predictive biomarkers are identified (TP53 exon4/5 mutations, RB1 alterations, and copy number gains of NKX2-1, CDK4, and MYC). Then we integrate them into the Multiple-gene INdex to Evaluate the Relative benefit of Various Adjuvant therapies (MINERVA) score, which categorizes patients into three subgroups with relative disease-free survival and overall survival benefits from either adjuvant gefitinib or chemotherapy (Highly TKI-Preferable, TKI-Preferable, and Chemotherapy-Preferable groups). This study demonstrates that predictive genomic signatures could potentially stratify resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients and provide precise guidance towards future personalized adjuvant therapy.

7.
J Forensic Sci ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806772

RESUMO

To date, there have been no studies on necrophagous fly populations on Hainan Island in China. Thus, we investigated the species composition of necrophagous flies as well as their geographic distribution on Hainan Island for the first time. Ten sites in different climatic regions across the island were sampled for 7 days per location from November 1, 2018 to February 28, 2019 and from July 1, 2019 to October 31, 2019. Bottle traps made of 1.5 L soft plastic bottles were used to trap necrophagous flies. The collected individuals were identified to species. The specimens represented 5 families and 28 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) was the most dominant species, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1843), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830), Boettcherisca peregrine (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830), Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson, 1868), Parasarcophaga misera (Walker, 1849), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883), and Ophyra chalcogaster (Wiedemann, 1924). The largest collection of flies was obtained in the semiarid region. Species richness was highest in the subhumid region and was higher in summer than in winter, but there were exceptions, such as L. hainanensis (Fan,1965), Boettcherisca formosensis (Lopes, 1961), and Muscina stabulans (Fallen, 1817). Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830), and Boettcherisca formosensis (Lopes, 1961) were newly recorded species on Hainan Island. Of the necrophagous flies collected during the study, we propose several predominant species based on the criteria of distribution, occurrence frequency, and resource preference. Our results not only investigate necrophagous flies on Hainan Island but also accumulate data for criminal investigations in the region.

8.
Virology ; 565: 58-64, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739917

RESUMO

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious intestinal disease which mostly caused by Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). The PED has caused huge economic losses to the pig industry all over the world and a valid PEDV vaccine is needed to prevent the infection. In this study, we constructed expression plasmid based on the spike (S) gene of the epidemic PEDV strain. The recombinant eukaryotic S (Se) and prokaryotic S (Sp) subunit proteins were expressed and purified as vaccine antigens. We designed a new subunit vaccine based on S proteins, adjuvanted with layered double hydroxide (LDH). The results indicated that the LDH adjuvanted subunit vaccines induced a better immune effect in terms of antibody level and cellular immune response. In conclusion, this study showed a new design of a PEDV subunit vaccine with nanotechnology and demonstrated the potential for its clinical application.

10.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656211063109, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There have been few studies on the anatomy of palatine aponeurosis (PA). Herein, we elucidated the relationship between the PA and soft palate muscles and pharyngeal muscles. DESIGN: Two cadaveric specimens were dissected to observe the gross anatomy of the PA. Six cadaveric specimens were processed and scanned by micro-computed tomography to determine the elaborate anatomy. Images were exported to Mimics software to reconstruct a three-dimensional model. RESULTS: The PA covered the anterior (32.1%-38.8%) of the soft palate, extending from the tensor veli palatini (TVP) and connecting to 3 muscles: palatopharyngeus (PP), uvula muscle, and superior pharyngeal constrictor (SC). The SC and PP are attached to the PA on the medial side of the pterygoid hamulus. SC muscle fibers were attached to the hamulus, forming a distinct gap between the hamulus. Some muscle fibers of the PP and uvula originated from the PA. The PA extended from the TVP to the midline and the posterior edge of the hard palate. The PA was not uniformly distributed, which was complementary to the attached muscles in thickness. CONCLUSIONS: PA, as a flexible fibrous membrane, maintains the shape of the soft palate. It extends from the TVP and covers anteriorly about one-third of the soft palate. The PA provides a platform for the soft palate muscles and pharyngeal muscles, connecting to the PP, uvula muscle, and SC. These muscles are important for palatopharyngeal closure and middle-ear function. It is necessary to minimize the damage to the PA during surgical interventions.

11.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101503, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751136

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that metabolic changes in the brain associated with neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction play an important role in the pathophysiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the neural signatures associated with these metabolic alterations and underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Accordingly, we reviewed the literature on in vivo human brain 1H and 31P-MRS studies and use meta-analyses to identify patterns of brain metabolic alterations in MCI and AD. 40 and 39 studies on MCI and AD, respectively, were classified according to brain regions. Our results indicate decreased N-acetyl aspartate and creatine but increased myo-inositol levels in both MCI and AD, decreased glutathione level in MCI as well as disrupted energy metabolism in AD. In addition, the hippocampus shows the strongest alterations in most of these metabolites. This meta-analysis also illustrates progressive metabolite alterations from MCI to AD. Taken together, it suggests that 1) neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may occur in the early stages of AD, and likely precede neuron loss in its progression; 2) the hippocampus is a sensitive region of interest for early diagnosis and monitoring the response of interventions; 3) targeting bioenergetics associated with neuroinflammation/oxidative stress is a promising approach for treating AD.

12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5428425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604383

RESUMO

Purpose: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary and highly invasive bone tumor in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to construct a multi-gene expression feature related to autophagy, which can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. Materials and methods. The clinical and gene expression data of patients with osteosarcoma were obtained from the target database. Enrichment analysis of autophagy-related genes related to overall survival (OS-related ARGs) screened by univariate Cox regression was used to determine OS-related ARGs function and signal pathway. In addition, the selected OS-related ARGs were incorporated into multivariate Cox regression to construct prognostic signature for the overall survival (OS) of osteosarcoma. Use the dataset obtained from the GEO database to verify the signature. Besides, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were applied to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms. Finally, the nomogram is established by combining the risk signature with the clinical characteristics. Results: Our study eventually included 85 patients. Survival analysis showed that patients with low riskScore had better OS. In addition, 16 genes were included in OS-related ARGs. We also generate a prognosis signature based on two OS-related ARGs. The signature can significantly divide patients into low-risk groups and high-risk groups, and has been verified in the data set of GEO. Subsequently, the riskScore, primary tumor site and metastasis status were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS and a nomogram were generated. The C-index of nomogram is 0.789 (95% CI: 0.703~0.875), ROC curve and calibration chart shows that nomogram has a good consistency between prediction and observation of patients. Conclusions: ARGs was related to the prognosis of osteosarcoma and can be used as a biomarker of prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Nomogram can be used to predict OS of patients and improve treatment strategies.

13.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 1459-1471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693020

RESUMO

Introduction: Gap junction protein, alpha 1 (GJA1), which is correlated with recurrences and unfavorable prognoses in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), is one of the specific proteins expressed by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: Expression of GJA1 was compared between HCCs and nontumor tissues (NTs), between hepatic cirrhosis and NTs, and between primary and metastatic HCCs using transcriptomic datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus and the Integrative Molecular Database of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The in vitro activities of GJA1 were investigated in cultured HSCs and HCC cells. The underlying mechanism was characterized using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and validated by western blotting. Results: The expression of GJA1 was significantly increased in HCCs and hepatic cirrhosis compared to that in NTs. GJA1 was also overexpressed in pulmonary metastases from HCCs when compared with HCCs without metastasis. Overexpression of GJA1 promoted while knockdown of GJA1 inhibited proliferation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß-mediated activation and migration of cultured HSCs. Overexpression of GJA1 by lentivirus infection promoted proliferation and migration, while conditioned medium from HSCs overexpressing GJA1 promoted migration but inhibited proliferation of Hep3B and PLC-PRF-5 cells. Lentivirus infection with shGJA1 or conditioned medium from shGJA1-infected HSCs inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCCLM3 cells that had a high propensity toward lung metastasis. Mechanistically, GJA1 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HSCs and HCCLM3 cells. Conclusion: GJA1 promoted HCC progression by inducing HSC activation and the EMT in HSCs. GJA1 is potentially regulated by TGF-ß and thus may be a therapeutic target to inhibit HCC progression.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21045, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702954

RESUMO

Tobacco bushy top disease (TBTD) is a devastating tobacco disease in the southwestern region of China. TBTD in the Yunnan Province is often caused by co-infections of several plant viruses: tobacco bushy top virus (TBTV), tobacco vein distorting virus (TVDV), tobacco bushy top virus satellite RNA (TBTVsatRNA) and tobacco vein distorting virus-associated RNA (TVDVaRNA). Through this study, two new poleroviruses were identified in two TBTD symptomatic tobacco plants and these two novel viruses are tentatively named as tobacco polerovirus 1 (TPV1) and tobacco polerovirus 2 (TPV2), respectively. Analyses of 244 tobacco samples collected from tobacco fields in the Yunnan Province through RT-PCR showed that a total of 80 samples were infected with TPV1 and/or TPV2, and the infection rates of TPV1 and TPV2 were 8.61% and 29.51%, respectively. Thirty-three TPV1 and/or TPV2-infected tobacco samples were selected for further test for TBTV, TVDV, TBTVsatRNA and TVDVaRNA infections. The results showed that many TPV1 and/or TPV2-infected plants were also infected with two or more other assayed viruses. In this study, we also surveyed TBTV, TVDV, TBTVsatRNA and TVDVaRNA infections in a total of 1713 leaf samples collected from field plants belonging to 29 plant species in 13 plant families and from 11 provinces/autonomous regions in China. TVDV had the highest infection rates of 37.5%, while TVDVaRNA, TBTV and TBTVsatRNA were found to be at 23.0%, 12.4% and 8.1%, respectively. In addition, TVDV, TBTV, TBTVsatRNA and TVDVaRNA were firstly detected of co-infection on 10 plants such as broad bean, pea, oilseed rape, pumpkin, tomato, crofton weed etc., and 1 to 4 of the TBTD causal agents were present in the samples collected from Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Liaoning, Inner mongolia and Tibet autonomous regions. The results indicated that TBTD causal agents are expanding its host range and posing a risk to other crop in the field.

15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 716219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712704

RESUMO

Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers structural and electrical remodeling. CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) mediates chemotaxis of inflammatory cells in MI. In our previous study, CCR9 knockout has been found to improve structural remodeling after MI. Here, we further investigate the potential influence of CCR9 on electrical remodeling following MI in order to explore potential new measures to improve the prognosis of MI. Methods and Results: Mice was used and divided into four groups: CCR9+/+/Sham, CCR9-/-/Sham, CCR9+/+/MI, CCR9-/-/MI. Animals were used at 1 week after MI surgery. Cardiomyocytes in the infracted border zone were acutely dissociated and the whole-cell patch clamp was used to record action potential duration (APD), L-type calcium current (I Ca,L ) and transient outward potassium current (I to ). Calcium transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content under stimulation of Caffeine were measured in isolated cardiomyocytes by confocal microscopy. Multielectrode array (MEA) was used to measure the conduction of the left ventricle. The western-blot was performed for the expression level of connexin 43. We observed prolonged APD90, increased I Ca,L and decreased I to following MI, while CCR9 knockout attenuated these changes (APD90: 50.57 ± 6.51 ms in CCR9-/-/MI vs. 76.53 ± 5.98 ms in CCR9+/+/MI, p < 0.05; I Ca,L : -13.15 ± 0.86 pA/pF in CCR9-/-/MI group vs. -17.05 ± 1.11 pA/pF in CCR9+/+/MI, p < 0.05; I to : 4.01 ± 0.17 pA/pF in CCR9-/-/MI group vs. 2.71 ± 0.16 pA/pF in CCR9+/+/MI, p < 0.05). The confocal microscopy results revealed CCR9 knockout reversed the calcium transient and calcium content reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum following MI. MEA measurements showed improved conduction velocity in CCR9-/-/MI mice (290.1 ± 34.47 cm/s in CCR9-/-/MI group vs. 113.2 ± 14.4 cm/s in CCR9+/+/MI group, p < 0.05). Western-blot results suggested connexin 43 expression was lowered after MI while CCR9 knockout improved its expression. Conclusion: This study shows CCR9 knockout prevents the electrical remodeling by normalizing ion currents, the calcium homeostasis, and the gap junction to maintain APD and the conduction function. It suggests CCR9 is a promising therapeutic target for MI-induced arrhythmia, which warrants further investigation.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695975

RESUMO

Due to the complexity of the various waveforms of microseismic data, there are high requirements on the automatic multi-classification of such data; an accurate classification is conducive for further signal processing and stability analysis of surrounding rock masses. In this study, a microseismic multi-classification (MMC) model is proposed based on the short time Fourier transform (STFT) technology and convolutional neural network (CNN). The real and imaginary parts of the coefficients of microseismic data are inputted to the proposed model to generate three classes of targets. Compared with existing methods, the MMC has an optimal performance in multi-classification of microseismic data in terms of Precision, Recall, and F1-score, even when the waveform of a microseismic signal is similar to that of some special noise. Moreover, semisynthetic data constructed by clean microseismic data and noise are used to prove the low sensitivity of the MMC to noise. Microseismic data recorded under different geological conditions are also tested to prove the generality of the model, and a microseismic signal with Mw ≥ 0.2 can be detected with a high accuracy. The proposed method has great potential to be extended to the study of exploration seismology and earthquakes.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Ruído
17.
Langmuir ; 37(43): 12654-12662, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668381

RESUMO

Photocatalytic reactions over effective photocatalysts are attractive to explore clean hydrogen energy from water with the utilization of solar energy. Ternary Co1-xS@ZnCoS/CdS (ZCS/CdS) composites are constructed as photocatalysts through the hydrothermal formation of Co1-xS and ZnCoS nanoparticles on CdS nanorods. Superior to the binary Co1-xS/CdS composite, ZCS/CdS shows the improved photocatalytic activity with a hydrogen production rate of 58.4 mmol·g-1·h-1, which is 31.4 and 2.1 times higher than those of CdS and Co1-xS/CdS, respectively. Different from binary Co1-xS/CdS, the participation of a small amount of zinc favors the formation of ZnCoS solid solution in ZCS/CdS. A synergistic promotion effect of ZnCoS and Co1-xS is confirmed due to tight heterojunctions among Co1-xS, ZnCoS, and CdS in ZCS/CdS. The unique heterostructure of ZCS/CdS benefits its enhanced absorption ability of visible light, accelerating the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the electron transfer. ZCS/CdS exhibits the strong reduction ability and superior photocatalytic stability due to the role of double Z-scheme electron transfer pathways in the ternary composite. This work provides a suitable way to tune noble metal-free composite photocatalysts for efficient H2 production.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 714619, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631736

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the survival outcomes, prognostic factors and treatment modalities of stage I-III cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) patients using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from the period 2004-2016. Methods: Patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of CEC were included. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate analyses of OS were performed using Cox proportional hazards models, and OS was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 347 patients in the SEER database were enrolled. The median OS was 14.0 months, with a 5-year OS rate of 20.9%. The parameters that were found to significantly correlate with OS in the multivariate analysis were age at diagnosis [P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.832], sex [P < 0.001, HR= 1.867], histology [P = 0.001, HR = 0.366], surgery at the primary site [P = 0.021, HR = 0.553], radiotherapy (RT, P = 0.017, HR = 0.637) and chemotherapy (CT, P < 0.001, HR = 0.444). Comparison among the three treatment modalities demonstrated that a triple therapy regimen consisting of surgery, RT and CT was associated with a longer survival time than the other two treatment modalities before and after propensity score matching (PSM). However, triple therapy showed no significant survival benefit over double therapy (P = 0.496 before PSM and P = 0.184 after PSM). Conclusions: The survival of patients with CEC remains poor. Surgery, RT and CT were all strongly correlated with OS. We recommend a triple therapy regimen for select CEC patients based on the findings of the current study, although this recommendation should be further confirmed by prospective studies with large sample sizes.

19.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 717128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621799

RESUMO

Background: Limited studies focused on the association between serum uric acid (SUA) change with ischemic stroke, and their results remain controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between change in SUA with ischemic stroke among hypertensive patients. Method: This was a retrospective cohort study. We recruited adult hypertensive patients who had two consecutive measurements of SUA levels from 2013 to 2014 and reported no history of stroke. Change in SUA was assessed as SUA concentration measured in 2014 minus SUA concentration in 2013. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test were performed to quantify the difference in cumulative event rate. Additionally, subgroup analysis and interaction tests were conducted to investigate heterogeneity. Results: A total of 4,628 hypertensive patients were included, and 93 cases of ischemic stroke occurred during the mean follow-up time of 3.14 years. Participants were categorized into three groups according to their SUA change tertiles [low (SUA decrease substantially): <-32.6 µmol/L; middle (SUA stable): ≥-32.6 µmol/L, <40.2 µmol/L; high (SUA increase substantially): ≥40.2 µmol/L]. In the fully adjusted model, setting the SUA stable group as reference, participants in the SUA increase substantially group had a significantly elevated risk of ischemic stroke [HR (95% CI), 1.76 (1.01, 3.06), P = 0.0451], but for the SUA decrease substantially group, the hazard effect was insignificant [HR (95% CI), 1.31 (0.75, 2.28), P = 0.3353]. Age played an interactive role in the relationship between SUA change and ischemic stroke. Younger participants (age < 65 years) tended to have a higher risk of ischemic stroke when SUA increase substantially. Conclusion: SUA increase substantially was significantly correlated with an elevated risk of ischemic stroke among patients with hypertension.

20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 912: 174575, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673033

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is a complex condition that usually lasts a lifetime and has a major negative impact on life after injury. Improving pain management is an important and unmet need. Astaxanthin (AST) is a natural marine medicine with effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and neuroprotective effects. However, few mechanisms can explain the role of AST in the treatment of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we examined its potential to eliminate spinal nerve ligation (SNL) damage by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and the inflammatory response. The results of behavior tests indicated the promising role of AST in analgesic effect in SNL mice. AST decreased the neuronal and non-neuronal activation, the levels of the inflammatory signaling mediators (p-ERK1/2 p-p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65) and inflammatory cytokine expression (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-17, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]. These results suggest that AST is a promising candidate to reduce nociceptive hypersensitization after SNL.

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