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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 276: 118789, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823799

RESUMO

Natural macromolecules have been used to adsorb pollutants including heavy metal ions and organic dyes due to low-cost, accessible, biodegradable, and eco-friendly advantages. Pectin, an important natural polymer, possesses abundant carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups that can interact with the metal and organic cations via electrostatic interaction; as well as be modified by other chemicals for preparing hybrid and composite materials. The resultant materials have been employed to remove pollutants from aqueous solution; the importance of chemical composition was unlocked. Here, we reviewed contaminant removal by pectin, and pectin-based hybrid and composite materials, and highlighted the role of functional groups on pollutant removal. The removal of heavy metal ions was mainly due to surface coordination, while that of organic cations to electrostatic interactions of the functional groups. Moreover, the influence of initial contaminant concentration was critically discussed. The comprehensive review can provide valuable information on pectin and its application in contaminant removal.

2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131278, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808763

RESUMO

α-Amylase inhibition of chlorogenic acid (CHA) and its component moieties including quinic acid (QA) and caffeic acid (CA) were characterized by IC50, inhibition kinetics, fluorescence quenching, isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and molecular docking. QA was found with the highest inhibitory activity in a competitive-mode, and caffeoyl substitution significantly decreased its inhibition but maintained inhibition type. Interestingly, QA hardly quenched α-amylase fluorescence, while CA quenched that significantly without inhibitory activity. This resulted from lack of aromatic ring in QA that can form π-conjugation with α-amylase fluorescent residues. Besides, the binding constant of QA with α-amylase was higher than CHA. Additionally, QA and CA decreased but CHA remained α-amylase thermal stability, indicating that change in α-amylase spatial structure was related with enzyme residue sites involved in interactions with inhibitors, instead of with inhibition effect. Conclusively, caffeoyl substitution decreased α-amylase inhibition of QA through reducing its binding affinity to the enzyme.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico , Ácido Quínico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Amilases
3.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 221-231, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486728

RESUMO

There are racial/ethnic differences in the incidence of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer. To understand why these differences exist, we investigated associations between hormone-related factors and breast cancer risk by race/ethnicity in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Among 81 511 MEC participants (Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latina, African American and White women), 3806 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and 828 ER- incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median of 21 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate associations between race/ethnicity and breast cancer risk, and associations between hormone-related factors and breast cancer risk by race/ethnicity. Relative to White women, ER+ breast cancer risk was higher in Native Hawaiians and lower in Latinas and African Americans; ER- disease risk was higher in African Americans. We observed interaction with race/ethnicity in associations between oral contraceptive use (OC; Pint .03) and body mass index (BMI; Pint .05) with ER+ disease risk; ever versus never OC use increased risk only in Latinas and positive associations for obese versus lean BMI were strongest in Japanese Americans. For ER- disease risk, associations for OC use, particularly duration of use, were strongest for African Americans (Pint .04). Our study shows that associations of OC use and obesity with ER+ and ER- breast cancer risk differ by race/ethnicity, but established risk factors do not fully explain racial/ethnic differences in risk. Further studies are needed to identify factors to explain observed racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 312-321, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane straw is an available but largely ignored lignocellulosic biomass to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with highly crystalline, tunable surface chemistries and a wide-ranging adaptability. Herein, we utilized sugarcane straw to obtain pure cellulose via purification processes, followed by subsequent preparation of CNCs via sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The properties of the purified fibers and obtained CNCs were assessed by their composition, morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity and thermal stability. RESULTS: After the purification process, alkali-treated fibers (ATFs) contained 886.33 ± 1.25 g kg-1 cellulose, and its morphological analysis revealed a smooth and slender fibrous structure. The CNCs obtained by treatment with 64 wt% sulfuric acid at 45 °C for 60 min were isolated in a yield of 21.8%, with a diameter and length of 6 to 10 nm and 160 to 200 nm, respectively. Moreover, crystallinity index of these CNCs reached 62.66%, and thermal stability underwent a two-step degradation. Short-term ultrasonication after hydrolysis was employed to enhance isolation of the CNC particles and improve the anionic charge with higher value -38.00 mV. CONCLUSION: Overall, isolation and characterization results indicated the potential for CNCs preparation using sugarcane straw, in addition to offering a fundamental understanding of this material and indicating potential applications. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Celulose/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saccharum/química , Resíduos/análise , Hidrólise , Nanopartículas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Ácidos Sulfúricos
5.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(5): 1065-1071, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558534

RESUMO

In previous studies, researchers have used singing to treat respiratory function in patients with spinal cord injury. However, few studies have examined the way in which vocal training affects respiratory neural plasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Vocal respiratory training (VRT) is a type of vocal muscle-related treatment that is often a component of music therapy (MT) and focuses on strengthening respiratory muscles and improving lung function. In this randomized controlled study, we analyzed the therapeutic effects of VRT on respiratory dysfunction at 3 months after cervical spinal cord injury. Of an initial group of 37 patients, 26 completed the music therapy intervention, which comprised five 30-minute sessions per week for 12 weeks. The intervention group (n = 13) received VRT training delivered by professional certified music therapists. The control group (n = 13) received respiratory physical therapy delivered by professional physical therapists. Compared with the control group, we observed a substantial increase in respiratory function in the intervention group after the 12-week intervention. Further, the nerve fiber bundles in the respiratory center in the medulla exhibited a trend towards increased diversification, with an increased number, path length, thickness, and density of nerve fiber bundles. These findings provide strong evidence for the effect of music therapeutic VRT on neural plasticity. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of China Rehabilitation Research Center (approval No. 2020-013-1) on April 1, 2020, and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration No. ChiCTR2000037871) on September 2, 2020.

6.
ACS Omega ; 6(42): 28297-28306, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723026

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) absorption in ionic liquids (ILs) is an interesting issue, but little attention has been focused on the removal of NO at low partial pressures. Herein, a series of protic ionic liquids (PILs) based on polyamines as the cation and hydroxybenzenes as the anion were prepared for capturing low-concentration NO (0-0.6 bar). Triethylenetetramine phenolate ([TETAH][PhO]) showed an excellent absorption performance, with low viscosity, fast absorption rate, and high absorption capacity. The experimental solubility data were fitted by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky (K-K) equation, and the absorption enthalpy (ΔH) of NO in [TETAH][PhO] was thus calculated to be -43.60 kJ/mol. Density functional theory calculations were further performed to better understand the interaction of [TETAH][PhO] with NO on the molecular level, and the results suggest that the weak interaction of NO with the PIL was induced by the presence of H protons. It is believed that this work may provide a new method for the efficient and reversible absorption of low-concentration NO.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833243

RESUMO

This study reports the preparation of a polybutylene succinate (PBS) film reinforced with pure cellulose nanofibril (PCNF) and lignocellulose nanofibril (LCNF) by a two-step process that consists of solvent dispersion and twin-screw extrusion. Compared to the conventional one-step process, this method offered improved mechanical properties. The addition of 5% CNF increased the tensile properties up to 18.8%. Further, the effect of the lignin content was also studied by using LCNF as a reinforcement. The LCNF was prepared with and without a deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment to gain LCNF with a lignin content that varied between 5, 19, and 30%. The mechanical properties results show that a 5% addition of LCNF to the PBS matrix increased its tensile strength and elastic modulus. Further, the morphological and thermal properties of the composites were also studied in detail.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770290

RESUMO

With the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT), security incidents about exploiting vulnerabilities in IoT devices have become prominent. However, due to the characteristics of IoT devices such as low power and low performance, it is difficult to apply existing security solutions to IoT devices. As a result, IoT devices have easily become targets for cyber attackers, and malware attacks on IoT devices are increasing every year. The most representative is the Mirai malware that caused distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks by creating a massive IoT botnet. Moreover, Mirai malware has been released on the Internet, resulting in increasing variants and new malicious codes. One of the ways to mitigate distributed denial of service attacks is to render the creation of massive IoT botnets difficult by preventing the spread of malicious code. For IoT infrastructure security, security solutions are being studied to analyze network packets going in and out of IoT infrastructure to detect threats, and to prevent the spread of threats within IoT infrastructure by dynamically controlling network access to maliciously used IoT devices, network equipment, and IoT services. However, there is a great risk to apply unverified security solutions to real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a malware simulation tool that scans vulnerable IoT devices assigned a private IP address, and spreads malicious code within IoT infrastructure by injecting malicious code download command into vulnerable devices. The malware simulation tool proposed in this paper can be used to verify the functionality of network threat detection and prevention solutions.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752385

RESUMO

Fine-grained visual classification (FGVC) is much more challenging than traditional classification tasks due to the inherently subtle intra-class object variations. Recent works are mainly part-driven (either explicitly or implicitly), with the assumption that fine-grained information naturally rests within the parts. In this paper, we take a different stance, and show that part operations are not strictly necessary the key lies with encouraging the network to learn at different granularities and progressively fusing multi-granularity features together. In particular, we propose: (i) a progressive training strategy that effectively fuses features from different granularities, and (ii) a consistent block convolution that encourages the network to learn the category-consistent features at specific granularities. We evaluate on several standard FGVC benchmark datasets, and demonstrate the proposed method consistently outperforms existing alernatives or delivers competitive results.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752384

RESUMO

Fine-grained image analysis (FGIA) is a longstanding and fundamental problem in computer vision and pattern recognition, which underpins a diverse set of real-world applications. The task of FGIA targets analyzing visual objects from subordinate categories, e.g., species of birds or models of cars. The small inter-class and large intra-class variation inherent to fine-grained image analysis makes it a challenging problem. Capitalizing on advances in deep learning, in recent years we have witnessed remarkable progress in deep learning powered FGIA. In this paper we present a systematic survey of these advances, where we attempt to re-define and broaden the field of FGIA by consolidating two fundamental fine-grained research areas -- fine-grained image recognition and fine-grained image retrieval. In addition, we also review other key issues of FGIA, such as publicly available benchmark datasets and related domain-specific applications. We conclude by highlighting several research directions and open problems which need further exploration from the community.

11.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 12: 20406223211052388, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729158

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the renal outcomes and prognostic factors among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D) and biopsy-confirmed diabetic nephropathy (DN), non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) and DN mixed with NDRD (MIX). Design and Methods: Patients with both T2D and chronic kidney disease (CKD) who underwent renal biopsy between January 2014 and December 2016 were recruited in this prospective observational study. Participants were divided into DN group, NDRD group, or MIX group according to the baseline pathological diagnosis. The primary endpoint was a composite renal event of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or ⩾ 40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: Among the 292 participants included, 153 (52.4%) belonged to the DN group, 30 (10.3%) belonged to the NDRD group, and 109 (37.3%) belonged to the MIX group. During the median follow-up of 27 months, the adverse renal events occurred in 132 (44.2%) patients. Compared with NDRD group, the multiple adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for renal events in patients with DN and MIX groups were 3.900 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.103-13.788) and 2.691 (95% CI: 0.662-10.936), respectively. Baseline lower eGFR (HR: 1.159, 95% CI: 1.060-1.266), severe proteinuria (HR: 2.047, 95% CI: 1.227-3.416), lower hemoglobin (HR: 1.170, 95% CI: 1.008-1.267), and a family history of diabetes (HR: 1.138, 95% CI: 1.008-2.285) were independent predictors for adverse renal outcomes in patients with DN. Conclusion: In patients with T2D and CKD, pure DN and MIX group displayed a worse renal prognosis than NDRD group. Worse renal function, severe proteinuria, lower hemoglobin, and a family history of diabetes may be associated with adverse renal outcomes in patients with DN.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796895

RESUMO

In this study, a metal-organic framework (ZIF-8)-derived nitrogen-doped carbon (C-ZIF)-modified g-C3N4 composite was directly prepared by pyrolysis. C-ZIF@g-C3N4 composites with different loadings were prepared by changing the precursor content. The charge transfer process that occurs at the interface of the ZIF-8-derived nitrogen-doped carbon/g-C3N4 heterostructures strongly hinders the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, thereby effectively enhancing the photocatalytic activity of C-ZIF@g-C3N4. Meanwhile, the unique hierarchical inorganic/organic heterostructure provides an abundance of active sites for photocatalytic reactions. Upon visible-light irradiation, C-ZIF@g-C3N4 with an optimal ratio of g-C3N4 to C-ZIF components exhibits both enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent separability during the degradation of dye and hydrogen evolution compared to unmodified g-C3N4.

13.
Dent Mater J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789624

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, stain and protein removal efficacy of denture or orthodontic appliance cleansers using in vitro test methods. Experimental cleansers were applied for experimental time in each evaluation method. To evaluate the microorganism removal efficacy, C. albicans and S. mutans removal rate was calculated from the specimen surface. Stain and protein removal rate was calculated using the spectrophotometer. Experimental cleansers significantly affected the microorganism removal rate for both C. albicans and S. mutans, as well as the stain and protein removal rates, at each experimental time (p<0.05). As the application time increased, the stain and protein removal rates of all experimental cleansers significantly increased (p<0.05). The present study provided in vitro evaluation methods to assess the efficacy of denture or orthodontic appliance cleansers. Also, manufacturers and researchers can predict clinical outcomes and ensure proper hygiene management of dentures or orthodontic appliances.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 756326, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745991

RESUMO

Background: Aberrant methylation of CpG sites served as an epigenetic marker for building diagnostic, prognostic, and recurrence models for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Using Illumina 450K and EPIC Beadchip, we identified 34 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA that were differentially methylated in early HCC versus HBV-related liver diseases (HBVLD). We employed multiplex bisulfite sequencing (MBS) based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) to measure methylation of 34 CpG sites in PBMC DNA from 654 patients that were divided into a training set (n = 442) and a test set (n = 212). Using the training set, we selected and built a six-CpG-scorer (namely, cg14171514, cg07721852, cg05166871, cg18087306, cg05213896, and cg18772205), applying least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. We performed multivariable analyses of four candidate risk predictors (namely, six-CpG-scorer, age, sex, and AFP level), using 20 times imputation of missing data, non-linearly transformed, and backwards feature selection with logistic regression. The final model's regression coefficients were calculated according to "Rubin's Rules". The diagnostic accuracy of the model was internally validated with a 10,000 bootstrap validation dataset and then applied to the test set for validation. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the model was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.85) and it showed good calibration and decision curve analysis. Using enhanced bootstrap validation, adjusted C-statistics and adjusted Brier score were 0.809 and 0.199, respectively. The model also showed an AUROC value of 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.88) of diagnosis for early HCC in the test set. Conclusions: Our model based on the six-CpG-scorer was a reliable diagnosis tool for early HCC from HBVLD. The usage of the MBS method can realize large-scale detection of CpG sites in clinical diagnosis of early HCC and benefit the majority of patients.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5072-5079, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738403

RESUMO

Polysaccharide is among the main active components of Ganoderma lucidum for tumor prevention and treatment. Howe-ver, it remains unclear whether it has synergy with tumor immunotherapy. This study evaluated the effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides(GLP) on the infiltration of T lymphocytes into tumor and the underlying mechanism, in order to provide a reference for its application in tumor immunotherapy. GLP were prepared by water extraction and alcohol precipitation combined with Sevag method and then given(intraperitoneal injection) to the mice bearing B16-F10 cells at 25, 50 and 100 mg kg~(-1), respectively, to evaluate the effect on tumor growth. The infiltration of CD3~+ and CD8~+ T cells and the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in tumor were detected by immunohistochemistry. EA.hy926 cells were treated with 50, 100 and 200 µg·mL~(-1) GLP, and the expression of ICAM-1 was determined by Western blot. The adhesion of EA.hy926 cells treated with GLP was measured with fluorescence-labeled Jurkat cells. To analyze the mechanism based on NF-κB pathway, this study determined the protein levels of nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) p65, alpha inhibitor of NF-κB(IκBα), p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα by Western blot. The results showed that GLP can significantly inhibit the tumor growth in mice bearing B16-F10 cells, promote the infiltration of CD3~+ and CD8~+ T cells in tumor, and increase the expression of ICAM-1 in tumor. Meanwhile, GLP could also enhance the expression of ICAM-1 in EA.hy926 cells, thus strengthen the adhesion to Jurkat cells, induce phosphorylation and protein degradation of IκBα, and raise the expression and phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65. These results suggested that GLP could promote the expression of ICAM-1 through NF-κB pathway and further enhance the infiltration of T lymphocytes into tumor, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. This study lays a foundation for the further application of GLP in tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Reishi , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 698562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603100

RESUMO

Background: Binge drinking and smoking among adolescents are serious public concerns. However, very few studies have explored the reinforcement of bullying victimization by such behavior. Our study aimed at examining the individual and combined associations of smoking and bullying victimization with binge drinking among adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods: A total of 33,694 students aged 13-17 years old in Beijing, China were anonymously investigated via the cross-sectional Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey from April to May 2014. A three-stage stratified sampling was used to select participants. Factors such as sociodemographic variables and indicators of smoking, bullying victimization, and binge drinking were analyzed with multiple logistic regressions, and joint and additive interaction effects were tested. Results: Overall, ever-drinking prevalence was 59.1% (boys: 64.4%; girls: 53.7%). Past 30-day binge drinking was 11.5% (boys: 15.6%; girls: 7.4%) and frequent binge drinking was 2.3% (boys: 3.3%; girls: 1.0%). Past 30-day smoking was 10.7% (boys: 16.4%; girls: 5.0%) and past 30-day bullying victimization was 48.7% (boys: 57.3%; girls: 40.1%). The combined effects of smoking and bullying victimization on occasional binge drinking (OR = 6.49, 95% CI = 5.60-7.52) and frequent binge drinking (OR = 10.32, 95% CI = 7.52-14.14) were significant, and the additive interaction effect was significant for current smoking and bullying victimization on frequent binge drinking (OR = 10.22, 95% CI = 9.43-11.07). The additive interaction effect for current smoking and bullying victimization on frequent binge drinking was significant among boys. Conclusion: Bullying victimization reinforced the association of smoking with frequent binge drinking, especially with findings specific to boys. Programs to prevent smoking or bullying or both may reduce binge drinking among adolescents in China.

17.
Plant Physiol ; 187(1): 247-262, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618133

RESUMO

The reproductive transition is an important event that is crucial for plant survival and reproduction. Relative to the thorough understanding of the vegetative phase transition in angiosperms, a little is known about this process in perennial conifers. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the regulatory mechanism in conifers, we used temporal dynamic transcriptome analysis with samples from seven different ages of Pinus tabuliformis to identify a gene module substantially associated with aging. The results first demonstrated that the phase change in P. tabuliformis occurred as an unexpectedly rapid transition rather than a slow, gradual progression. The age-related gene module contains 33 transcription factors and was enriched in genes that belong to the MADS (MCMl, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS, SRF)-box family, including six SOC1-like genes and DAL1 and DAL10. Expression analysis in P. tabuliformis and a late-cone-setting P. bungeana mutant showed a tight association between PtMADS11 and reproductive competence. We then confirmed that MADS11 and DAL1 coordinate the aging pathway through physical interaction. Overexpression of PtMADS11 and PtDAL1 partially rescued the flowering of 35S::miR156A and spl1,2,3,4,5,6 mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but only PtMADS11 could rescue the flowering of the ft-10 mutant, suggesting PtMADS11 and PtDAL1 play different roles in flowering regulatory networks in Arabidopsis. The PtMADS11 could not alter the flowering phenotype of soc1-1-2, indicating it may function differently from AtSOC1 in Arabidopsis. In this study, we identified the MADS11 gene in pine as a regulatory mediator of the juvenile-to-adult transition with functions differentiated from the angiosperm SOC1.

18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 721130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595173

RESUMO

The zebrafish as an alternative animal model for developmental toxicity testing has been extensively investigated, but its assay protocol was not harmonized yet. This study has validated and optimized the zebrafish developmental toxicity assay previously reported by multiple inter-laboratory studies in the United States and Europe. In this study, using this classical protocol, of 31 ICH-positive compounds, 23 compounds (74.2%) were teratogenic in zebrafish, five had false-negative results, and three were neither teratogenic nor non-teratogenic according to the protocol standard; of 14 ICH-negative compounds, 12 compounds (85.7%) were non-teratogenic in zebrafish and two had false-positive results. After we added an additional TI value in the zebrafish treated with testing compounds at 2 dpf along with the original 5 dpf, proposed a new category as the uncategorized compounds for those TI values smaller than the cutoff both at 2 dpf and 5 dpf but inducing toxic phenotypes, refined the testing concentration ranges, and optimized the TI cut-off value from ≥ 10 to ≥ 3 for compounds with refined testing concentrations, this optimized zebrafish developmental assay reached 90.3% sensitivity (28/31 positive compounds were teratogenic in zebrafish) and 88.9% (40/45) overall predictability. Our results from this study strongly support the use of zebrafish as an alternative in vivo method for screening and assessing the teratogenicity of candidate drugs for regulatory acceptance.

19.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 8595-8606, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648442

RESUMO

In this paper we study, for the first time, the problem of fine-grained sketch-based 3D shape retrieval. We advocate the use of sketches as a fine-grained input modality to retrieve 3D shapes at instance-level - e.g., given a sketch of a chair, we set out to retrieve a specific chair from a gallery of all chairs. Fine-grained sketch-based 3D shape retrieval (FG-SBSR) has not been possible till now due to a lack of datasets that exhibit one-to-one sketch-3D correspondences. The first key contribution of this paper is two new datasets, consisting a total of 4,680 sketch-3D pairings from two object categories. Even with the datasets, FG-SBSR is still highly challenging because (i) the inherent domain gap between 2D sketch and 3D shape is large, and (ii) retrieval needs to be conducted at the instance level instead of the coarse category level matching as in traditional SBSR. Thus, the second contribution of the paper is the first cross-modal deep embedding model for FG-SBSR, which specifically tackles the unique challenges presented by this new problem. Core to the deep embedding model is a novel cross-modal view attention module which automatically computes the optimal combination of 2D projections of a 3D shape given a query sketch.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined post-diagnostic diet quality in relation to all-cause and cancer-specific mortality among adults diagnosed with invasive cancer between cohort entry (45-75 years) and their 10-year follow-up, in comparison with those without invasive cancer during that period, in the Multiethnic Cohort. METHODS: Data were from 70,045 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Whites (6370 with cancer, 63,675 without cancer). Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015, the Alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores, using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox models estimated the association of the dietary indexes at 10-year follow-up and changes since baseline with subsequent mortality. RESULTS: Post-diagnostic scores from all four indexes were associated with lower mortality: for the highest vs. lowest quartiles, hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.82) for HEI-2015, 0.82 (0.74-0.92) for AHEI-2010, 0.74 (0.66-0.84) for aMED, and 0.82 (0.74-0.91) for DASH. The corresponding HRs for cancer mortality were 0.84 (0.71-1.00), 0.85 (0.71-1.00), 0.71 (0.59-0.85), and 0.84 (0.71-1.00). Compared to stable scores over 10 years (< 0.5 SD change), HR for all-cause mortality was 0.87 (0.79-0.97) for ≥ 1 SD increase in HEI-2015 and was 1.22 to 1.29 for ≥ 1 SD decrease in scores across the four indexes. These HRs were similar to those for participants without cancer. CONCLUSION: Post-diagnostic high-quality diet was related to lower all-cause and cancer mortality among adult cancer survivors, with risk reduction comparable to that among participants without cancer.

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