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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 101: 103435, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586883

RESUMO

Diamond grinding used in dental adjustment of high-strength zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic (ZLS) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (LDGC) is challenging in restorative dentistry. This study aimed to compare the machinability of ZLS and LDGC in diamond grinding in terms of machining forces and energy, debris, surface and edge chipping damage. Grinding experiments in simulation of dental adjustment were conducted using a computer-assisted high-speed dental handpiece and coarse diamond burs. A piezoelectric force dynamometer and a high-speed data acquisition system were used for on-processing monitoring for assessment of grinding forces and energy. Grinding debris and grinding-induced surface and edge chipping damage were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that grinding of ZLS required higher tangential and normal forces and energy than LDGC (p < 0.05). ZLS was ranked the most difficult to machine among dental glass ceramics based on a machinability index associated with the material mechanical properties. The higher machinability indices of ZLS and LDGC pose a challenge for clinicians to conduct high-efficient material removal for dental adjustment and repair. Both ZLS and LDGC debris were micro fractured particles but the former were smaller than the latter due to the finer microstructure of ZLS. Ground ZLS surfaces contained more irregular microchipping and microfracture in comparison with LDGC surfaces with intergranular fracture or grain dislodgement. Grinding-induced edge chipping damage remained a serious issue for both ZLS and LDGC, which depths ranged approximately 20-100 µm and significantly increased with the material removal rate (p < 0.01). As the zirconia-reinforcement in ZLS only slightly reduced edge chipping damage (p > 0.05), continued efforts are required to explore new reinforcement technologies for optimized LDGC.

2.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641979

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death among Indigenous populations. Communication campaigns are an important component of cancer prevention and treatment. However, communication about cancer with Indigenous populations has yet to be fully explored and understood. In this systematic literature review, we examine peer-reviewed research to gain insight into the factors that contribute to effective communication about cancer with Indigenous populations. The review yielded a total of 7313 potential articles and a total of 25 of these manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate five primary factors that may increase the effectiveness of communication about cancer with Indigenous populations. Factors include the need to (1) respect traditional knowledge, (2) use appropriate language, (3) involve community members in the communication process, (4) include people from different generations in message design, and (5) engender trust in health communicators. Results also provide insight into communication methods that contribute to effective cancer communication. We identify gaps in the literature and provide recommendations for future cancer communication strategies and research with Indigenous populations.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471994

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a birth defect with variable clinical and anatomical manifestations due to spinal malformation. The genetic etiology underlying about 10% of CS cases in the Chinese population is compound inheritance by which the gene dosage is reduced below that of haploinsufficiency. In this genetic model, the trait manifests as a result of the combined effect of a rare variant and common pathogenic variant allele at a locus. From exome sequencing (ES) data of 523 patients in Asia and two patients in Texas, we identified six TBX6 gene-disruptive variants from 11 unrelated CS patients via ES and in vitro functional testing. The in trans mild hypomorphic allele was identified in 10 of the 11 subjects; as anticipated these 10 shared a similar spinal deformity of hemivertebrae. The remaining case has a homozygous variant in TBX6 (c.418C>T) and presents a more severe spinal deformity phenotype. We found decreased transcriptional activity and abnormal cellular localization as the molecular mechanisms for TBX6 missense loss-of-function alleles. Expanding the mutational spectrum of TBX6 pathogenic alleles enabled an increased molecular diagnostic detection rate, provided further evidence for the gene dosage-dependent genetic model underlying CS, and refined clinical classification.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448840

RESUMO

Xq22 deletions that encompass PLP1 (Xq22-PLP1-DEL) are notable for variable expressivity of neurological disease traits in females ranging from a mild late-onset form of Spastic Paraplegia type 2 [MIM# 312920], sometimes associated with skewed X-inactivation, to an early-onset neurological disease trait (EONDT) of severe developmental delay, intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities. Size and gene content of Xq22-PLP1-DEL vary and were proposed as potential molecular etiologies underlying variable expressivity in carrier females where two smallest regions of overlap (SROs) were suggested to influence disease. We ascertained a cohort of eight unrelated patients harboring Xq22-PLP1-DEL and performed high-density array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) and breakpoint-junction sequencing. Molecular characterization of Xq22-PLP1-DEL from 17 cases (8 herein and 9 published) revealed an overrepresentation of breakpoints that reside within repeats (11/17, ~65%) and the clustering of ~47% of proximal breakpoints in a genomic instability hotspot with characteristic non-B DNA density. These findings implicate a potential role for genomic architecture in stimulating the formation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL. The correlation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL gene content with neurological disease trait in female cases enabled refinement of the associated SROs to a single genomic interval containing six genes. Our data support the hypothesis that genes contiguous to PLP1 contribute to EONDT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
mSphere ; 4(3)2019 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243078

RESUMO

The nonconventional yeast Issatchenkia orientalis has emerged as a potential platform microorganism for production of organic acids due to its ability to grow robustly under highly acidic conditions. However, lack of efficient genetic tools remains a major bottleneck in metabolic engineering of this organism. Here we report that the autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScARS) was functional for plasmid replication in I. orientalis, and the resulting episomal plasmid enabled efficient genome editing by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The optimized CRISPR/Cas9-based system employed a fusion RPR1'-tRNA promoter for single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression and could attain greater than 97% gene disruption efficiency for various gene targets. Additionally, we demonstrated multiplexed gene deletion with disruption efficiencies of 90% and 47% for double gene and triple gene knockouts, respectively. This genome editing tool can be used for rapid strain development and metabolic engineering of this organism for production of biofuels and chemicals.IMPORTANCE Microbial production of fuels and chemicals from renewable and readily available biomass is a sustainable and economically attractive alternative to petroleum-based production. Because of its unusual tolerance to highly acidic conditions, I. orientalis is a promising potential candidate for the manufacture of valued organic acids. Nevertheless, reliable and efficient genetic engineering tools in I. orientalis are limited. The results outlined in this paper describe a stable episomal ARS-containing plasmid and the first CRISPR/Cas9-based system for gene disruptions in I. orientalis, paving the way for applying genome engineering and metabolic engineering strategies and tools in this microorganism for production of fuels and chemicals.

7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(11): 7044-7053, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039857

RESUMO

A novel form-stable phase change material (FSPCM) with remarkable improvement in thermal properties was fabricated by incorporating ternary fatty acid eutectics with graphene sheetconnected electrospun carbon nanofibers (GCNFs). The GCNFs possessed three-dimensional (3D) porous architecture and large specific surface area while provided mechanical support for FSPCM and effectively prevented flow/leakage of molten fatty acid. The GCNF based FSPCM exhibited desire structural morphology with lauric-myristic-stearic acid (LA-MA-SA) eutectic mixture being well dispersed in a 3D porous architecture. This novel FSPCM demonstrated superior thermal storage/retrieval capability and temperature regulation ability as well as good shape stability and thermal cycling stability. The melting and crystallization enthalpies of the fabricated FSPCMs were up to 120.4 and 120.1 kJ/kg, respectively. The thermal conductivity of the fabricated FSPCMs was 337% and 188% higher than that of LA-MA-SA eutectic mixture and a control sample without graphene, respectively, which ranked the top among the literature about LA-MA-SA eutectic mixture derived composite FSPCMs. Furthermore, the heating/cooling efficiency of the prepared FSPCMs was 45.7/64.9% higher than that of LA-MA-SA eutectic mixture.

8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the genome of Chinese white pear ('Dangshansuli') has been released, little is known about the functions, evolutionary history and expression patterns of NAC families in this species to date. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a total of 183 NAC transcription factors (TFs) in the pear genome, among which 146 pear NAC (PbNAC) members were mapped onto 16 chromosomes, and 37 PbNAC genes were located on scaffold contigs. No PbNAC genes were mapped to chromosome 2. Based on gene structure, protein motif analysis, and topology of the phylogenetic tree, the pear PbNAC family was classified into 33 groups. By comparing and analyzing the unique NAC subgroups in Rosaceae, we identified 19 NAC subgroups specific to pear. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD)/segmental duplication played critical roles in the expansion of the NAC family in pear, such as the 83 PbNAC duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Further, we found that purifying selection was the primary force driving the evolution of PbNAC family genes. Next, we used transcriptomic data to study responses to drought and cold stresses in pear, and we found that genes in groups C2f, C72b, and C100a were related to drought and cold stress response. CONCLUSIONS: Through the phylogenetic, evolutionary, and expression analyses of the NAC gene family in Chinese white pear, we indentified 11 PbNAC TFs associated with abiotic stress in pear.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Secas , Éxons/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Sintenia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/química
9.
Cell ; 176(6): 1310-1324.e10, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827684

RESUMO

DNA rearrangements resulting in human genome structural variants (SVs) are caused by diverse mutational mechanisms. We used long- and short-read sequencing technologies to investigate end products of de novo chromosome 17p11.2 rearrangements and query the molecular mechanisms underlying both recurrent and non-recurrent events. Evidence for an increased rate of clustered single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutation in cis with non-recurrent rearrangements was found. Indel and SNV formation are associated with both copy-number gains and losses of 17p11.2, occur up to ∼1 Mb away from the breakpoint junctions, and favor C > G transversion substitutions; results suggest that single-stranded DNA is formed during the genesis of the SV and provide compelling support for a microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) mechanism for SV formation. Our data show an additional mutational burden of MMBIR consisting of hypermutation confined to the locus and manifesting as SNVs and indels predominantly within genes.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1548-1558, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636772

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize clinically measurable endophenotypes, implicating the TBX6 compound inheritance model. METHODS: Patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) from China(N = 345, cohort 1), Japan (N = 142, cohort 2), and the United States (N = 10, cohort 3) were studied. Clinically measurable endophenotypes were compared according to the TBX6 genotypes. A mouse model for Tbx6 compound inheritance (N = 52) was investigated by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). A clinical diagnostic algorithm (TACScore) was developed to assist in clinical recognition of TBX6-associated CS (TACS). RESULTS: In cohort 1, TACS patients (N = 33) were significantly younger at onset than the remaining CS patients (P = 0.02), presented with one or more hemivertebrae/butterfly vertebrae (P = 4.9 × 10‒8), and exhibited vertebral malformations involving the lower part of the spine (T8-S5, P = 4.4 × 10‒3); observations were confirmed in two replication cohorts. Simple rib anomalies were prevalent in TACS patients (P = 3.1 × 10‒7), while intraspinal anomalies were uncommon (P = 7.0 × 10‒7). A clinically usable TACScore was developed with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9 (P = 1.6 × 10‒15). A Tbx6-/mh (mild-hypomorphic) mouse model supported that a gene dosage effect underlies the TACS phenotype. CONCLUSION: TACS is a clinically distinguishable entity with consistent clinically measurable endophenotypes. The type and distribution of vertebral column abnormalities in TBX6/Tbx6 compound inheritance implicate subtle perturbations in gene dosage as a cause of spine developmental birth defects responsible for about 10% of CS.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 794-807, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401460

RESUMO

Ca2+ signaling is vital for various cellular processes including synaptic vesicle exocytosis, muscle contraction, regulation of secretion, gene transcription, and cellular proliferation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular Ca2+ store, and dysregulation of ER Ca2+ signaling and homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of various complex disorders and Mendelian disease traits. We describe four unrelated individuals with a complex multisystem disorder characterized by woolly hair, liver dysfunction, pruritus, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and global developmental delay. Through whole-exome sequencing and family-based genomics, we identified bi-allelic variants in CCDC47 that encodes the Ca2+-binding ER transmembrane protein CCDC47. CCDC47, also known as calumin, has been shown to bind Ca2+ with low affinity and high capacity. In mice, loss of Ccdc47 leads to embryonic lethality, suggesting that Ccdc47 is essential for early development. Characterization of cells from individuals with predicted likely damaging alleles showed decreased CCDC47 mRNA expression and protein levels. In vitro cellular experiments showed decreased total ER Ca2+ storage, impaired Ca2+ signaling mediated by the IP3R Ca2+ release channel, and reduced ER Ca2+ refilling via store-operated Ca2+ entry. These results, together with the previously described role of CCDC47 in Ca2+ signaling and development, suggest that bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CCDC47 underlie the pathogenesis of this multisystem disorder.

12.
J Hum Genet ; 63(11): 1119-1128, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115950

RESUMO

Intracranial vertebral-basilar artery dissection (IVAD) is an arterial disorder leading to life-threatening consequences. Genetic factors are known to be causative to certain syndromic forms of IVAD. However, systematic study of the molecular basis of sporadic and isolated IVAD is lacking. To identify genetic variants contributing to the etiology of IVAD, we enrolled a cohort of 44 unrelated cases with a clinical diagnosis of isolated IVAD and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) for all the participants; a trio exome sequencing approach was used when samples from both parents were available. Four previously reported disease-causing heterozygous variants (three in COL3A1 and one in FBN1) and seven novel heterozygous variants in IVAD-related genes were identified. In addition, six variants in novel IVAD genes including two de novo heterozygous nonsynonymous variants (each in VPS52 and CDK18), two stop-gain variants (each in MYH9 and LYL1), and two heterozygous biallelic variants in TNXB were considered to be possibly contributing to the phenotype, with unknown significance according to the existing knowledge. A significantly higher mutational rate of IVAD candidate genes was observed in patients versus our in-house controls (P = 0.002) (DISCO study, http://www.discostudy.org/ , n = 2248). Our study provided a mutational landscape for patients with isolated IVAD.

13.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 18(8)2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107496

RESUMO

As a traditional ethanol-producing microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal host for consolidated bioprocessing. However, expression of heterologous cellulase increases the metabolic burden in yeast, which results in low cellulase activity and poor cellulose degradation efficiency. In this study, cellulase-expressing yeast strains that could efficiently degrade different cellulosic substrates were created by optimizing cellulase ratios through a POT1-mediated δ-integration strategy. Metabolic engineering strategies, including optimization of codon usage, promoter and signal peptide, were also included in this system. We also confirmed that heterologous cellulase expression in cellulosic yeast induced the unfolded protein response. To enhance protein folding capacity, the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein BiP and the disulfide isomerase Pdi1p were overexpressed, and the Golgi membrane protein Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase Pmr1p was disrupted to decrease the glycosylation of cellulase. The resultant strain, SK18-3, could produce 5.4 g L-1 ethanol with carboxymethyl-cellulose. Strain SK12-50 achieved 4.7 g L-1 ethanol production with phosphoric acid swollen cellulose hydrolysis. When Avicel was used as the substrate, 3.8 g L-1 ethanol (75% of the theoretical maximum yield) was produced in SK13-34. This work will significantly increase our knowledge of how to engineer optimal yeast strains for biofuel production from cellulosic biomass.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1897-1909, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088852

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants account for 4 to 41% of patients with intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD). In Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of ID is thought to be higher, but data in Central Africa are limited to some case reports. In addition, clinical descriptions of some syndromes are not available for this population. This study aimed at providing an estimate for the fraction of ID/DD for which an underlying etiological genetic cause may be elucidated and provide insights into their clinical presentation in special institutions in a Central African country. A total of 127 patients (33 females and 94 males, mean age 10.03 ± 4.68 years), were recruited from six institutions across Kinshasa. A clinical diagnosis was achieved in 44 but molecular confirmation was achieved in 21 of the 22 patients with expected genetic defect (95% clinical sensitivity). Identified diseases included Down syndrome (15%), submicroscopic copy number variants (9%), aminoacylase deficiency (0.8%), Partington syndrome in one patient (0.8%) and his similarly affected brother, X-linked syndromic Mental Retardation type 33 (0.8%), and two conditions without clear underlying molecular genetic etiologies (Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral and Amniotic Bands Sequence). We have shown that genetic etiologies, similar to those reported in Caucasian subjects, are a common etiologic cause of ID in African patients from Africa. We have confirmed the diagnostic utility of clinical characterization prior to genetic testing. Finally, our clinical descriptions provide insights into the presentation of these genetic diseases in African patients.

15.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 675-684, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) represent a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vessels with a prevalence of 10-18/100 000. BAVM is the leading aetiology of intracranial haemorrhage in children. Our objective was to identify gene variants potentially contributing to disease and to better define the molecular aetiology underlying non-syndromic sporadic BAVM. METHODS: We performed whole-exome trio sequencing of 100 unrelated families with a clinically uniform BAVM phenotype. Pathogenic variants were then studied in vivo using a transgenic zebrafish model. RESULTS: We identified four pathogenic heterozygous variants in four patients, including one in the established BAVM-related gene, ENG, and three damaging variants in novel candidate genes: PITPNM3, SARS and LEMD3, which we then functionally validated in zebrafish. In addition, eight likely pathogenic heterozygous variants (TIMP3, SCUBE2, MAP4K4, CDH2, IL17RD, PREX2, ZFYVE16 and EGFR) were identified in eight patients, and 16 patients carried one or more variants of uncertain significance. Potential oligogenic inheritance (MAP4K4 with ENG, RASA1 with TIMP3 and SCUBE2 with ENG) was identified in three patients. Regulation of sma- and mad-related proteins (SMADs) (involved in bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signalling) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endotheliual growth factor recepter 2 (VEGFR2) binding and activity (affecting the VEGF signalling pathway) were the most significantly affected biological process involved in the pathogenesis of BAVM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the specific role of BMP/TGF-ß and VEGF/VEGFR signalling in the aetiology of BAVM and the efficiency of intensive parallel sequencing in the challenging context of genetically heterogeneous paradigm.

16.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Defects in the cohesin pathway are associated with cohesinopathies, notably Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We aimed to delineate pathogenic variants in known and candidate cohesinopathy genes from a clinical exome perspective. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients referred for clinical exome sequencing (CES, N = 10,698). Patients with causative variants in novel or recently described cohesinopathy genes were enrolled for phenotypic characterization. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variants (SNVs/indels) were identified in established disease genes including NIPBL (N = 5), SMC1A (N = 14), SMC3 (N = 4), RAD21 (N = 2), and HDAC8 (N = 8). The phenotypes in this genetically defined cohort skew towards the mild end of CdLS spectrum as compared with phenotype-driven cohorts. Candidate or recently reported cohesinopathy genes were supported by de novo SNVs/indels in STAG1 (N = 3), STAG2 (N = 5), PDS5A (N = 1), and WAPL (N = 1), and one inherited SNV in PDS5A. We also identified copy-number deletions affecting STAG1 (two de novo, one of unknown inheritance) and STAG2 (one of unknown inheritance). Patients with STAG1 and STAG2 variants presented with overlapping features yet without characteristic facial features of CdLS. CONCLUSION: CES effectively identified disease-causing alleles at the mild end of the cohensinopathy spectrum and enabled characterization of candidate disease genes.

17.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 689-703, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046887

RESUMO

Tooth agenesis (TA), the failure of development of one or more permanent teeth, is a common craniofacial abnormality observed in different world populations. The genetic etiology of TA is heterogeneous; more than a dozen genes have been associated with isolated or nonsyndromic TA, and more than 80 genes with syndromic forms. In this study, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify candidate genes contributing to TA in four Turkish families. Likely pathogenic variants with a low allele frequency in the general population were identified in four disease-associated genes, including two distinct variants in TSPEAR, associated with syndromic and isolated TA in one family each; a variant in LAMB3 associated with syndromic TA in one family; and a variant in BCOR plus a disease-associated WNT10A variant in one family with syndromic TA. With the notable exception of WNT10A (Tooth agenesis, selective, 4, MIM #150400), the genotype-phenotype relationships described in the present cohort represent an expansion of the clinical spectrum associated with these genes: TSPEAR (Deafness, autosomal recessive 98, MIM #614861), LAMB3 (Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IA, MIM #104530; Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional, MIMs #226700 and #226650), and BCOR (Microphthalmia, syndromic 2, MIM #300166). We provide evidence supporting the candidacy of these genes with TA, and propose TSPEAR as a novel nonsyndromic TA gene. Our data also suggest potential multilocus genomic variation, or mutational burden, in a single family, involving the BCOR and WNT10A loci, underscoring the complexity of the genotype-phenotype relationship in the common complex trait of TA.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Anodontia/epidemiologia , Anodontia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Turquia/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 171-187, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032986

RESUMO

Premature termination codon (PTC)-bearing transcripts are often degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) resulting in loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. However, not all PTCs result in LoF mutations, i.e., some such transcripts escape NMD and are translated to truncated peptide products that result in disease due to gain-of-function (GoF) effects. Since the location of the PTC is a major factor determining transcript fate, we hypothesized that depletion of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) within the gene region predicted to escape NMD in control databases could provide a rank for genic susceptibility for disease through GoF versus LoF. We developed an NMD escape intolerance score to rank genes based on the depletion of PTVs that would render them able to escape NMD using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) control databases, which was further used to screen the Baylor-Center for Mendelian Genomics disease database. This analysis revealed 1,996 genes significantly depleted for PTVs that are predicted to escape from NMD, i.e., PTVesc; further studies provided evidence that revealed a subset as candidate genes underlying Mendelian phenotypes. Importantly, these genes have characteristically low pLI scores, which can cause them to be overlooked as candidates for dominant diseases. Collectively, we demonstrate that this NMD escape intolerance score is an effective and efficient tool for gene discovery in Mendelian diseases due to production of truncated or altered proteins. More importantly, we provide a complementary analytical tool to aid identification of genes associated with dominant traits through a mechanism distinct from LoF.

19.
Hum Genet ; 137(6-7): 553-567, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019117

RESUMO

With the recent advance in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) have been extensively reported. Accordingly, the issue of incorrect identification of recombination events that can induce the distortion of multi-allelic or hemizygous variants has received more attention. However, the potential distorted calculation bias or significance of a detected association in a GWAS due to the coexistence of CNVs and SNPs in the same genomic region may remain under-recognized. Here we performed the association study within a congenital scoliosis (CS) cohort whose genetic etiology was recently elucidated as a compound inheritance model, including mostly one rare variant deletion CNV null allele and one common variant non-coding hypomorphic haplotype of the TBX6 gene. We demonstrated that the existence of a deletion in TBX6 led to an overestimation of the contribution of the SNPs on the hypomorphic allele. Furthermore, we generalized a model to explain the calculation bias, or distorted significance calculation for an association study, that can be 'induced' by CNVs at a locus. Meanwhile, overlapping between the disease-associated SNPs from published GWAS and common CNVs (overlap 10%) and pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (overlap 99.69%) was significantly higher than the random distribution (p < 1 × 10-6 and p = 0.034, respectively), indicating that such co-existence of CNV and SNV alleles might generally influence data interpretation and potential outcomes of a GWAS. We also verified and assessed the influence of colocalizing CNVs to the detection sensitivity of disease-associated SNP variant alleles in another adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) genome-wide association study. We proposed that detecting co-existent CNVs when evaluating the association signals between SNPs and disease traits could improve genetic model analyses and better integrate GWAS with robust Mendelian principles.

20.
Genome Res ; 28(8): 1228-1242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907612

RESUMO

Alu elements, the short interspersed element numbering more than 1 million copies per human genome, can mediate the formation of copy number variants (CNVs) between substrate pairs. These Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMRs) can result in pathogenic variants that cause diseases. To investigate the impact of AAMR on gene variation and human health, we first characterized Alus that are involved in mediating CNVs (CNV-Alus) and observed that these Alus tend to be evolutionarily younger. We then computationally generated, with the assistance of a supercomputer, a test data set consisting of 78 million Alu pairs and predicted ∼18% of them are potentially susceptible to AAMR. We further determined the relative risk of AAMR in 12,074 OMIM genes using the count of predicted CNV-Alu pairs and experimentally validated the predictions with 89 samples selected by correlating predicted hotspots with a database of CNVs identified by clinical chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) on the genomes of approximately 54,000 subjects. We fine-mapped 47 duplications, 40 deletions, and two complex rearrangements and examined a total of 52 breakpoint junctions of simple CNVs. Overall, 94% of the candidate breakpoints were at least partially Alu mediated. We successfully predicted all (100%) of Alu pairs that mediated deletions (n = 21) and achieved an 87% positive predictive value overall when including AAMR-generated deletions and duplications. We provided a tool, AluAluCNVpredictor, for assessing AAMR hotspots and their role in human disease. These results demonstrate the utility of our predictive model and provide insights into the genomic features and molecular mechanisms underlying AAMR.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência
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