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1.
Circ Res ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435713

RESUMO

Rationale: Glomerular capillaries are lined with a highly specialized fenestrated endothelium and contribute to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The Notch signaling pathway is involved in regulation of GFB, but its role in glomerular endothelium has not been investigated due to the embryonic lethality of animal models with genetic modification of Notch pathway components in the endothelium. Objective: To determine the effects of aberrant activation of the Notch signaling in glomerular endothelium and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods and Results: We established the ZEG-Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1)/Tie2-tTA/Tet-O-Cre transgenic mouse model to constitutively activate Notch1 signaling in endothelial cells of adult mice. The triple transgenic mice developed severe albuminuria with significantly decreased VE-cadherin expression in the glomerular endothelium. In vitro studies showed that either NICD1 lentiviral infection or treatment with Notch ligand DLL4 markedly reduced VE-cadherin expression and increased monolayer permeability of human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs). In addition, Notch1 activation or gene knockdown of VE-cadherin reduced the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. Further investigation demonstrated that activated Notch1 suppression of VE-cadherin was through the transcription factors SNAI1 and ERG, which bind to the -373 E-box and the -134/-118 ETS element of the VE-cadherin promoter, respectively.Conclusions: Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms whereby endothelial Notch1 signaling dictates the level of VE-cadherin through the transcription factors SNAI1 and ERG, leading to dysfunction of GFB and induction of albuminuria.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461172

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine refers to a methylation of adenosine base at the 6th nitrogen position, which is the dominant methylation modification in both message and non-coding RNAs. Dysregulation of RNA m6A methylation causes tumorigenesis in humans. The key N6-methyladenosine demethylase fat-mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is negatively correlated with the overall survival of bladder cancer patients, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the post-translational deubiquitination by USP18 up-regulates the protein but not mRNA of FTO in bladder cancer tissues and cells. As a result, FTO decreased N6-methyladenosine methylation level in PYCR1 through its demethylase enzymatic activity and stabilized PYCR1 transcript to promote bladder cancer initiation and progression. Our work shows the importance of N6-methyladenosine RNA modification in bladder cancer development, and highlights UPS18/FTO/PYCR1 signaling network as potential therapeutic targets of bladder cancer.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 243, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431857

RESUMO

Since the industrial revolution, it has been assumed that fossil-fuel combustions dominate increasing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, it remains uncertain to the actual contribution of the non-fossil fuel NOx to total NOx emissions. Natural N isotopes of NO3- in precipitation (δ15Nw-NO3-) have been widely employed for tracing atmospheric NOx sources. Here, we compiled global δ15Nw-NO3- observations to evaluate the relative importance of fossil and non-fossil fuel NOx emissions. We found that regional differences in human activities directly influenced spatial-temporal patterns of δ15Nw-NO3- variations. Further, isotope mass-balance and bottom-up calculations suggest that the non-fossil fuel NOx accounts for 55 ± 7% of total NOx emissions, reaching up to 21.6 ± 16.6Mt yr-1 in East Asia, 7.4 ± 5.5Mt yr-1 in Europe, and 21.8 ± 18.5Mt yr-1 in North America, respectively. These results reveal the importance of non-fossil fuel NOx emissions and provide direct evidence for making strategies on mitigating atmospheric NOx pollution.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387208

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA X-inactive specific transcript (LncRNA XIST) is involved in several diseases. However, the molecular mechanism of XIST and its relation with miR-133a-3p in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remained vague. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to Control, Sham, and CIN groups at random (n = 15 for each group). Histological examination on the kidney tissues was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Mean serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) contents was measured by colorimetric microplate method. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cells viability and apoptosis were respectively detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Target gene and potential binding sites between XIST, miR-133a-3p and NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 (NLRP3) were predicted using online databases and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Relative mRNA and protein expressions of XIST, miR-133a-3p, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Cleaved caspase-1 were measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot as needed. In the rat CIN model, Ioversol induced kidney morphology changes, with increase on SCr and BUN contents, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and upregulated expressions of XIST, NLRP3, ASC and Cleaved caspase-1. Silencing XIST reversed the effects of Ioversol on cells. MiR-133a-3p could bind with XIST and target NLRP3, and downregulating miR-133a-3p reversed the effect of silencing XIST on Ioversol-treated cells. Moreover, downregulating XIST attenuated CIN injury via regulating miR-133a-3p/NLRP3 axis.

5.
Nat Prod Rep ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410446

RESUMO

Covering: up to the end of 2020Organic acids, as building block compounds, have been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, plastic, and chemical industries. Until now, chemical synthesis is still the primary method for industrial-scale organic acid production. However, this process encounters some inevitable challenges, such as depletable petroleum resources, harsh reaction conditions and complex downstream processes. To solve these problems, microbial cell factories provide a promising approach for achieving the sustainable production of organic acids. However, some key metabolites in central carbon metabolism are strictly regulated by the network of cellular metabolism, resulting in the low productivity of organic acids. Thus, multiple metabolic engineering strategies have been developed to reprogram microbial cell factories to produce organic acids, including monocarboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, amino carboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids and monomeric units for polymers. These strategies mainly center on improving the catalytic efficiency of the enzymes to increase the conversion rate, balancing the multi-gene biosynthetic pathways to reduce the byproduct formation, strengthening the metabolic flux to promote the product biosynthesis, optimizing the metabolic network to adapt the environmental conditions and enhancing substrate utilization to broaden the substrate spectrum. Here, we describe the recent advances in producing C2-C6 organic acids by metabolic engineering strategies. In addition, we provide new insights as to when, what and how these strategies should be taken. Future challenges are also discussed in further advancing microbial engineering and establishing efficient biorefineries.

6.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) often suffer from more frequent depression than those with late-onset Parkinson's disease (LOPD). However, the clinical characteristics of suicidal ideation (SI) in EOPD remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the prevalence, related factors, and predictive factors of SI in EOPD patients as well as comparison of the prevalence in LOPD patients. METHODS: We conducted a case-control, cross-sectional, and longitudinal study. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance the characteristics between EOPD (N = 577) and LOPD patients (N = 2973). The diagnosis of SI was based on the assessment of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). EOPD patients with a disease duration < 5 years (N = 96) were prospectively followed-up for exploring the predictors for the development of SI. Two forward binary logistic regression models were respectively used to explore the associated and predictive factors of SI. RESULTS: After PSM, EOPD patients showed significantly higher prevalence of SI than LOPD patients (22.0 vs. 13.3%, P < 0.001). Twenty EOPD patients (20.8%) developed SI and none of them reported suicidal behaviors after a median of 2.7 (IQR = 1.6-4.1) years. Depression, dyskinesia, non-smoking, lower education, and higher Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score were independently associated with the presence of SI. Depression at baseline was the only independent risk factor for the future occurrence of SI. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the necessity to screen SI in patients with EOPD especially for those with depression.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113561, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157222

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Immunomodulation has become a crucial modality for cancer treatment. Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are expected as adjuvant therapy for immunomodulation against cancer, but face the key challenge of poor scientific evidence. Changes of natural killer (NK) cells on numbers and/or cytotoxicity are a novel respect to evaluate the immunomodulation of CHMs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this review is to investigate the immunomodulation of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) on NK cell populations for cancer therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted and outside mainstream electronic databases were screened for potential reference articles. This review tried to report and critically analyzed all the correlative studies, especially these clinical trials (3 CHM extracts and 11 CHM formulas). RESULTS: Evidence-based functions of CHMs against cancer could be summarized as: (1) enhancement of NK cells activity or relative percentage; (2) prevention of tumor growth and metastasis; (3) relief on side-effects or complications of therapeutic strategies (i.e. chemotherapy, radiotherapy and resection). Briefly, most of cellular studies and two thirds animal studies were based on the extract or components of single herbs, whilst most of clinical trials were keen on formula or prescription of CHMs. The main components of CHMs were demonstrated active on promoting the cytotoxicity of NK cells, including Angelica sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Panax ginseng, Radix Astragali, Lentinus edodes, etc. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive review demonstrated NK cells activity was positively associated with quality of life but not survival benefit of cancer patients. Thus exploring the roles of NK cells in adjuvant therapy against cancer is confirmed to be beneficial to explore the underlying relationship between immunomodulation and quality of life.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(2): 176-184, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autoreactive B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and B cell-depleting therapies using an antibodies, such as rituximab, have been suggested to be effective in RA treatment. However, transient B cell depletion with rituximab is associated with significant safety challenges related to global suppression of the immune system and thus increases the risks of infection and cancer development. To address selective and persistent issues associated with RA therapy, we developed a customised therapeutic strategy employing universal antifluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) combined with FITC-labelled antigenic peptide epitopes to eliminate autoreactive B cell subsets recognising these antigens in RA. METHODS: For a proof-of-concept study, four citrullinated peptide epitopes derived from citrullinated autoantigens, namely, citrullinated vimentin, citrullinated type II collagen, citrullinated fibrinogen and tenascin-C, and a cyclocitrulline peptide-1 were selected as ligands for targeting autoreactive B cells; Engineered T cells expressing a fixed anti-FITC CAR were constructed and applied as a universal CAR-T cell system to specifically eliminate these protein-specific autoreactive B cells via recognition of the aforementioned FITC-labelled autoantigenic peptide epitopes. RESULTS: We demonstrated that anti-FITC CAR-T cells could be specifically redirected and kill hybridoma cells generated by immunisation with antigenic peptides, and autoreactive B cell subsets from RA patients via recognition of corresponding FITC-labelled citrullinated peptide epitopes. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the CAR-T cells was dependent on the presence of the peptides and occurred in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: The approach described here provides a direction for precise, customised approaches to treat RA and can likely be applied to other systemic autoimmune diseases.

9.
Food Chem ; 344: 128579, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199115

RESUMO

The absorption, distribution, metabolism and primary risk evaluation data of four neonicotinoids and two organophosphate insecticides in tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) were compared. 22 neonicotinoid metabolites and 2 organophosphate metabolites were identified. The amount ratio of each neonicotinoid metabolite to its corresponding parent (M/P) was lower than 0.076 in the treated time. The organophosphates (omethoate and methamidophos) increased sharply, with M/Ps as high as 1.111 and 0.612. The risks evaluation of insecticides and their metabolites in treated leaves on day seven showed that the chronic risk was from the lowest 0.0759 (clothianidin) to highest 43.6409% (dimethoate), and the acute risk was highest 0.0370 for all targets. The calculated combined toxicity of leaves treated with acephate reached 1.5 folds in mature, 1.5 folds in tender leaves than no metabolites, and which of dimethoate were 2.1 folds in mature and 3.7 folds in tender leaves.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 209: 112903, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256948

RESUMO

A growing number of reports suggested that the inhibitor targeting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 2/4/6 can act as a more feasible chemotherapy strategy. In the present paper, a novel PROTAC molecule was developed based on the structure of Ribociclib's derivative. In malignant melanoma cells, the degrader can not only degrade CDK 2/4/6 simultaneously and effectively, but also remarkably induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Moreover, PROTAC molecules with CRBN ligands always have poor oral bioavailability. We developed the orally bioavailable prodrug for the first time. It would provide general solution for oral administration of the PROTAC molecules, derived from CRBN ligands, for animal test conveniently.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113461, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039625

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jinmaitong (JMT) is a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is composed of ten herbal drugs and two animal drugs. It has long been used for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). AIM OF STUDY: Wnt/ß-catenin pathway is considered as an essential and direct driver of myelinogenesis. This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of JMT against DPN dynamically during a 16-weeks' treatment, and to investigate the underlying mechanism in which the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway is involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic model was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) using male Sprague-Dawley rats. The model rats were divided into five groups and administrated with JMT at three doses (0.437, 0.875, and 1.75 g/kg per day), neurotropin (positive drug, 2.67 NU/kg per day), and placebo (deionized water), respectively, for continuous 8 weeks (n = 9-10), 12 weeks (n = 8-10), or 16 weeks (n = 7-9). Meanwhile, rats in control group were administrated with placebo (n = 10 for 8 weeks, n = 9 for 12 and 16 weeks, respectively). Blood glucose and body weight were monitored every four weeks. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) test. The morphological change of sciatic nerves were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. The mRNA and protein levels of targeted genes were evaluated by quantitative real time-PCR and western bolt, respectively. Myelin protein zero (MPZ) and mediators involved in Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, such as ß-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß), and WNT inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1), were compared among different groups after treatment of 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively. RESULTS: The mechanical allodynia and peripheral nerve morphology were degenerated in DPN rats over time, and notably improved after JMT-treatment of 12 and 16 weeks. The decreased MPZ level in DPN rats were also significantly amended by JMT. More importantly, we found that the suppressed Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in sciatic nerves of DPN rats was overtly up-regulated by JMT in a time-dependent manner. Among the three doses, JMT at the middle dose showed the best effect. CONCLUSIONS: JMT effectively ameliorated diabetic-induced peripheral neuropathy, which was mediated by the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. This study provided new perspective to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of JMT.

12.
Genome Res ; 31(1): 13-26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328167

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as diverse functional regulators involved in mammalian development; however, large-scale functional investigation of lncRNAs in mammalian spermatogenesis in vivo is lacking. Here, we delineated the global lncRNA expression landscape in mouse spermatogenesis and identified 968 germ cell signature lncRNAs. By combining bioinformatics and functional screening, we identified three functional lncRNAs (Gm4665, 1700027A15Rik, and 1700052I22Rik) that directly influence spermatogenesis in vivo. Knocking down Gm4665 hampered the development of round spermatids into elongating spermatids and disrupted key spermatogenic gene expression. Mechanistically, lncRNA Gm4665 localized in the nucleus of round spermatids and occupied the genomic regulatory region of important spermatogenic genes including Ip6k1 and Akap3 These findings provide a valuable resource and framework for future functional analysis of lncRNAs in spermatogenesis and their potential roles in other biological processes.

13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 617166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344410

RESUMO

Objectives: During public health emergencies, people often scramble to buy scarce goods, which may lead to panic behavior and cause serious negative impacts on public health management. Due to the absence of relevant research, the internal logic of this phenomenon is not clear. This study explored whether and why public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic stimulate consumers' preference for scarce products. Methods: Applying the questionnaire survey method, two online surveys were conducted on the Credamo data platform in China. The first survey was launched in February and collected psychological and behavioral data from 1,548 participants. Considering the likelihood of population relocation due to the pandemic, a follow-up survey was conducted in August with 463 participants who had participated in the first survey and had not relocated to other cities between February and August. The hypotheses were tested with these data through stepwise regression analysis, bootstrapping, and robustness testing. Results: Pandemic severity was found to positively affect scarce consumption behavior and the effect was found to be situational; this indicates that the impact of the pandemic on scarce consumption was only significant during the pandemic. Further, it was found that materialism plays a mediating role in the relationship between pandemic severity and scarce consumption. Finally, the need to belong was found to play a moderating role between pandemic severity and materialism. Conclusion: This study findings imply that the scarce consumption behavior during public health emergencies can be reduced by decreasing materialism and increasing the need to belong. These findings may aid government leaders in managing public health emergencies.


Assuntos
/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências/economia , Emergências/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(23): 2787-2795, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and is complicated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of first-diagnosed HIV-associated CM after 2-years of follow-up. METHODS: Data from all patients (n = 101) of HIV-associated CM hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from September 2013 to December 2016 were collected and analyzed using logistic regression to identify clinical and microbiological factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Of the 101 patients, 86/99 (86.9%) of patients had CD4 count <50 cells/mm, 57/101 (56.4%) were diagnosed at ≥14 days from the onset to diagnosis, 42/99 (42.4%) had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts and biochemical examination, 30/101 (29.7%) had concomitant Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) on admission and 37/92 (40.2%) were complicated with cryptococcal pneumonia, 50/74 (67.6%) had abnormalities shown on intracranial imaging, amongst whom 24/50 (48.0%) had more than one lesion. The median time to negative CSF Indian ink staining was 8.50 months (interquartile range, 3.25-12.00 months). Patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) before admission had a shorter time to negative CSF Indian ink compared with ART-naïve patients (7 vs. 12 months, χ = 15.53, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality at 2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 2 years was 10.1% (10/99), 18.9% (18/95), and 20.7% (19/92), respectively. Coinfection with PCP on admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.933; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166-13.269, P = 0.027) and altered mental status (AOR, 9.574; 95% CI, 2.548-35.974, P = 0.001) were associated with higher mortality at 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: This study described the clinical features and outcomes of first diagnosed HIV-associated CM with 2-year follow-up data. Altered mental status and coinfection with PCP predicted mortality in HIV-associated CM.

15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(23): 2796-2802, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have focused on lymphoma among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, little is known about the treatment options and survival rate of lymphoma in the Chinese people living with HIV (PLHIV). Our study aimed to investigate the prognosis and compare outcome of dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) with standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab(R-CHOP) as front line therapy for PLHIV with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: A retrospective analysis evaluating PLHIV with DLBCL was performed in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from July 2012 to September 2019. The demographic and clinical data were collected, and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses of patients receiving R-CHOP or DA-EPOCH-R therapy were performed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, a Cox multiple regression model was constructed to identify related factors for OS. RESULTS: A total of 54 eligible patients were included in the final analysis with a median follow-up of 14 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 8-29 months). The proportion of high international prognostic index (IPI) patients was much larger in the DA-EPOCH-R group (n = 29) than that in the R-CHOP group (n = 25). The CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA levels were not significantly different between the two groups. The 2-year OS for all patients was 73%. However, OS was not significantly different between the two groups, with a 2-year OS rate of 78% for the DA-EPOCH-R group and 66% for the R-CHOP group. Only an IPI greater than 3 was associated with a decrease in OS, with a hazard ratio of 5.0. The occurrence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events of chemotherapy was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of R-CHOP therapy do not differ from those of DA-EPOCH-R therapy. No HIV-related factors were found to be associated with the OS of PLHIV in the modern cART era.

16.
Curr Res Transl Med ; : 103270, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Metformin acts as a cardioprotective role in several cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. However, whether metformin protects against HHcy-induced cardiac hypertrophy is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: HHcy model was established in C57BL/6 mice with high L-methionine (L-MET) diet for 12 weeks. AC16 cells were exposed to homocysteine (Hcy) and then intervened with different concentrations of metformin in in vitro studies. The results showed that HHcy was able to induce cardiac hypertrophy, and metformin could abrogate this effect. HHcy increased the fibrosis area and induced apoptosis in the myocardium, whereas metformin could reverse the detrimental effects above. TUNEL assay showed that metformin was able to decrease Hcy-induced apoptosis in AC16 cells. Moreover, western blotting assay revealed that metformin could decrease Hcy-induced expression of Bax and cleaved caspase3, and increase the expression of Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that metformin is able to attenuate HHcy-induced cardiac hypertrophy by decreasing myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis.

17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279243

RESUMO

Members of the transmembrane (TMEM) protein family have been identified to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, most studies were based on the European-ancestry population and were still awaiting replications. Here, we aimed to systematically evaluate the associations of TMEMs with PD in a large Chinese early-onset PD (EOPD, age at onset <50 years) cohort. We identified rare variants (minor allele frequency <0.01) in 743 unrelated EOPD patients using whole-exome sequencing and evaluated the association between variants and EOPD at allele and gene levels. Totally 45 rare variants were identified in 6 TMEM protein family members. At allele level, p.176 K>E in TMEM175 and p.33P>R in TMEM163 were significantly associated with PD. Gene-based burden analysis showed a clear enrichment of TMEM163 variants in EOPD. Our work identifies 2 novel rare variants and TMEM163 as potential risk factors for PD provide a better understanding of the genetic involvement of TMEM protein family members in EOPD and broadens the current mutation spectrum of PD.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285091

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of prolonged (>1-year) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain unknown. All patients undergoing PCI at Fuwai hospital between January 2013 and December 2013 were prospectively enrolled into the Fuwai PCI registry. A total of 3,696 high-risk diabetics patients with at least one additional atherothrombotic risk factor were screened for inclusion. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The median follow-up duration was 887 days. 69.8% of DM patients were on DAPT at 1 year without discontinuation. Based on multivariate Cox regression model and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, long-term (>1-year) DAPT reduced the risk of primary efficacy outcome (1.7% vs 4.1%; adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 0.382, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.252 to 0.577; IPTW-HR: 0.362 [0.241 to 0.542]), as well as cardiovascular death and definite/probable stent thrombosis, compared with short-course (≤1-year) DAPT. Risk of the safety end point of clinically relevant bleeding (adjHR: 0.920 [0.467 to 1.816]; IPTW-HR: 0.969 [0.486 to 1.932]) was comparable between longer DAPT and shorter DAPT. A lower number of net clinical benefit adverse outcomes was observed with >1-year DAPT versus ≤1-year DAPT (adjHR: 0.471 [0.331 to 0.671]; IPTW-HR: 0.462 [0.327 to 0.652]), which appeared increasingly favorable in those with multiple atherothrombotic risk characteristics. In high-risk patients with DM receiving PCI who were event free at 1 year, DAPT prolongation resulted in significant reduction in the risk of ischemic events not offset by increase of clinically meaningful bleeding events, thereby achieving a net clinical benefit. Extending DAPT beyond the period mandated by guidelines seems reasonable in high-risk DM patients not deemed at high bleeding risk.

19.
J Hypertens ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of five formulas -- the Kawasaki, Tanaka, INTERSALT, Mage, and Uechi methods -- using spot urinary sampling for 24-h urinary sodium (UNa) prediction in hypertensive patients living in northeast China. METHODS: There were 1154 hypertensive patients enrolled from multiple centers. Five different formulas were used to predict 24-h UNa excretion via spot morning urinary samples. Actual UNa excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples. The estimated value was compared with the actual value by examining biases, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: The average excretion of sodium was 2.97 ±â€Š1.26 g/day. The formula-produced mean biases for actual UNa were 0.31 g/day for INTERSALT, 0.80 g/day for Mage, 0.88 g/day for Tanaka, 1.14 g/day for Uechi, and 1.95 g/day for Kawasaki. The ICC was 0.511 for Kawasaki, 0.499 for INTERSALT, 0.468 for Tanaka, 0.402 for Mage, and 0.378 for Uechi. The least mean bias in the lower and moderate salt intake subgroups was 1.22 and 0.07 g/day, respectively, which was calculated using the Mage and INTERSALT methods. The least mean bias in the higher salt intake subgroup was 0.10 g/day for the Uechi method. The INTERSALT method was more efficiency at the individual level, with 17.4% of participants having relative differences within 10%, and 22.3% participants having absolute differences within 393 mg. CONCLUSION: The INTERSALT method may exhibit a good performance in estimating 24-h urinary sodium level for the hypertensive population living in northeast China.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115623, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254698

RESUMO

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is increasingly used in mainland China, few reports are however available about emissions from LPG-fueled vehicles. In this study, 26 LPG-fueled taxis in Guangzhou, south China were tested using a chassis dynamometer to obtain their emission factors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under idle and cruising (10-60 km h-1) modes. The emission factors of NOx on average increased with speed from 4.13 g kg-fuel-1 at idling to 71.1 g kg-fuel-1 at 60 km h-1 at a slope of 10.6 g kg-fuel-1 per 10 km h-1 increase in speed. Alkanes were the most abundant (71.9%) among the VOCs in the exhaust, followed by alkenes (25.2%), ethyne (2.7%), and aromatic species (0.2%). Emission factors of VOCs at idling averaged 8.24 g kg-fuel-1, higher than that of 6.23-7.36 g kg-fuel-1 when cruising at 10-60 km h-1, but their ozone formation potentials (OFPs) were lower at idling (15.8 g kg-fuel-1) than under cruising (19.1-23.8 g kg-fuel-1) largely due to higher emission of more reactive alkenes under cruising mode. Emissions of both NOx and VOCs increased significantly with mileages. Measured emission factors of NOx and reactive VOCs in this study suggested that replacing the gasoline-powered taxis with the LPG-fueled taxis with LPG-gasoline bi-fuel engines and no efficient after-treatment devices would not benefit in reducing the emissions of ozone precursors, and strengthening the emission control for LPG vehicles with dedicated LPG engines and after-treatment converters, as did in Hong Kong, could further benefit in reducing the emission of photochemically active species when using LPG as alternative fuels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Petróleo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , China , Hong Kong , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Emissões de Veículos
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