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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134379

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated and rod- or ovoid-shaped bacterium, designated as strain S4J41T, was isolated from Antarctic intertidal sediment. The isolate grew at 0-37 °C and with 0.5-10 % (w/v) NaCl. It reduced nitrate to nitrite and hydrolysed Tween 80 and gelatin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S4J41T constituted a distinct phylogenetic line within the family Rhodobacteraceae and was closely related with some species in the genera Ruegeria, Phaeobacter, Pseudopuniceibacterium, Sulfitobacter, Puniceibacterium and Poseidonocella with 98.6-95.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c) and C18 : 0 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The sole respiratory quinone was Q-10. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain S4J41T was 60.3 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, strain S4J41T is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus within the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Antarcticimicrobium sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4J41T (=MCCC 1K03508T=KCTC 62793T). Moreover, the transfer of Ruegeria lutea Kim et al. 2019 to Antarcticimicrobium gen. nov. as Antarcticimicrobium luteum comb. nov. (type strain 318-1T=JCM 30927T=KCTC 72105T) is also proposed.

2.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(1): 77-82, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144914

RESUMO

The electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints have been being one of the hot topics discussed by scholars, because of many influencing factors and inconsistent research results. In the present article, we collected papers published in Chinese or English in recent 10 years from PubMed, CNKI, and VIP databases by using key words of"acupuncture""meridian""resistance""capacitance""electrodermal"and"impedance". Then, we make an analysis about its development from three aspects, 1) manifestations of electrical properties of acupoints (low dermal resistance under pathological state, imbalance between left and right sides of the synonym acupoints), 2) clinical application of acupoint electrical characteristics for diagnosis of clinical disorders and evaluation of therapeutic effect, and 3) current situations of development of meridian detection instruments based on electrical characteristics (improving stability of instruments,expansion of the detected regions and measuring time, realization of visualization, and operational automation). In the process of coming studies, we highly recommend that more attention should be paid to the acupoints' "dynamic changes", and forming a standardized research plan, strengthening domestic and international academic exchanges and cooperation are definitely necessary in order to validate the objectivity and specificity of electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints, further expanding its clinical application.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Meridianos , PubMed
3.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(2): 157-63, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific regularity of body surface resistance at different acupoints of the meridians associated with the uterus in reflecting menstrual cycle by observing the change in body surface resistance at source points, cleft points, confluent points, and non-specific points of three yin meridians of the foot in different menstrual cycles in normal female college students, to lay a foundation for the in-depth research on the mechanism of acupoints reflecting the function of zang-fu, and to provide a reference for the clinical and scientific research on the biophysical characteristics of menstrual cycle-related acupoints in normal female. METHODS: A total of 90 normal female college students were recruited. The source points, cleftpoints, confluent points, and non-specific points of three yin meridians of the foot which were located in the adjacent spinal segments of the uterus were selected, and body surface resistance was monitored for 30 consecutive minutes at the same time-points of menstrual phase, follicular phase, ovulation phase, and luteal phase to observe the change in the resistance of each acupoint during the menstrual cycle. RESULTS: There was no significant change in the resistance value of unilateral acupoints during the menstrual cycle (P>0.05). In the same period, there was no significant difference in resistance value between unilateral three source points, three cleftpoints, different acupoints of the spleen meridian, and different acupoints of lumbar 4 dermatomere (P>0.05). As for the comparison of resistance of the same acupoint at the left and right sides, Taichong (LR3) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the menstrual phase (P<0.05); Taibai (SP3) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the ovulation phase (P<0.05); Zhongdu (LR6) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase (P<0.05); Taixi (KI3), Diji (SP8), and Sanyinjiao (SP6) at the left side had a higher resistance value than those at the right side in the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase (P<0.05); Shuiquan (KI5) at the left side had a lower resistance value than that at the right side in these four phases (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The change trend of the resistance of the acupoints at the left and right sides associated with the three yin meridians of the foot can specifically reflect the change in qi and blood in the uterus during the menstrual cycle. The change trend of the source and cleft points of the liver meridian in the menstrual phase is different from that in the other phases, and the change trend of SP3, a source point of the spleen meridian, in the ovulation phase is different from that in the other phases, which suggests the specificity of meridian points in reflecting function. The mechanism by which meridian points reflect the function of zang-fu is associated with the meridian points and the spinal cord segments of zang-fu, and meanwhile, it has a specific relationship with the meridians to which meridian points belong and the attributes of acupoints.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Meridianos , Feminino , Humanos , Medula Espinal , Útero
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate mosquito larval habitats and resistance to common insecticides in areas with high incidence rates of mosquito-borne diseases in Jining, Shandong Province, and to provide a scientific basis for the future prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases and the rational use of insecticides. METHODS AND RESULTS: From June to September 2018, mosquito habitat characteristics and species compositions in Jintun town were studied through a cross-sectional survey. Larvae and pupae were collected in different habitats using the standard dipping technique. A total of 7,815 mosquitoes, comprising 7 species from 4 genera, were collected. Among them, Culex pipiens pallens (n = 5,336, 68.28%) was the local dominant species and found in all four habitats (rice paddies, irrigation channels, water containers, drainage ditches). There were 1,708 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (21.85%), 399 Anopheles sinensis (5.11%), 213 Armigeres subalbatus (2.72%), 124 Aedes albopictus (1.59%), and 35 other (Cx. bitaeniorhynchus and Cx. halifaxii) (0.45%) mosquito samples collected. Spearman correlation analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship between larval density and the physicochemical characteristics of the breeding habitat. It was found that the larval density of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus correlated positively with water depth (r = 0.927 p = 0.003), the larval density of An. sinensis correlated positively with dissolved oxygen (DO) (r = 0.775 p = 0.041) and the larval density of Cx. p. pallens correlated positively with ammonia nitrogen (r = 0.527 p = 0.002). Resistance bioassays were carried out on the dominant populations of Cx. p. pallens: mosquitoes presented very high resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, moderate resistance to dichlorvos (DDVP), and low resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), with decreased susceptibility to propoxur. CONCLUSION: We showed that mosquito species vary across habitat type and that the mosquito larval density correlated positively with certain physicochemical characteristics in different habitats. In addition, Cx. p. pallens developed different levels of resistance to five insecticides. Vector monitoring should be strengthened after an epidemic, and further research should be conducted to scientifically prevent and kill mosquitoes.

5.
Microb Pathog ; 143: 104162, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194180

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key linkages between innate immunity and acquired immunity. The antigens that promote the functions of DCs might be the effective candidates of novel vaccine. In this research, the ability of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), a recognized common antigens among chicken Eimeria species, to stimulate DCs of chickens were evaluated. We cloned UCE gene from Eimeria maxima (EmUCE), and its protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western-blot. Immunofluorescence assay confirmed the binding of rEmUCE on the surface of chicken splenic-derived DCs (ChSP-DCs). Flow cytometric analysis showed that rEmUCE-treated ChSP-DCs increased MHCII, CD1.1, CD11c, CD80, and CD86 phenotypes. qRT-PCR indicated that transcript levels of maturation markers CCL5, CCR7, and CD83 in ChSP-DCs were upregulated in response to rEmUCE. Following rEmUCE treatment, chSP-DCs activated TLR signaling and inhibited Wnt signaling. Moreover, rEmUCE promoted DC-mediated T-cell proliferation in DC/T-cell co-incubation. Interestingly, CD3+/CD4+ T-cells were significantly enhanced when rEmUCE-treated chSP-DCs were co-incubated with T-cells. Cytokine secretion pattern of rEmUCE-stimulated ChSP-DCs revealed that the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ was increased whereas IL-10 and TGF-ß were unchanged. Likewise, the co-incubation of ChSP-DCs with T-cells indicated increased production of IFN-γ but not IL-4. Collectively, rEmUCE could polarize DCs to immunogenic phenotype and shift the immune cells towards Th1 response. Our observations provide valuable insight for future research aimed at vaccine development against avian coccidiosis.

6.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaax8574, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195340

RESUMO

Tropical forest fragmentation results in habitat and biodiversity loss and increased carbon emissions. Here, we link an increased likelihood of tropical forest loss to decreasing fragment size, particularly in primary forests. The relationship holds for protected areas, albeit with half the rate of loss compared with all fragments. The fact that disturbance increases as primary forest fragment size decreases reflects higher land use pressures and improved access for resource extraction and/or conversion in smaller fragments. Large remaining forest fragments are found in the Amazon and Congo Basins and Insular Southeast Asia, with the majority of large extent/low loss fragments located in the Amazon. Tropical areas without large fragments, including Central America, West Africa, and mainland Southeast Asia, have higher loss within and outside of protected areas. Results illustrate the need for rigorous land use planning, management, and enforcement in maintaining large tropical forest fragments and restoring regions of advanced fragmentation.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4125, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139774

RESUMO

Humans may have evolved a need to connect with nature, and nature provides substantial cultural and social values to humans. However, quantifying the connection between humans and nature at a global scale remains challenging. We lack answers to fundamental questions: how do humans experience nature in different contexts (daily routines, fun activities, weddings, honeymoons, other celebrations, and vacations) and how do nature experiences differ across countries? We answer these questions by coupling social media and artificial intelligence using 31,534 social media photographs across 185 countries. We find that nature was more likely to appear in photographs taken during a fun activity, honeymoon, or vacation compared to photographs of daily routines. More importantly, the proportion of photographs with nature taken during fun activities is associated with national life satisfaction scores. This study provides global evidence of the biophilia hypothesis by showing a connection between humans and nature that contributes to life satisfaction and highlights how nature serves as background to many of our positive memories.

8.
EMBO J ; : e103111, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187724

RESUMO

The homeostatic link between oxidative stress and autophagy plays an important role in cellular responses to a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions. However, the regulatory pathway and outcomes remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules that regulate autophagy through ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), a DNA damage response (DDR) pathway activated during metabolic and hypoxic stress. We report that CHK2 binds to and phosphorylates Beclin 1 at Ser90/Ser93, thereby impairing Beclin 1-Bcl-2 autophagy-regulatory complex formation in a ROS-dependent fashion. We further demonstrate that CHK2-mediated autophagy has an unexpected role in reducing ROS levels via the removal of damaged mitochondria, which is required for cell survival under stress conditions. Finally, CHK2-/- mice display aggravated infarct phenotypes and reduced Beclin 1 p-Ser90/Ser93 in a cerebral stroke model, suggesting an in vivo role of CHK2-induced autophagy in cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the ROS-ATM-CHK2-Beclin 1-autophagy axis serves as a physiological adaptation pathway that protects cells exposed to pathological conditions from stress-induced tissue damage.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 110003, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187955

RESUMO

Chemotherapy drugs such as vincristine (Vin) could cause neuropathic pain. However, it is still lack of ideal therapeutic strategy to treat it. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. The mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, mitoquinone (MitoQ), is able to modify mitochondrial signaling, showing beneficial effects on various diseases. In the study, we investigated whether MitoQ could regulate Vin-induced neuropathic pain, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that MitoQ significantly improved Vin-induced pain hypersensitivity and glial activation in mice. In addition, Vin resulted in severe oxidative stress in spinal cord tissues of mice, which were inhibited by MitoQ treatment through improving Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) expression in nuclear. Also, MitoQ treatment dose-dependently reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating its anti-inflammatory effects. Importantly, Vin stimulation contributed to mitochondrial fission, as evidenced by the increased expression of phosphorylated Drp1 (dynamin related protein 1) and Fis (mitochondrial fission protein 1), whereas mitochondrial fussion was inhibited. However, these effects were notably abrogated by MitoQ, subsequently improving mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, neuron death evoked by Vin was significantly rescued by MitoQ treatment. We also observed significantly reduced expression of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax expression in spinal cord of MitoQ-treated mice with Vin stimulation. In contrast, anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 protein levels decreased by Vin were restored by MitoQ. The process of Cyto-c release from mitochondria triggered by Vin was effectively inhibited in mice treated with MitoQ. These in vivo results were further verified in the primary neurons using the in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Furthermore, MitoQ treatment alleviated axonal degeneration and mitochondria dysfunction induced by Vin. Thus, mitoquinone could alleviate vincristine-induced neuropathic pain by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis via the improvement of mitochondrial dysfunction.

10.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(3): 227-32, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To display the low hydraulic resistance channel along the running course of the Conception Vessel (CV) by using in vivo fluorography, so as to provide evidence for the existence of meridians of traditional Chinese medicine from the aspect of interstitial fluid channel. METHODS: A total of 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely CV-low impedance spots (CV-LIS), CV-low hydraulic resistance points (CV-LHRP) and non-meridian points (NMP) groups (n=8 in each group). The CV-LIS (the imaged line between the xiphoid process and symphysis pubis), CV-LHRP (lateral and parallel to LIS) and NMP (lateral and parallel to CV-LHRP) were detected by using meridian detector and biofluid resistance meter, respectively. Sodium fluorescein solution (1%) was injected into the spot (A-spot, upper 1/5 of the CV-LIS), and one of the NMP (about 1 cm lateral and parallel to the A-spot, and the mid-point between the Kidney and Stomach meridian running courses) by using a microsyringe for observing the migration trace of sodium fluorescein. RESULTS: After injection of fluorescein, the migration trace of fluorescein appeared along the CV-LIS and CV-LHRP lines, and only local diffusion was found in the NMP group. The migration trace lengths along the CV-LIS and CV-LHRP were significantly longer than that of the NMP group (P<0.01), and the migration width of CV-LIS and CV-LHRP groups was significantly smaller than that of the NMP group (P<0.01). The migration speed of CV-LIS and CV-LHRP groups was significantly higher than that of the NMP group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Fluorography is able to be used to display the running course of CV, possibly supporting the existence of meridians from the interstitial fluid channel and providing a new method for visualization of meridians.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110338, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135376

RESUMO

2,2',3,5',6-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) is known as a persistent pollutant that was found in eggs in China. PCB 95 can be metabolized into OH-PCB95 and MeO-PCB95 in liver microsomes. However, the toxicity and its mechanism of PCB95 or its metabolites have been little studied on laying hens. Herein, chicken embryo liver cells of laying hens were selected and treated with different levels of PCB95 and its two metabolites, and the EC50 of PCB95, OH-PCB95, MeO-PCB95 was 80.85, 4.81 and 107.04 µg/mL respectively, indicating that OH-PCB95 is much more cytotoxic than PCB95 or MeO-PCB95. Targeted metabolomics was further used to study the effects of the parent compound and its metabolites on cell metabolism. The results showed that four primary types of glycerophospholipids were down-regulated after exposure to PCB95 and its metabolites, especially PE and PS (60% more than the control for PCB95, 40% for OH-PCB95, and less than 40% for MeO-PCB95). KEGG pathway analysis based on amino acid metabolism showed that PCB95 may mainly interfere with the amino acids involved in immune regulation (phenylalanine and tyrosine), and OH-PCB95 may be associated with genetic disoders (cysteine, methionine and purine metabolism). However, the metabolic pathways induced by MeO-PCB95 are quite different from those induced by PCB95 and OH-PCB95, affecting mainly D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, alanine and glutamate metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism; these pathways mainly regulate the elimination of excess purines and are involved in the synthesis of the amino acids required by cells. These results showed that OH-PCB95 has the highest toxicity on chicken embryo liver cells and MeO-PCB95 could be a detoxification product of PCB95 and OH-PCB95. This study contributes to the understanding of the different effects of PCB95 and its metabolites on cellular metabolism, and the data are helpful in evaluating the hepatotoxic effects of these compounds.

12.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042143

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are key molecules involved in the regulation of endothelial function. They are important risk factors and biomarkers for the development of hypertension related to endothelial dysfunction. However, the gene expression patterns associated with hypertension development related to endothelial dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a case-control study of 65 patients with essential hypertension (EH) and 61 controls without EH. Plasma levels of miR-122 and its target protein high-affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. miR-122 expression in plasma of patients with EH was significantly higher than that of the control group (p = 0.001), while CAT-1 expression in patients with EH was significantly lower than that in the control group (p = 0.018). miR-122 expression in plasma of young patients with EH was significantly higher than that in young people without EH (p = 0.0004), and CAT-1 expression in plasma of young patients with EH was also significantly lower than that of the control group (p = 0.002). CAT-1 expression in the plasma of young participants was significantly higher than that of individuals aged ≥40 years (p = 0.003), whereas miR-122 expression was significantly lower (p = 0.001). We showed that among patients with EH, the high expression of miR-122 contributed to endothelial dysfunction by suppressing the expression of the CAT-1 protein, which led to a decrease in CAT-1 expression in plasma. Therefore, high expression of miR-122 appears to be a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in EH, especially in younger patients.

13.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte Antigen 6 Complex, Locus K (LY6K) is a putative oncogene in various cancers. Elevated expression of LY6K is correlated with poor patient prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). The aim of this study is to advance our understanding of the mechanism by which LY6K contributes to GBM tumor biology. METHODS: Bioinformatic data mining was used to investigate LY6K expression in relation to GBM clinical outcome. To understand the role of LY6K in GBM, we utilized patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) and U87 cells and employed immunoblotting, immunofluorescent staining, radiation treatment, and orthotopic GBM xenograft models. RESULTS: Our results show that increased expression of LY6K inversely correlates with GBM patient survival. LY6K promotes tumorigenicity in GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism underlying this tumorigenic behavior is enhancement of ERK1/2 signaling. Interestingly, we observed that tumor-promoting LY6K-ERK1/2 signaling is mediated by the interaction of LY6K with caveolin-1, rather than through oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling. Moreover, association of LY6K with the cell membrane is crucial for its tumorigenic functions. Finally, DNA methylation maintains LY6K silencing, and hypomethylation of the LY6K promoter increases its expression. In GSCs, ionizing radiation leads to demethylation of the LY6K promoter, thereby increasing LY6K expression and GSC resistance to radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of the contribution of LY6K to GBM tumor biology and suggests LY6K as a potential membrane target for treating GBM.

14.
Parasite Immunol ; : e12703, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043596

RESUMO

Excretory/secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus (HcESPs) intermingle comprehensively with host immune cells and modulate host immune responses. In this study, H contortus ES antigen named as elongation factor 1 alpha (HcEF-1α) was cloned and expressed. The influences of recombinant HcEF-1α on multiple functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were observed in vitro. Immunoblot analysis revealed that rHcEF-1α was recognized by the serum of goat infected with H contortus. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that rHcEF-1α was bound on surface of PBMCs. Moreover, the productions of IL-4, TGF-ß1, IFN-γ and IL-17 of cells were significantly modulated by the incubation with rHcEF-1α. The production of interleukin IL-10 was decreased. Cell migration, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were significantly increased; however, nitric oxide production (NO) was significantly decreased. The MHC II molecule expression of cells incubated with rHcEF-1α was increased significantly, whereas MHC-I was not changed as compared to the control groups (PBS control and pET32a). These findings indicated that rHcEF-1α protein might play essential roles in functional regulations of HcESPs on goat PBMC and mediate the immune responses of the host during host-parasite relationship.

15.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078190

RESUMO

Novel lithium-lanthanide (lanthanide shortened as Ln: cerium and praseodymium) bimetallic coordination polymers of the formula C10H2LnLiO8(Ln: Ce named as CeLipmaand Pr named as PrLipma) and C10H3CeO8(named as Cepma) were prepared by a simplehydrothermal method. The 3 compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) andX-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results of the structural refinement show that they belong to triclinic symmetry and P-1 space group with cerium (or praseodymium) and lithium cations forming coordination bonds to oxygen atoms from different pyromellitic acid molecules and constructing into three-dimensional (3D) structures, it is interesting of the frameworks to exclude any coordination water and lattice water. As an electrode material for lithium ion batteries, CeLipma exhibits a maximum capacity of 800.5 mAh/g and a retention of 91.4% after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g. The favorable electrochemical properties of the lanthanide coordination polymers show potential application prospect in the field of electrode materials.

16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 2956-2968, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089310

RESUMO

We developed a synbiotic yogurt using monk fruit extract as a sweetener and investigated the effects of feeding the yogurt to rats with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin and a high-fat diet. The rats fed the synbiotic yogurt showed greater blood glucose regulation and a significant decrease in insulin resistance and glycosylated hemoglobin compared with rats fed yogurt sweetened with sucrose, and they showed a remarkable improvement in short-chain fatty acid levels and gut microbiota status. Liver and kidney damage was also ameliorated in the rats fed the synbiotic yogurt. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the synbiotic yogurt inhibited ß-cell loss compared with the control yogurt. Consuming the synbiotic yogurt helped to restore the islets of Langerhans. Our results indicated that monk fruit extract may be a good alternative to sucrose for synbiotic yogurt products in people with type 2 diabetes to delay the progression of diabetes and associated complications.

17.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092133

RESUMO

Mating promotes reproductive activity, which may impact immune performance. Paradoxically, mating frequently challenges females' immunity (e.g., infections). Therefore, studies of postmating resource allocation between reproduction and survival are likely to shed new light on life-history trade-off and sexual selection. Here, we used RNAseq to test whether and how mating affected mRNA expression in genes related to reproduction and immunity in Spodoptera litura female moths. Results show a divergent change in the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between reproduction and immunity: the immune response was largely downregulated shortly after mating (~6 h postmating), which has some recovery at 24 h postmating; reproductive response is trivial shortly after mating (~6 h postmating), but it largely upregulated at 24 h postmating (e.g., egg maturation related genes were highly upregulated). Considering the fact that most of the total DEGs downregulated from 0 to 6 h postmating (from 51/68 to 214/260) but most of the total DEGs upregulated at 24 h postmating (816/928), it is possible that trade-offs between reproduction and immunity occurred in mated females. For example, they may shut down immunity to favor sperm storage and save limited resources to support the increased energy required in reproduction (e.g., egg maturation and oviposition). Mating-induced infections should be trivial due to low polyandry in S. litura. A reduced immune defense may have no threat to S. litura survival but may benefit reproduction significantly. Furthermore, obvious expression changes were detected in genes related to hormone production, suggesting that endocrine changes could play important roles in postmating responses.


Assuntos
Copulação , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , Reprodução/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo
18.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 7646384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076464

RESUMO

Objective: There is no consensus on the role of abnormal uric acid (UA) levels in the prognosis of patients undergoing hemodialysis. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of changes in UA concentration on the risk of all-cause death and cardiac death in such patients. Method: In this retrospective cohort study, patients admitted to two hemodialysis centers performing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in Wuhan First Hospital and Fourth Hospital Hemodialysis Center from January 1, 2007, to October 31, 2017, were included. Results: In all, 325 patients undergoing MHD aged 59.7 ± 14.7 years, including 195 men (60%), were enrolled, with a median follow-up of 37 months. Serum UA (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the surviving group than in the death group. No significant difference was found in UA variability (. Conclusion: Low UA levels were closely related to all-cause mortality in patients undergoing MHD. Although UA levels had no significant effect on cardiac death, they had a good predictive value for long-term prognosis in patients on MHD.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 129, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913268

RESUMO

Land use policies have turned southern China into one of the most intensively managed forest regions in the world, with actions maximizing forest cover on soils with marginal agricultural potential while concurrently increasing livelihoods and mitigating climate change. Based on satellite observations, here we show that diverse land use changes in southern China have increased standing aboveground carbon stocks by 0.11 ± 0.05 Pg C y-1 during 2002-2017. Most of this regional carbon sink was contributed by newly established forests (32%), while forests already existing contributed 24%. Forest growth in harvested forest areas contributed 16% and non-forest areas contributed 28% to the carbon sink, while timber harvest was tripled. Soil moisture declined significantly in 8% of the area. We demonstrate that land management in southern China has been removing an amount of carbon equivalent to 33% of regional fossil CO2 emissions during the last 6 years, but forest growth saturation, land competition for food production and soil-water depletion challenge the longevity of this carbon sink service.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 808, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965008

RESUMO

Urban parks and green spaces are among the few places where city dwellers can have regular contact with nature and engage in outdoor recreation. Social media data provide opportunities to understand such human-environment interactions. While studies have demonstrated that geo-located photographs are useful indicators of recreation across different spaces, recreation behaviour also varies between different groups of people. Our study used social media to assess behavioural patterns across different groups of park users in tropical Singapore. 4,674 users were grouped based on the location and content of their photographs on the Flickr platform. We analysed how these groups varied spatially in the parks they visited, as well as in their photography behaviour. Over 250,000 photographs were analysed, including those uploaded and favourited by users, and all photographs taken at city parks. There were significant differences in the number and types of park photographs between tourists and locals, and between user-group axes formed from users' photograph content. Spatial mapping of different user groups showed distinct patterns in the parks they were attracted to. Future work should consider such variability both within and between data sources, to provide a more context-dependent understanding of human-environment interactions and preferences for outdoor recreation.

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