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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 834184, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356128

RESUMO

Soil extracellular enzymes play an important role in microbial functions and soil nutrient cycling in the context of increasing N deposition globally. This is particularly important for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) forests because of the decline in soil fertility induced by successive rotation. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of simulated N deposition (N30: 30 kg ha-2 year-1; N60: 60 kg ha-2 year-1) and phosphorus addition (P20: 20 mg kg-1; P40: 40 mg kg-1) on the activity and stoichiometry of soil extracellular enzymes related to soil C, N, and P cycling in Chinese fir. The results showed that N addition alone increased the activity of soil ß-1,4 glucosidase (BG) but decreased the activity of N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosidase (NAG) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). N addition increased the ratios of soil enzymes, C:N and C:P, alleviated microbial N-limitation, and aggravated microbial C-limitation. P addition alone increased enzyme activity, and P40 addition increased the ratio of BG to soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and (NAG + LAP):MBC activity ratio, thereby aggravating C restriction. N and P co-addition significantly affected soil extracellular enzyme activity and stoichiometry. For instance, BG activity and BG:MBC activity ratio increased significantly under the N30 + P40 treatment, which intensified C-limitation. Soil pH was the main factor influencing enzyme activity, and these variables were positively correlated. The stoichiometric relationships of enzyme reactions were coupled with soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), and available phosphorus (AP). Our results indicate that changes in soil characteristics induced by N and P inputs influence the activities of soil microorganisms and result in changes in microbial resource acquisition strategies. This study provides useful insights into the development of management strategies to improve the productivity of Chinese fir forests under scenarios of increasing N deposition.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149717, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425443

RESUMO

Despite fresh and pyrogenic organic matter have been widely used as amendments to improve soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, mineralization that links to C quality and soil temperature, microbial community composition and enzyme activity remain poorly understood. This study aims to explore the effects of amendments (bamboo leaves and its biochar) and incubation temperature on mineralization, and disentangle the relationships of SOC mineralization with chemical composition of SOC, labile organic C, microbial community composition, and activities of enzymes in a subtropical bamboo forest soil. Results showed that cumulative soil CO2 emissions ranked as bamboo leaf (Leaf) > bamboo leaf biochar (Biochar) > Control, regardless of the incubation temperature. Compared to the control, the Leaf treatment markedly increased, whereas the Biochar treatment decreased, the temperature sensitivity of SOC mineralization (P < 0.05). The cumulative soil CO2 emission was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with water-soluble organic C (WSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), O-alkyl C and alkyl C contents, and activities of ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, but negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with aromatic C content, regardless of the incubation temperature. This indicated that the lower SOC mineralization rate and lower temperature sensitivity in the Biochar (cf. Leaf) treatment were intimately associated with the lower WSOC, MBC, O-alkyl C content, and ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities, and higher aromatic C content in the Biochar. The high relative abundance of bacteria relating SOC mineralization included Rhizobiales, Sphingobacteriales and JG30-KF-AS9, whereas that of fungi included Eurotiales, Sordariales, Agaricales and Helotiales. Our results revealed that the application of pyrogenic organic matter, as compared to the application of fresh organic matter, can reduce SOC mineralization and its temperature sensitivity in a subtropical forest soil by limiting the availability of C and microbial activity, and thus has a great potential for maintaining soil carbon stock in subtropical forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 667964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249039

RESUMO

Nutrient resorption can affect plant growth, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Although the effects of nitrogen (N) and biochar fertilizers on soil nutrient concentrations and plant nutrient uptake have been studied, an understanding of how combined applications of N and biochar affect plant nutrient resorption in plantations is lacking. In this study, we applied N (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg N ha-1 yr-1 defined as N0, N30, N60, and N90, respectively) and biochar (0, 20, and 40 t biochar ha-1 defined as BC0, BC20, and BC40, respectively) to the soil of a Moso bamboo plantation. We investigated the effects of these treatments on N and phosphorus (P) resorption by young and mature bamboo plants, as well as the relationships between nutrient resorption and leaf and soil nutrient concentrations. Young bamboo showed significantly greater foliar N resorption efficiency (NRE) and P resorption efficiency (PRE) than mature bamboo. N addition alone significantly increased the N resorption proficiency (NRP) and P resorption proficiency (PRP) but significantly decreased the NRE and PRE of both young and mature bamboo. In both the N-free and N-addition treatments, biochar amendments significantly reduced the foliar NRE and PRE of young bamboo but had the opposite effect on mature bamboo. Foliar NRE and PRE were significantly negatively correlated with fresh leaf N and P concentrations and soil total P concentration but significantly positively correlated with soil pH. Our findings suggest that N addition inhibits plant nutrient resorption and alters the nutrient-use strategy of young and mature bamboo from "conservative consumption" to "resource spending." Furthermore, biochar amendment enhanced the negative effect of N addition on nutrient resorption in young bamboo but reduced the negative effect on that of mature bamboo under N-addition treatments. This study provides new insights into the combined effects of N and biochar on the nutrient resorption of Moso bamboo and may assist in improving fertilization strategies in Moso bamboo plantations.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5578, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692387

RESUMO

Forest soils play an important role in controlling global warming by reducing atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations. However, little attention has been paid to how nitrogen (N) deposition may alter microorganism communities that are related to the CH4 cycle or CH4 oxidation in subtropical forest soils. We investigated the effects of N addition (0, 30, 60, or 90 kg N ha-1 yr-1) on soil CH4 flux and methanotroph and methanogen abundance, diversity, and community structure in a Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) forest in subtropical China. N addition significantly increased methanogen abundance but reduced both methanotroph and methanogen diversity. Methanotroph and methanogen community structures under the N deposition treatments were significantly different from those of the control. In N deposition treatments, the relative abundance of Methanoculleus was significantly lower than that in the control. Soil pH was the key factor regulating the changes in methanotroph and methanogen diversity and community structure. The CH4 emission rate increased with N addition and was negatively correlated with both methanotroph and methanogen diversity but positively correlated with methanogen abundance. Overall, our results suggested that N deposition can suppress CH4 uptake by altering methanotroph and methanogen abundance, diversity, and community structure in subtropical Moso bamboo forest soils.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12260, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704060

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) deposition is a key factor that affects terrestrial biogeochemical cycles with a growing trend, especially in the southeast region of China, where shortage of available phosphorus (P) is particularly acute and P has become a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish a mutualistic symbiosis with plants, and play an important role in enhancing plant stress resistance. However, the response of AMF to the combined effects of N deposition and P additions is poorly understood. Thus, in this study, a field experiment was conducted in 10-year Chinese fir forests to estimate the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (low-N, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 and high-N, 60 kg ha-1 year-1) and phosphorus (P) addition treatments (low-P, 20 mg kg-1 and high-P, 40 mg kg-1) on AMF since April 2017, which was reflected in AMF root colonization rates and spore density of rhizosphere soil. Our results showed that N deposition significantly decreased AMF root colonization rates and spore density. In N-free plots, P addition significantly decreased AMF root colonization rates, but did not significantly alter spore density. In low-N plots, colonization rates significantly decreased under low P addition, but significantly increased under high P addition, and spore density exhibited a significant decline under high P additions. In high-N plots, colonization rates and spore density significantly increased under P additions. Interactive effects of simulated N deposition and P addition on both colonization rates and spore density were significant. Moderate N deposition or P addition can weaken the symbiotic relationship between plants and AMF, significantly reducing AMF colonization rates and inhibiting spore production. However, a moderate addition of P greatly enhances spore yield. In the case of interactive effects, the AMF colonization rates and spore density are affected by the relative content of N and P in the soil.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia/metabolismo , Cunninghamia/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Micorrizas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Esporos Fúngicos
6.
Sci Adv ; 6(12): eaaw5790, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206705

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition affects the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of ecosystems through the net atmospheric CO2 exchange and the emission of non-CO2 GHGs (CH4 and N2O). We quantified the effects of N deposition on biomass increment, soil organic carbon (SOC), and N2O and CH4 fluxes and, ultimately, the net GHG budget at ecosystem level of a Moso bamboo forest in China. Nitrogen addition significantly increased woody biomass increment and SOC decomposition, increased N2O emission, and reduced soil CH4 uptake. Despite higher N2O and CH4 fluxes, the ecosystem remained a net GHG sink of 26.8 to 29.4 megagrams of CO2 equivalent hectare-1 year-1 after 4 years of N addition against 22.7 hectare-1 year-1 without N addition. The total net carbon benefits induced by atmospheric N deposition at current rates of 30 kilograms of N hectare-1 year-1 over Moso bamboo forests across China were estimated to be of 23.8 teragrams of CO2 equivalent year-1.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Florestas , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Nitrogênio , Poaceae , Biomassa , Carbono , Ciclo do Carbono , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Solo
7.
Water Res ; 172: 115465, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972411

RESUMO

Global lakes have been identified as an important component of natural methane (CH4) sources. Given that lake CH4 emissions involve multiple, complex processes influenced by various environmental factors, estimates of global lake CH4 emissions are largely uncertain. In this study, we compiled global CH4 emission data on 744 lakes from published studies, and found a significantly negative correlation (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.01) between diffusive CH4 flux and lake maximum depth. Further analysis indicated that no significant differences in global sediment CH4 production were found for the different maximum depths investigated. Owing to the longer oxidation pathway, presence of oxycline layer, and the lower nutrient environment, deeper lakes yield less diffusive CH4 efflux compared to shallower lakes. Additionally, we also found that lake area was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.13, p < 0.01) to diffusive CH4 flux. Therefore, based on empirical correlations between lake morphometry (maximum depth and area) and diffusive CH4 emission, as well as the combination of two lake databases, we estimated that the annual diffusive CH4 emission from global lakes is approximately 11.2 (6.2-19.5) Tg CH4/yr, and greater than 84% is emitted from lakes with a mean depth of less than 5 m. Furthermore, two regions, 40-70° N (30.4%) and 20° S∼10° N (37.4%), were found to be the dominant contributors of global lake diffusive CH4 emissions, resulting from the considerable total lake area and the extensive shallow lakes in these regions. This study highlights the significance of the 'depth-effect' which controls the spatial distribution of lake diffusive CH4 flux and allows for the quantification of global lake diffusive CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Lagos , Metano , Difusão
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863618

RESUMO

The effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on soil organic carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in terrestrial ecosystems are the main drivers affecting GHG budgets under global climate change. Although many studies have been conducted on this topic, we still have little understanding of how N deposition affects soil C pools and GHG budgets at the global scale. We synthesized a comprehensive dataset of 275 sites from multiple terrestrial ecosystems around the world and quantified the responses of the global soil C pool and GHG fluxes induced by N enrichment. The results showed that the soil organic C concentration and the soil CO2 , CH4 and N2 O emissions increased by an average of 3.7%, 0.3%, 24.3% and 91.3% under N enrichment, respectively, and that the soil CH4 uptake decreased by 6.0%. Furthermore, the percentage increase in N2 O emissions (91.3%) was two times lower than that (215%) reported by Liu and Greaver (Ecology Letters, 2009, 12:1103-1117). There was also greater stimulation of soil C pools (15.70 kg C ha-1  year-1 per kg N ha-1  year-1 ) than previously reported under N deposition globally. The global N deposition results showed that croplands were the largest GHG sources (calculated as CO2 equivalents), followed by wetlands. However, forests and grasslands were two important GHG sinks. Globally, N deposition increased the terrestrial soil C sink by 6.34 Pg CO2 /year. It also increased net soil GHG emissions by 10.20 Pg CO2 -Geq (CO2 equivalents)/year. Therefore, N deposition not only increased the size of the soil C pool but also increased global GHG emissions, as calculated by the global warming potential approach.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248206

RESUMO

Frequent flash droughts can rapidly lead to water shortage, which affects the stability of ecosystems. This study determines the water-use characteristics and physiological mechanisms underlying Moso bamboo response to flash-drought events, and estimates changes to water budgets caused by extreme drought. We analyzed the variability in forest canopy transpiration versus precipitation from 2011-2013. Evapotranspiration reached 730 mm during flash drought years. When the vapor pressure deficit > 2 kPa and evapotranspiration > 4.27 mm·day-1, evapotranspiration was mainly controlled through stomatal opening and closing to reduce water loss. However, water exchange mainly occurred in the upper 0-50 cm of the soil. When soil volumetric water content of 50 cm was lower than 0.17 m3·m-3, physiological dehydration occurred in Moso bamboo to reduce transpiration by defoliation, which leads to water-use efficiency decrease. When mean stand density was <3500 trees·ha-1, the bamboo forest can safely survive the flash drought. Therefore, we recommend thinning Moso bamboo as a management strategy to reduce transpiration in response to future extreme drought events. Additionally, the response function of soil volumetric water content should be used to better simulate evapotranspiration, especially when soil water is limited.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Secas , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Abastecimento de Água , Água/metabolismo , China
10.
J Plant Res ; 132(1): 107-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386970

RESUMO

The ecological stoichiometry of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) during the "explosive growth period" (EGP) remains unknown. In a previous study, we showed that the carbon (C) required by shoots during the EGP is derived from attached mature bamboos. In this study, we attempted to answer the following two questions: (1) Is the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) required by shoots during the EGP also derived from attached mature bamboos? (2) Is the ecological stoichiometry of Moso bamboo during the EGP consistent with the growth rate hypothesis (GRH)? We simultaneously investigated changes in the N and P concentrations and N:P ratios of shoots (young bamboos) and attached mature bamboo over an 11-month period. During the EGP of Moso bamboo shoots (April 15-May 29), N and P concentrations in the shoots declined markedly because of the dilution of biomass and the transport to the germinated leaves and branches, and the N:P ratio remained at a low level. The significant correlations between relative height and biomass growth rates and the concentrations of N and P and N:P ratios during the EGP were consistent with the GRH. To meet the needs of "explosive growth," N was presumed to be transferred from the branches and rhizomes of attached mature bamboos to the shoots via underground rhizomes, while P likely came from mature bamboo leaves and branches. After the emergence of the branches and leaves of young bamboo: (1) the N concentration of the new leaves initially decreased and then increased, (2) P concentration exhibited a marked decrease, (3) and N:P ratio gradually increased. Our findings regarding the N:P ratio of shoots (young bamboos) during the EGP are consistent with the GRH, and we surmise that mature bamboo supplies N and P to attached young shoots via underground rhizomes.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , China , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1975, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201036

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can increase the susceptibility of vascular plants to other stresses, but the physiological basis of such a response remains poorly understood. This study was designed to clarify the physiological mechanisms and to evaluate bioindicators of N deposition impact on vascular plants. We evaluate multiple physiological responses to ~4 years of simulated additional N deposition (30-90 kg N ha-1 year-1) on three age-classes (1a, 3a, and 5a) of Moso bamboo. A saturating response to the additional N deposition was found both in foliar N concentration and in Pn. However, 3- and 5-year-old bamboo seemed to be less tolerant to extremely high N deposition than 1-year-old bamboo since they were saturated at a lower N addition. Furthermore, C/N/P stoichiometric ratios were very sensitive to N deposition in all three-age classes of bamboo, but the responses to N deposition in the various age-classes were diverse. We also found that the highest additional N deposition suppressed stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, suggesting an induced water stress. The stress induced by the high N load was also seen in photochemistry, where it reduced potential and actual photosynthetic use of light energy, diminished photo-protection capacity, and increased risk of the photo-damage. High additional N deposition contributed to a decrease in the foliar soluble protein contents and to an increase in the peroxidase activity (POD). Our study suggested, for the first time, that although the photosynthetic rate was enhanced by the increased N deposition in Moso bamboo, long-term high N load causes negative effects, such as damage to photosystem II. In Moso bamboo photochemical parameters are more sensitive to N deposition than photosynthetic rate or foliar N concentration. Furthermore, plant age should be taken into account when assessing plants' susceptibility to changes in global change drivers, such as N deposition. These findings facilitate the revealing of the risks potentially caused to vascular plants by increased N deposition before any visible symptoms of injury are seen.

12.
Sci Rep ; 6: 28235, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302857

RESUMO

Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N∙ha(-1)∙yr(-1). IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química
13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25908, 2016 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27181522

RESUMO

Moso bamboo can rapidly complete its growth in both height and diameter within only 35-40 days after shoot emergence. However, the underlying mechanism for this "explosive growth" remains poorly understood. We investigated the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in shoots and attached mature bamboos over a 20-month period. The results showed that Moso bamboos rapidly completed their height and diameter growth within 38 days. At the same time, attached mature bamboos transferred almost all the NSCs of their leaves, branches, and especially trunks and rhizomes to the "explosively growing" shoots via underground rhizomes for the structural growth and metabolism of shoots. Approximately 4 months after shoot emergence, this transfer stopped when the leaves of the young bamboos could independently provide enough photoassimilates to meet the carbon demands of the young bamboos. During this period, the NSC content of the leaves, branches, trunks and rhizomes of mature bamboos declined by 1.5, 23, 28 and 5 fold, respectively. The trunk contributed the most NSCs to the shoots. Our findings provide new insight and a possible rational mechanism explaining the "explosive growth" of Moso bamboo and shed new light on understanding the role of NSCs in the rapid growth of Moso bamboo.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta/química , Poaceae/química , Rizoma/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24107, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27052002

RESUMO

Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1)) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P < 0.05). IM significantly increased the foliar N concentrations of young bamboo and P concentrations of mature bamboo but decreased mature bamboo foliar N:P ratios (P < 0.05). Nitrogen increased foliar N and P concentrations in IM bamboo plantations, but the positive effects were diminished when the addition rate exceeded 60 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1). Nitrogen increased foliar N concentrations but aggravated P deficiency in CM bamboo plantations. The positive effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4460, 2014 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24675818

RESUMO

The Grain for Green Program (GGP), initiated in 1999, is the largest ecological restoration project in central and western China. Here, for the first time, we performed a meta-analysis and found that the GGP largely increased the soil organic carbon (SOC). The SOC was increased by 48.1%, 25.4%, and 25.5% at soil depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm, respectively. Moreover, this carbon accumulation has significantly increased over time since GGP implementation. The carbon accumulation showed a significantly more active response to the GGP in the top 20 cm of soil than in the deeper soil layers. Conversion of cropland to forest could lead to significantly greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion of cropland to grassland. Conversion from cropland to woodland could lead to greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion to either shrubland or orchard. Our results suggest that the GGP implementation caused SOC to accumulate and that there remains a large potential for further accumulation of carbon in the soil, which will help to mitigate climate change in the near future.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Grão Comestível , Solo/química , China , Ecossistema , Geografia , Agricultura Orgânica
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 34(6): 2355-60, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23947056

RESUMO

A experiment on leaf litter decomposition was carried out to evaluate the effects of UV-B radiation on the chemical composition and subsequent decomposition of leaf litter in humid subtropical forest systems. The leaf litter was derived from Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings exposed to elevated and ambient ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation treatments during growth for one year. The results showed that UV-B treatment significantly increased the original N, K and P content of leaf litter by 154.9%, 29.8% and 9.7%, respectively, and decreased the ratios of C: N, lignin: N and C: P of leaf litter by 60.5%, 61.7% and 8.5%, respectively (P < 0.05), but had no significant effect on C and lignin content. The decomposition of leaf litter derived from seedlings exposed to elevated UV-B treatment during growth was faster, but did not show significant difference from that of ambient UV-B treatment. Exposure to elevated UV-B radiation during growth did not significantly influence the K release, but promoted the P release and retarded the N accumulation during leaf litter decomposition. Our result will contribute to the better understanding of the role of UV-B radiation in moist subtropical forest ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Árvores/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Simulação por Computador , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Árvores/efeitos da radiação , Clima Tropical
17.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e68858, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23818993

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in the course of litter decomposition may have a direct effect on decomposition rates via changing states of photodegradation or decomposer constitution in litter while UV-B exposure during growth periods may alter chemical compositions and physical properties of plants. Consequently, these changes will indirectly affect subsequent litter decomposition processes in soil. Although studies are available on both the positive and negative effects (including no observable effects) of UV-B exposure on litter decomposition, a comprehensive analysis leading to an adequate understanding remains unresolved. Using data from 93 studies across six biomes, this introductory meta-analysis found that elevated UV-B directly increased litter decomposition rates by 7% and indirectly by 12% while attenuated UV-B directly decreased litter decomposition rates by 23% and indirectly increased litter decomposition rates by 7%. However, neither positive nor negative effects were statistically significant. Woody plant litter decomposition seemed more sensitive to UV-B than herbaceous plant litter except under conditions of indirect effects of elevated UV-B. Furthermore, levels of UV-B intensity significantly affected litter decomposition response to UV-B (P<0.05). UV-B effects on litter decomposition were to a large degree compounded by climatic factors (e.g., MAP and MAT) (P<0.05) and litter chemistry (e.g., lignin content) (P<0.01). Results suggest these factors likely have a bearing on masking the important role of UV-B on litter decomposition. No significant differences in UV-B effects on litter decomposition were found between study types (field experiment vs. laboratory incubation), litter forms (leaf vs. needle), and decay duration. Indirect effects of elevated UV-B on litter decomposition significantly increased with decay duration (P<0.001). Additionally, relatively small changes in UV-B exposure intensity (30%) had significant direct effects on litter decomposition (P<0.05). The intent of this meta-analysis was to improve our understanding of the overall effects of UV-B on litter decomposition.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 444: 363-8, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23280294

RESUMO

Chinese Fir and Moso bamboo are the two most important forest plantation species in subtropical China. However, information on greenhouse gas emissions from these forests is still scarce. A field study was carried out to compare soil CO(2) flux dynamics in Chinese Fir and Moso bamboo forests over a 12-month period using the LI-8100 Soil CO(2) Flux System. The soil CO(2) flux in both forest types showed similar daily and seasonal dynamic patterns with the highest soil CO(2) efflux at 14:00-16:00 in summer and the lowest in winter. Moso bamboo forest showed significant higher (P<0.01) annual mean soil CO(2) fluxes (52.9 t CO(2)ha(-1)yr(-1)) than Chinese fir forest (27.9 t CO(2)ha(-1)yr(-1)). The large difference in soil CO(2) fluxes may potentially influence the carbon cycle of the two forest types at the ecosystem scale. The CO(2) flux from the soil showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) with soil temperature at 5 cm depth, a significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with air relative humidity, and no significant correlation with soil moisture in either forest types. The Q(10) value of soil respiration was higher in Chinese fir than Moso bamboo forest, indicating that soil respiration under Chinese fir forest will be more sensitive to temperature change. This study contributes to better understanding of the role Moso bamboo and Chinese fir forests may play in carbon cycle and global warming mitigation.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cunninghamia , Solo/análise , Árvores , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 33(2): 545-50, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22509595

RESUMO

The release of nitrogen and phosphorus from leaf litter of six representative species, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana, Schima superba, Cinnamanun camphora, Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis eyeri, was investigated with litterbag method under ambient and reduced UV-B radiation (22.1% below ambient) treatments in subtropical region. The results showed that, the N dynamics exhibited three patterns: immobilization, mineralization-immobilization and mineralization-immobilization-mineralization. P dynamics also exhibited three different patterns: mineralization, immobilization-mineralization-immobilization and no large change. Compared with ambient treatment, the reduced treatment significantly delayed the N release from C. eyeri and P release from both C. glanca and C. eyeri (P<0.05), but significantly stimulated P release from C. camphora (P<0.05). The initial N contents and C: N ratios can not account for the N dynamics during leaf litter decomposition. The C: P ratios can partly explain the P dynamics during decomposition. The more works need to be done to better understand the role of UV-B radiation in the forest ecosystem in humid subtropical China under global environment change.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Árvores/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Árvores/efeitos da radiação , Clima Tropical
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 22(4): 845-50, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21774302

RESUMO

A litterbag experiment was conducted to study the decomposition of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter under ambient and reduced UV-B radiation (22.1% below ambient). Comparing with ambient treatment, the reduced treatment decreased the decomposition rate of C. lanceolata leaf litter by 69.6% (P<0.001), making the relative contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and lignin in the litter increased by 150%, 83.3%, and 13.8%, respectively, and the release of potassium (K) and carbon (C) slowed down. In the process of litter decomposition, photo-degradation of lignin didn't play crucial role. The results suggested that UV-B radiation could accelerate the decomposition rate of C. lanceolata leaf litter, promote the release of N, P, K, and C from it, and increase the nutrients turnover rate in litter layer as well as the carbon flux on the ground, giving potential effects on the function of C. lanceolata forest as a carbon source or sink in humid subtropical China.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia/química , Cunninghamia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lignina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química
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