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1.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(3): 475-487, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939719

RESUMO

Mutations of PSEN1 have been reported in dilated cardiomyopathy pedigrees. Understanding the effects and mechanisms of PSEN1 in cardiomyocytes might have important implications for treatment of heart diseases. Here, we showed that PSEN1 was downregulated in ischemia-induced failing hearts. Functionally, cardiovascular specific PSEN1 deletion led to spontaneous death of the mice due to cardiomyopathy. At the age of 11 months, the ratio of the heart weight/body weight was slightly lower in the Sm22a-PSEN1-KO mice compared with that of the WT mice. Echocardiography showed that the percentage of ejection fraction and fractional shortening was significantly reduced in the Sm22a-PSEN1-KO group compared with the percent of these measures in the WT group, indicating that PSEN1-KO resulted in heart failure. The abnormally regulated genes resulted from PSEN1-KO were detected to be enriched in muscle development and dilated cardiomyopathy. Among them, several genes encode Ca2+ ion channels, promoting us to investigate the effects of PSEN1 KO on regulation of Ca2+ in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Consistently, in isolated adult cardiomyocytes, PSEN1-KO increased the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ and reduced Ca2+ concentration inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen at the resting stage. Additionally, SR Ca2+ was decreased in the failing hearts of WT mice, but with the lowest levels observed in the failing hearts of PSEN1 knockout mice. These results indicate that the process of Ca2+ release from SR into cytoplasm was affected by PSEN1 KO. Therefore, the abnormalities in Ca2+ homeostasis resulted from downregulation of PSEN1 in failing hearts might contribute to aging-related cardiomyopathy, which might had important implications for the treatment of aging-related heart diseases.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 264, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infant mortality rate (IMR) is considered a basic measure of public health for countries around the world. The specific aim of our study was to provide an updated description of infant mortality rate among different regions in rural China, and assess the trends and causes of the IMR geographical disparities. METHODS: Data were collected from China's Under-5 Child Mortality Surveillance System(U5CMSS). The annual number of deaths and causes of death were adjusted using a 3-year moving average underreporting rate based on annual national data quality control results. The average annual decline rate (AADR) and the relative risk (RR) of the IMR and cause-specific infant mortality were calculated by Poisson regression and the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method. Data analysis was completed by SAS software. RESULTS: There was an apparent decrease in infant mortality in rural China from 2010 to 2018, at the AADR of 11.0% (95%CI 9.6-12.4), 11.2% (95%CI 10.3-12.1) and 6.6% (95%CI 6.0-7.3) in the eastern, central and western rural areas, respectively. The IMR was highest in the western rural area, followed by the central and eastern rural areas. Compared with the eastern rural area, the RR of infant mortality in the central rural area remained at 1.4-1.6 and increased from 2.4 (95%CI 2.3-2.6) in 2010-2012 to 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.4) in 2016-2018 in the western rural area. Pneumonia, preterm birth /LBW and birth asphyxia were the leading causes of infant deaths in the western rural area. Mortality rates of these three causes fell significantly in 2010-2018 but contributed to a higher proportion of deaths in the western rural area than in the central and western rural ares. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that the infant mortality rate dropped significantly from 2010 to 2018, however, geographical disparities of IMR in rural China are still persist. Therefore, there is an urgent need for public health programmes and policy interventions for infants in western rural China.

3.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 76: 103707, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464187

RESUMO

The quality of asymptomatic corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) computed tomography (CT) image is reduced due to interference from Gaussian noise, which affects the subsequent image processing. Aiming at the problem that asymptomatic COVID-19 CT image often have small flake ground-glass shadow in the early lesions, and the density is low, which is easily confused with noise. A denoising method of wavelet transform with shrinkage factor is proposed. The threshold decreases with the increase of decomposition scale, and it reduces the misjudgment of signal points. In the advanced stage, the range of lesions increases, with consolidation and fibrosis in different sizes, which have similar gray value to the CT images of suspected cases. Aiming at the problems of low contrast and fuzzy boundary in the traditional wavelet transform, the threshold function based on the optimization of parameters combined with the improved particle swam optimization (PSO) is proposed, so that the parameters of wavelet threshold function can change adaptively according to the lung lobe and ground-glass lesions with fewer iterations. The simulation results show that the paper method is significantly better than other algorithms in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mean absolute error (MSE). For example, aiming at the early asymptomatic COVID-19, compared with the comparison methods, the PSNR under the proposed method has increased by about 5 dB, the MSE has been greatly reduced, and the SNR has increased by about 6.1 dB. It can be seen that the denoising effect under the proposed method is the best.

4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 77: 101614, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358720

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple structural brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been revealed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is a fast-growing effort in applying artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze these data. Here, we review and evaluate the AI studies in brain MRI analysis with synthesis. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature, spanning the years from 2009 to 2020, was completed using the PubMed database. AI studies using MRI imaging to investigate normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and AD-dementia were retrieved for review. Bias assessment was completed using the PROBAST criteria. RESULTS: 97 relevant studies were included in the review. The studies were typically focused on the classification of AD, MCI, and normal aging (71% of the reported studies) and the prediction of MCI conversion to AD (25%). The best performance was achieved by using the deep learning-based convolution neural network algorithms (weighted average accuracy 89%), in contrast to 76-86% using Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machines, and other AI methods. DISCUSSION: The synthesized evidence is paramount to developing sophisticated AI approaches to reliably capture and quantify multiple subtle MRI changes in the whole brain that exemplify the complexity and heterogeneity of AD and brain aging.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
5.
Brain Behav ; 12(4): e2512, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe internal carotid stenosis, if left untreated, can pose serious risks for ischemic stroke and cognitive impairments. The effects of revascularization on any aspects of cognition, however, are not well understood, as conflicting results are reported, which have mainly been centered on paper-based cognitive analyses. Here, we summarized and evaluated the publications to date of functional MRI (fMRI) studies that examined the mechanisms of functional brain activation and connectivity as a way to reflect cognitive effects of revascularization on patients with carotid stenosis. METHODS: A PubMed and Google Scholar (covering the relevant literature until November 1, 2021) search yielded eight original studies of the research line, including seven resting-state and one task-based fMRI reports. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated treatment-related alterations in fMRI signal intensity and symmetry level, regional fMRI activation pattern, and functional brain network connectivity. The functional brain changes were associated largely with improvement in cognitive function assessed using standard cognitive test scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the contribution of fMRI to the understanding of brain functional activation and connectivity changes revealing cognitive effects of revascularization in the management of severe carotid stenosis. The review also highlighted the importance of reproducibility through enhancing experimental designs and cognitive task applications with future research for potential clinical translation.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Aging Med (Milton) ; 5(1): 4-9, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309154

RESUMO

Introduction: Frailty is a state of diminished physiological reserve and can be assessed using the frailty index. Early management of frailty is crucial for preventing adverse outcomes. Intended for assessing home-living older adults, the initial release of the eFI-CGA software was prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: In addressing the increased need of virtual assessment, the eFI-CGA was upgraded to version 3.0. In this paper, we introduce the updated electronic frailty assessment tool, reporting the newly developed features and validating its use. Results: End-user experiences with the previous versions are discussed. The updated features include a search function to resume disrupted assessments. The improved user interface enabled clinicians to record care management details. Conclusion: This study represents an example of software solutions in moving from disruption to transformation, benefiting healthcare for older adults during this challenging time.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(12): e2200991119, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286201

RESUMO

The anion of pyridine, C5H5N−, has been thought to be short lived in the gas phase and was only previously observed indirectly. In the condensed phase, C5H5N− is known to be stabilized by solvation with other molecules. We provide in this study striking results for the formation of isolated C5H5N− from microdroplets of water containing dissolved pyridine observed in the negative ion mass spectrum. The gas-phase lifetime of C5H5N− is estimated to be at least 50 ms, which is much longer than previously thought. The generated C5H5N− captured CO2 molecules to form a stable (Py-CO2)− complex, further confirming the existence of C5H5N−. We propose that the high electric field at the air­water interface of a microdroplet helps OH− to transfer an electron to pyridine to form C5H5N− and the hydroxyl radical •OH. Oxidation products of the Py reacting with •OH are also observed in the mass spectrum recorded in positive mode, which further supports this mechanism. The present study pushes the limits of the reducing and oxidizing power of water microdroplets to a new level, emphasizing how different the behavior of microdroplets can be from bulk water. We also note that the easy formation of C5H5N− in water microdroplets presents a green chemistry way to synthesize value-added chemicals.

8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 615: 697-706, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168018

RESUMO

High-capacity and rapid adsorption of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from water by adsorbents remain a great significance in water treatment. Recently, porous organic polymers with high surface areas, tunable nanopores and easy-to-modify skeletons are promising new generation of adsorbents. Here, a series of silsesquioxane-crosslinked conjugated microporous polymers (PcCMPs) with high surface areas and well-defined nanopores are developed via a molecular expansion strategy for removing OMPs from water. Among these PcCMPs, PcCMP-2E exhibited the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area up to 2518 m2 g-1. The maximum adsorption capacities of bisphenol A (BPA) of PcCMPs are ranging from 485.44 to 628.93 mg g-1. Specially, >93.5% of BPA could be removed even through a thin layer filtration device composed of PcCMPs, which can be regenerated well using a mild washing procedure. PcCMPs also exhibit extraordinary adsorption to a variety of OMPs, such as tetracycline (226.99 mg g-1), 1-naphthylamine (290.07 mg g-1), 2-naphthol (213.87 mg g-1), 2,4-dichlorophenol (183.85 mg g-1) and p-nitrophenol (360.24 mg g-1). This work provides a new strategy to design porous adsorbents with high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for water treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Filtração , Polímeros , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
9.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 75: 103552, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186109

RESUMO

CT image of COVID-19 is disturbed by impulse noise during transmission and acquisition. Aiming at the problem that the early lesions of COVID-19 are not obvious and the density is low, which is easy to confuse with noise. A median filtering algorithm based on adaptive two-stage threshold is proposed to improve the accuracy for noise detection. In the advanced stage of ground-glass lesion, the density is uneven and the boundary is unclear. It has similar gray value to the CT images of suspected COVID-19 cases such as adenovirus pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia (reticular shadow and strip shadow). Aiming at the problem that the traditional weighted median filter has low contrast and fuzzy boundary, an adaptive weighted median filter image denoising method based on hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. The weighted denoising parameters can adaptively change according to the detailed information of lung lobes and ground-glass lesions, and it can adaptively match the cross and mutation probability of genetic combined with the steady-state regional population density, so as to obtain a more accurate COVID-19 denoised image with relatively few iterations. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm under different density of impulse noise is significantly better than other algorithms in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), image enhancement factor (IEF) and mean absolute error (MSE). While protecting the details of lesions, it enhances the ability of image denoising.

10.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209182

RESUMO

The pathological diagnosis of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors remains a major challenge using the current histopathological technique. To improve diagnosis accuracy, spatially resolved metabolomics analysis based on air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AFADESI-MSI) technique was used to establish a molecular diagnostic strategy for discriminating four pathological types of thyroid tumor. Without any specific labels, numerous metabolite features with their spatial distribution information can be acquired by AFADESI-MSI. The underlying metabolic heterogeneity can be visualized in line with the cellular heterogeneity in native tumor tissue. Through micro-regional feature extraction and in situ metabolomics analysis, three sets of metabolic biomarkers for the visual discrimination of benign follicular adenoma and differentiated thyroid carcinomas were discovered. Additionally, the automated prediction of tumor foci was supported by a diagnostic model based on the metabolic profile of 65 thyroid nodules. The model prediction accuracy was 83.3% when a test set of 12 independent samples was used. This diagnostic strategy presents a new way of performing in situ pathological examinations using small molecular biomarkers and provides a model diagnosis for clinically indeterminate thyroid tumor cases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Metabolômica , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047049

RESUMO

The prevalence and risk factors of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) located in the anterior circulation (AC) and posterior circulation (PC) has been scarcely noted in the general population. We aimed to determine ICAS prevalence and risk factor profile of AC and PC in a representative population. Data were from the China Hypertension Survey of Beijing. In total, 4800 people aged 35 years or older were enrolled in this subsurvey for ICAS, and 3954 participants were eligible for analysis. ICAS was assessed by transcranial Doppler. The prevalence of ICAS in AC was much greater than that in PC (11.9% vs. 4.2%), and subjects with ICAS in PC were 3.9 years older than those with ICAS in AC. Multivariable logistics regression showed that the odds of hypertension and diabetes increased by 79% (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.40-2.27) and 35% (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.75) in those with AC vascular lesions and by 3.35 times (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 2.49-4.50) and 71% (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.19-2.46) in those with PC vascular lesions compared with those without vascular lesions. Most modifiable vascular risk factors for ICAS appeared to exert similar magnitudes of risk for PC to AC lesions.

12.
Small ; 18(10): e2105114, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984800

RESUMO

Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (PHE) over semiconductor photocatalysts is usually constrained by the limited light-harvesting and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Most of the reported systems focusing on PHE are facilitated by consuming the photoinduced holes with organic sacrificial electron donors (SEDs). The introduction of the SEDs not only causes the environmental problem, but also increases the cost of the reaction. Herein, a dual-functional photocatalyst is developed with the morphology of sandwiched-like hollowed Pd@TiO2 @ZnIn2 S4 nanobox, which is synthesized by choosing microporous zeolites with sub-nanometer-sized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) embedded as the sacrificial templates. The ternary Pd@TiO2 @ZnIn2 S4 photocatalyst exhibits a superior PHE rate (5.35 mmol g-1 h-1 ) and benzylamine oxidation conversion rate (>99%) simultaneously without adding any other SEDs. The PHE performance is superior to the reported composites of TiO2 and ZnIn2 S4 , which is attributed to the elevated light capture ability induced by the hollow structure, and the enhanced charge separation efficiency facilitated by the ultrasmall sized Pd NPs. The unique design presented here holds great potential for other highly efficient cooperative dual-functional photocatalytic reactions.

13.
Chemosphere ; 289: 133187, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890625

RESUMO

Mussels are often used as biological indicators for monitoring marine microplastic pollution. The crucial procedure during monitoring is the separation of microplastics from mussel samples. We investigated the separation efficiencies of six combinations of two digestion solutions (10% KOH and 30% H2O2) and three extraction solutions (NaCl, oil in H2O, and oil in NaCl) for mussels with low- and high-density microplastics. After KOH digestion, no polyethylene terephthalate (PET) could be extracted using the three extraction solutions, which might be due to the degradation of PET. After H2O2 digestion, the total extraction recovery rates of polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and PET for oil in H2O and oil in NaCl solution ranged from 95.6% ± 5.09%-100%, which were higher than those of the saturated NaCl solution (51.1% ± 17.1%-67.8% ± 13.9%). The first extraction recovery rates of oil in NaCl solution for PP, PET, and PVC were higher than those of oil in H2O. In this study, extraction by oil in NaCl solution after 30% H2O2 digestion was suggested to separate microplastics from mussels. This method is conducive to promoting the standardization of microplastic monitoring in mussels and might be suitable for large-scale monitoring of marine microplastic pollution.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Digestão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Brain Struct Funct ; 227(1): 381-392, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812936

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are sensitive to biological mechanisms of neuroplasticity in white matter (WM). In particular, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate structural changes. Historically, functional MRI (fMRI) neuroplasticity studies have been restricted to gray matter, as fMRI studies have only recently expanded to WM. The current study evaluated WM neuroplasticity pre-post motor training in healthy adults, focusing on motor learning in the non-dominant hand. Neuroplasticity changes were evaluated in two established WM regions-of-interest: the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Behavioral improvements following training were greater for the non-dominant hand, which corresponded with MRI-based neuroplasticity changes in the internal capsule for DTI fractional anisotropy, fMRI hemodynamic response functions, and low-frequency oscillations (LFOs). In the corpus callosum, MRI-based neuroplasticity changes were detected in LFOs, DTI, and functional correlation tensors (FCT). Taken together, the LFO results converged as significant amplitude reductions, implicating a common underlying mechanism of optimized transmission through altered myelination. The structural and functional neuroplasticity findings open new avenues for direct WM investigations into mapping connectomes and advancing MRI clinical applications.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal , Substância Branca , Corpo Caloso , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23513, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873241

RESUMO

Rib fracture detection is time-consuming and demanding work for radiologists. This study aimed to introduce a novel rib fracture detection system based on deep learning which can help radiologists to diagnose rib fractures in chest computer tomography (CT) images conveniently and accurately. A total of 1707 patients were included in this study from a single center. We developed a novel rib fracture detection system on chest CT using a three-step algorithm. According to the examination time, 1507, 100 and 100 patients were allocated to the training set, the validation set and the testing set, respectively. Free Response ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the sensitivity and false positivity of the deep learning algorithm. Precision, recall, F1-score, negative predictive value (NPV) and detection and diagnosis were selected as evaluation metrics to compare the diagnostic efficiency of this system with radiologists. The radiologist-only study was used as a benchmark and the radiologist-model collaboration study was evaluated to assess the model's clinical applicability. A total of 50,170,399 blocks (fracture blocks, 91,574; normal blocks, 50,078,825) were labelled for training. The F1-score of the Rib Fracture Detection System was 0.890 and the precision, recall and NPV values were 0.869, 0.913 and 0.969, respectively. By interacting with this detection system, the F1-score of the junior and the experienced radiologists had improved from 0.796 to 0.925 and 0.889 to 0.970, respectively; the recall scores had increased from 0.693 to 0.920 and 0.853 to 0.972, respectively. On average, the diagnosis time of radiologist assisted with this detection system was reduced by 65.3 s. The constructed Rib Fracture Detection System has a comparable performance with the experienced radiologist and is readily available to automatically detect rib fracture in the clinical setting with high efficacy, which could reduce diagnosis time and radiologists' workload in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Radiologistas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741599, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899698

RESUMO

cGAS, a DNA sensor in mammalian cells, catalyzes the generation of 2'-3'-cyclic AMP-GMP (cGAMP) once activated by the binding of free DNA. cGAMP can bind to STING, activating downstream TBK1-IRF-3 signaling to initiate the expression of type I interferons. Although cGAS has been considered a traditional DNA-binding protein, several lines of evidence suggest that cGAS is a potential RNA-binding protein (RBP), which is mainly supported by its interactions with RNAs, RBP partners, RNA/cGAS-phase-separations as well as its structural similarity with the dsRNA recognition receptor 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthase. Moreover, two influential studies reported that the cGAS-like receptors (cGLRs) of fly Drosophila melanogaster sense RNA and control 3'-2'-cGAMP signaling. In this review, we summarize and discuss in depth recent studies that identified or implied cGAS as an RBP. We also comprehensively summarized current experimental methods and computational tools that can identify or predict RNAs that bind to cGAS. Based on these discussions, we appeal that the RNA-binding activity of cGAS cannot be ignored in the cGAS-mediated innate antiviral response. It will be important to identify RNAs that can bind and regulate the activity of cGAS in cells with or without virus infection. Our review provides novel insight into the regulation of cGAS by its RNA-binding activity and extends beyond its DNA-binding activity. Our review would be significant for understanding the precise modulation of cGAS activity, providing the foundation for the future development of drugs against cGAS-triggering autoimmune diseases such as Aicardi-Gourtières syndrome.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 723, 2021 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A crucial aspect of continued senior care is the early detection and management of frailty. Developing reliable and secure electronic frailty assessment tools can benefit virtual appointments, a need especially relevant in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. An emerging effort has targeted web-based software applications to improve accessibility and usage. The objectives of this scoping review are to identify and evaluate web-based frailty assessment tools currently available and to identify challenges and opportunities for future development. METHODS: We conducted a review with literature (e.g., using MEDLINE databases) and Google searches (last updated on October 10, 2021). Each of the identified web applications were assessed based on eight featured categories and assigned a rating score accordingly. RESULTS: Twelve web-based frailty assessment applications were found, chiefly provided by the USA (50%) or European countries (41%) and focused on frailty grading and outcome prediction for specific patient groups (59%). Categories that scored well among the applications included the User Interface (2.8/3) and the Cost (2.7/3). Other categories had a mean score of 1.6/3 or lower. The least developed feature was Data Saving. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based applications represent a viable option for remote frailty assessments and multidisciplinary integrated care of older adults. Despite the available web-based frailty assessments on the Internet, many missed certain needed features for professional use in healthcare settings. This situation calls for fully comprehensive web-based applications, taking into consideration a number of key functions linking graphical user interface and functionalities, and paying special attention to secure data management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fragilidade , Idoso , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Software
18.
Metabolites ; 11(11)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822386

RESUMO

Isobaric ions having the same mass-to-charge ratio cannot be separately identified by mass spectrometry (MS) alone, but this limitation can be overcome by using hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) in microdroplets. Because isobaric ions may contain a varied number of exchangeable sites and different types of functional groups, each one produces a unique MS spectral pattern after droplet spray HDX without the need for MS/MS experiments or introduction of ion mobility measurements. As an example of the power of this approach, isobaric ions in urinary metabolic profiles are identified and used to distinguish between healthy individuals and those having bladder cancer.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG)-derived event-related potentials (ERPs) provide information about a variety of brain functions, but often suffer from low inherent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To overcome the low SNR, techniques that pool data from multiple sensors have been applied. However, such pooling implicitly assumes that the SNR among sensors is equal, which is not necessarily valid. This study presents a novel approach for signal pooling that accounts for differential SNR among sensors. METHODS: The new technique involves pooling together signals from multiple EEG channels weighted by their respective SNRs relative to the overall SNR of all channels. We compared ERP responses derived using this new technique with those derived using both individual channels as well as traditional averaged-based channel pooling. The outcomes were evaluated in both simulated data and real data from healthy adult volunteers (n = 37). Responses corresponding to a range of ERP components indexing auditory sensation (N100), attention (P300) and language processing (N400) were evaluated. RESULTS: Simulation results demonstrate that, compared to traditional pooling technique, the new SNR-weighted channel pooling technique improved ERP response effect size in cases of unequal noise among channels (p's < 0.001). Similarly, results from real-world experimental data showed that the new technique resulted in significantly greater ERP effect sizes compared to either traditional pooling or individual channel approach for all three ERP components (p's < 0.001). Furthermore, the new channel pooling approach also resulted in larger ERP signal amplitudes as well as greater differences among experimental conditions (p's < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the new technique improves the capture of ERP responses relative to traditional techniques. As such, SNR-weighted channel pooling can further enable widespread applications of ERP techniques, especially those that require rapid assessments in noisy out-of-laboratory environments.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Razão Sinal-Ruído
20.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707024

RESUMO

AIM: short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) as a risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events has been investigated. However, its association with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between short-term BPV and intracranial atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional analysis of 267 ischemic stroke patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis (mean age, 65±12 years old; 60.3% male), which were prospectively recruited in a comprehensive stroke center. Systolic and diastolic BP SD, CV, and BP variability ratio (BPVR) from 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime were calculated from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, intracranial atherosclerotic plaque burden and vulnerability were evaluated by high-resolution magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging. Logistic regression analysis was used to locate the correlation between short-term BPV and plaque vulnerability. RESULTS: a total of 36.3% subjects presented with intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) in this study. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that nighttime diastolic BP CV and 24-h BPVR were associated with intracranial IPH independently after adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for per SD BPV changes were 1.418 (1.051, 1.914) and 0.731 (0.548, 0.976), respectively, and this association also independent of atherosclerosis burden and 24-h mean systolic BP level. Further subgroup analysis by age and hypertension history demonstrated that the statistical correlation could only establish in the elder, and subjects with hypertension. CONCLUSION: nighttime diastolic BP CV and 24-h BPVR were associated with intracranial IPH independently, especially in the elderly and subjects with hypertension.

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