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1.
Appl Opt ; 60(10): 2767-2774, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798150

RESUMO

To improve grating manufacturing process controllability in scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL), a novel method for exposure dose monitoring and control is proposed. Several zones in a narrow monitoring region are fabricated on a grating substrate by piecewise uniform scanning. Two monitoring modes are given based on the different widths of the monitoring region. The monitoring curve of the latent image diffraction efficiency to scanning velocity is calculated by rigorous coupled wave analysis. The calculation results show that the exposure dose in SBIL can be monitored by the shape change of the monitoring curve, and an optimized scanning velocity can be selected in the monitoring curve to control the exposure dose.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856189

RESUMO

Space cooling and heating consume a large proportion of global energy, so passive thermal management materials (i.e., without energy input), especially dual-mode materials including cooling and heating bifunctions, are becoming more and more attractive in many areas. Herein, a function-switchable Janus membrane between cooling and heating consisting of a multilayer structure of polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiber/zinc oxide nanosheet/carbon nanotube/Ag nanowire/polydimethylsiloxane was fabricated for comprehensive thermal management applications. In the cooling mode, the high thermal radiation emissivity (89.2%) and sunlight reflectivity (90.6%) of the Janus membrane resulted in huge temperature drops of 8.2-12.6, 9.0-14.0, and 10.9 °C for a substrate, a closed space, and a semiclosed space, respectively. When switching to the heating mode, temperature rises of 3.8-4.6, 4.0-4.8, and 12.5 °C for the substrate, closed space, and semiclosed space, respectively, were achieved owing to the high thermal radiation reflectivity (89.5%) and sunlight absorptivity (74.1%) of the membrane. Besides, the Janus membrane has outstanding comprehensive properties of the membrane, including infrared camouflaging/disguising, electromagnetic shielding (53.1 dB), solvent tolerance, waterproof properties, and high flexibility, which endow the membrane with promising application prospects.

3.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881120985183, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term morphine use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance. Previous investigations have documented the association between dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and pain. However, whether VTA DA neurons are implicated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance remains elusive. METHODS: Initially, we observed behavioural effects of lidocaine administration into VTA or ablation of VTA DA neurons on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Subsequently, c-Fos expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell-projecting and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-projecting VTA DA neurons after chronic morphine treatment was respectively investigated. Afterwards, the effects of chemogenetic manipulation of NAc shell-projecting or mPFC-projecting DA neurons on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance were observed. Additionally, effects of chemogenetic manipulation of VTA GABA neurons on c-Fos expression in VTA DA neurons were investigated. RESULTS: Lidocaine injection into VTA relieved established hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance whereas ablation of VTA DA neurons prevented the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Chronic morphine treatment increased c-Fos expression in NAc shell-projecting DA neurons, rather than in mPFC-projecting DA neurons. Chemogenetic manipulation of NAc shell-projecting DA neurons had influence on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. However, chemogenetic manipulation of mPFC-projecting DA neurons had no significant effects on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Chemogenetic manipulation of VTA GABA neurons affected the c-Fos expression in VTA DA neurons. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed the involvement of NAc shell-projecting VTA DA neurons in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and may shed new light on the clinical management of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance. PERSPECTIVE: This study demonstrated that NAc shell-projecting DA neurons rather than mPFC-projecting DA neurons in the VTA were implicated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Our findings may pave the way for the discovery of novel therapies for morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance.

4.
Endocr Pract ; 27(4): 326-333, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The saline suppression test (SST) and captopril challenge test (CCT) are commonly used confirmatory tests for primary aldosteronism (PA). Seated SST (SSST) has been reported to be superior to recumbent SST. Whether SSST is better than CCT remains unclear. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of SSST and CCT in a prospective study. METHODS: Hypertensive patients at a high risk of PA were consecutively included. Patients with an aldosterone-renin ratio of ≥1.0 ng/dL/µIU/mL were asked to complete SSST, CCT, and the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST). Using FST as a reference standard (plasma aldosterone concentration [PAC] post FST ≥ 6.0 ng/dL), area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of SSST and CCT were calculated, and multiple regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors leading to false diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 196 patients diagnosed with PA and 73 with essential hypertension completed the study. Using PAC post SSST and PAC post CCT to confirm PA, SSST and CCT had comparable AUCs (AUCSSST 0.87 [95% CI 0.82-0.91] vs AUCCCT 0.88 [0.83-0.95], P = .646). When PAC post SSST and post CCT were set at 8.5 and 11 ng/dL, respectively, the sensitivity and specificity of SSST (0.72 [0.65, 0.78] and 0.86 [0.76, 0.93]) and CCT (0.73 [0.67, 0.80] and 0.85 [0.75, 0.92]) were not significantly different. In the multiple regression analyses, 1-SD increment of sodium intake resulted in a 40% lower risk of false diagnosis with SSST. CONCLUSION: SSST and CCT have comparable diagnostic accuracy. Insufficient sodium intake decreases the diagnostic efficiency of SSST but not of CCT. Since CCT is simpler and cheaper, it is preferred over SSST.


Assuntos
Hiperaldosteronismo , Hipertensão , Aldosterona , Captopril , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Renina
5.
Immunol Lett ; 233: 2-10, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A recently identified population of T cells, phenotypically CD4+PD-1hiCXCR5-, has been firstly termed as peripheral helper T cells (Tph) and found to be pathogenic in autoimmune diseases. However, the potential role of Tph in ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. We aim to investigate the changes of circulating Tph in UC patients and their potential significance in the pathogenesis of UC. METHODS: Totally 68 UC patients and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Circulating Tph and B cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expressions of inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS) on Tph cells were analyzed. Serum IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-21 were detected using ELISA. Correlation analyses were conducted between Tph cells and disease severity, functional B cell subsets and serum cytokines. RESULTS: Both the frequency and absolute number of Tph were significantly increased in active UC patients and ICOS levels in Tph cells were also elevated, compared with remission UC patients and healthy controls. Tph and ICOS expression were significantly positively correlated with Mayo score and serum CRP in active UC patients, and were significantly decreased when achieving remission after treatment. Tph levels were correlated with new memory B cells, plasmablasts, serum IL-4 and IL-21. Meanwhile, serum IL-10 showed negative correlation while IL-12 exhibited positive correlation with circulating Tph cells in UC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Tph cells are elevated in active UC patients and are associated with the disease activity, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of UC.

6.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 22(1): 14703203211003781, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of surgical or medical treatment on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with established primary aldosteronism (PA). METHODS: We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library for the meta-analysis. We included patients who were diagnosed with PA following guideline-supported protocols and received surgery or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)-based medical treatment, and age-sex matched patients with treated essential hypertension (EH). Primary endpoints were CVD incidence and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Compared with EH, patients with treated PA had a higher risk of CVD [odds ratio (OR) 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.31]. This elevated risk was only observed in patients with medically treated PA [OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.88-2.38] but not in those with surgically treated PA. The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly lower in patients with treated PA [OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.95] compared to EH. The reduced risk was only observed in patients with surgically treated PA [OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.34-0.66], but not in those with medically treated PA. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with medically treated PA have a higher risk of CVD compared to patients with EH. Surgical treatment of PA reduces the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in patients with PA.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705321

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has emerged recently as an acute respiratory syndrome. The outbreak was originally reported in Wuhan, China, but has subsequently been spread world-widely. As the COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly across the world, computed tomography (CT) has become essentially important for fast diagnoses. Thus, it is urgent to develop an accurate computer-aided method to assist clinicians to identify COVID-19-infected patients by CT images. We collected chest CT scans of 88 patients diagnosed with the COVID-19 from hospitals of two provinces in China, 101 patients infected with bacteria pneumonia, and 86 healthy persons for comparison and modeling. A deep learning-based CT diagnosis system was developed to identify patients with COVID-19. The experimental results showed that our model can accurately identify the COVID-19 patients from the healthy with an AUC of 0.99, recall (sensitivity) of 0.93, and precision of 0.96. When integrating three types of CT images, our model achieved a recall of 0.93 with precision of 0.86 for discriminating COVID-19 patients from others. Moreover, our model could extract main lesion features, especially the ground-glass opacity (GGO) that is visually helpful for assisted diagnoses by doctors. An online server is available for online diagnoses with CT images by http://biomed.nscc-gz.cn/model.php.

8.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 6692579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776577

RESUMO

Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid extracted from the leaves and stems of the edible plant Ampelopsis grossedentata that has been used for Chinese Traditional Medicine. It has attracted considerable attention from consumers due to its beneficial properties including anticancer, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Continuous oxidative stress caused by intracellular redox imbalance can lead to chronic inflammation, which is intimately associated with the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. DHM is considered a potential redox regulator for chronic disease prevention, and its biological activities are abundantly evaluated by using diverse cell and animal models. However, clinical investigations are still scanty. This review summarizes the current potential chemopreventive effects of DHM, including its properties such as anticancer, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities, and further discusses the underlying molecular mechanisms of DHM in cancer chemoprevention by targeting redox balance and influencing the gut microbiota.

9.
Eur J Immunol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764509

RESUMO

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is an autoimmune disease characterized by B cells-derived ANCAs, and ANCA was proved to be a key factor in its pathogenesis. Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells were T-cell subsets that play important roles in B-cell maturation and antibody production. However, their significances in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) patients, one type of AAV, has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, comprehensive pattern analyses of circulating Tfr and Tfh were performed in MPA patients and healthy controls (HCs), and we found Tfr levels and Tfr/Tfh ratios were significantly decreased in MPA patients. Compared with HCs, Helios+, CD45RA-FoxP3hi, and Ki-67+ Tfr were lower in MPA patients, while CD226+ Tfr cells were higher. These phenotypes suggest that function and proliferation ability of Tfr cells were relatively impaired. Tfh subsets, including ICOS+PD-1+ and Ki-67+ Tfh, were significantly increased, suggesting that the function of Tfh was enhanced in MPA although the total Tfh levels did not change significantly. Circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts were significantly elevated and negatively correlated with Tfr levels and Tfr/Tfh ratios in MPA patients. In addition, Tfr levels and Tfr/Tfh ratios were negatively while Tfh was positively correlated with serum myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA levels. Furthermore, Tfr and Tfr/Tfh ratio were also reversely associated with SCr, BUN, IL-4, and IL-21 levels. Our results suggest that the imbalance of Tfr and Tfh functional subsets is related to increased level of autoantibodies in MPA patients, and we propose a new mechanism for the pathogenesis of MPA.

10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97 Suppl 2: 1009-1015, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study compared 10-year clinical outcomes between transradial access (TRA) and transfemoral access (TFA) for left main (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of TRA for LM PCI. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated consecutive patients who underwent unprotected LM PCI between January 2004 and December 2008 at Fu Wai Hospital. The exclusion criteria were age of less than 18 years and presentation with acute myocardial infarction. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), which was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and any revascularization at the 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: Among 913 eligible patients, TRA was used for 417 patients (45.7%) and TFA was used for 496 patients (54.3%). The 30-day clinical outcomes were similar between the two groups. Results from the 10-year follow-up revealed that MACCE occurred in 180 patients (46.7%) from the TRA group and in 239 patients (51.2%) from the TFA group (log-rank p = .3). The TRA and TFA groups also had low and comparable cumulative rates of all-cause death (14.6% vs. 17.3%, log-rank p = .56) and cardiac death (7.9% vs. 9.1%, log-rank p = .7). CONCLUSION: The present study revealed no significant differences in long-term clinical outcomes when TRA or TFA were used for LM PCI.

11.
Life Sci ; 275: 119414, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774032

RESUMO

Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), the major active constituent purified from Astragalus membranaceus, was previously reported to have protective effects against cardiac dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of AS-IV on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction and explored the potential mechanism by focusing on miRNA-1 (miR-1) at the animal and cellular levels. A series of methods were used, including echocardiography, flow cytometry, ELISA, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR, and western blotting. The results showed that both AS-IV and the miR-1 inhibitor improved cardiac dysfunction, reduced heart injury, inhibited apoptosis and autophagy, and regulated the expression of calcium- and mitochondrial energy metabolism-related proteins in the heart tissue of rats treated with LPS. Importantly, AS-IV downregulated the expression of miR-1 mRNA in heart tissue. All effects of AS-IV were at least partly abolished by miR-1 mimics. In the in vitro study, both AS-IV and the miR-1 inhibitor inhibited apoptosis and autophagy and regulated the expression of calcium- and mitochondrial energy metabolism-related proteins in heart cells treated with LPS. Similarly, AS-IV downregulated the expression of miR-1 mRNA in heart cells. All effects of AS-IV on cells were at least partly abolished by miR-1 mimics. Furthermore, miR-1 mimics exhibited effects similar to LPS both in animal and cellular studies. Taken together, these results suggest that AS-IV protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction by inhibiting calcium-mediated apoptosis and autophagy by targeting miR-1, highlighting a new mechanism for the therapeutic effect of AS-IV on cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Ecocardiografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Interdiscip Sci ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641077

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most efficient diagnostic methods for rapid diagnosis of the widespread COVID-19. However, reading CT films brings a lot of concentration and time for doctors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an automatic CT image diagnosis system to assist doctors in diagnosis. Previous studies devoted to COVID-19 in the past months focused mostly on discriminating COVID-19 infected patients from healthy persons and/or bacterial pneumonia patients, and have ignored typical viral pneumonia since it is hard to collect samples for viral pneumonia that is less frequent in adults. In addition, it is much more challenging to discriminate COVID-19 from typical viral pneumonia as COVID-19 is also a kind of virus. In this study, we have collected CT images of 262, 100, 219, and 78 persons for COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia, typical viral pneumonia, and healthy controls, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of quaternary classification to include also typical viral pneumonia. To effectively capture the subtle differences in CT images, we have constructed a new model by combining the ResNet50 backbone with SE blocks that was recently developed for fine image analysis. Our model was shown to outperform commonly used baseline models, achieving an overall accuracy of 0.94 with AUC of 0.96, recall of 0.94, precision of 0.95, and F1-score of 0.94. The model is available in https://github.com/Zhengfudan/COVID-19-Diagnosis-and-Pneumonia-Classification .

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539048

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to update the logistic clinical SYNTAX score to predict 2 year all-cause mortality after contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 15,883 patients in the GLOBAL LEADERS study who underwent PCI. The logistic clinical SYNTAX model was updated after imputing missing values by refitting the original model (refitted original model) and fitting an extended new model (new model, with, selection based on the Akaike Information Criterion). External validation was performed in 10,100 patients having PCI at Fu Wai hospital. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, prior stroke, current smoker, hemoglobin level, and white blood cell count were identified as additional independent predictors of 2 year all-cause mortality and included into the new model. The c-indexes of the original, refitted original and the new model in the derivation cohort were 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.76), 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.77), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), respectively. The c-index of the new model was lower in the validation cohort than in the derivation cohort, but still showed improved discriminative ability of the newly developed model (0.72; 95% CI 0.67-0.77) compared to the refitted original model (0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.74). The models overestimated the observed 2 year all-cause mortality of 1.11% in the Chinese external validation cohort by 0.54 percentage points, indicating the need for calibration of the model to the Chinese patient population. CONCLUSIONS: The new model of the logistic clinical SYNTAX score better predicts 2 year all-cause mortality after PCI than the original model. The new model could guide clinical decision making by risk stratifying patients undergoing PCI.

14.
Diabetes ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597204

RESUMO

Obesity has caused wide concerns due to its high prevalence in severe COVID-19 cases. Co-existence of diabetes and obesity could cause an even higher risk of severe outcomes due to immunity dysfunction. We conducted a retrospective study in 1637 adult patients who were admitted into an acute hospital in Wuhan, China. Propensity score matched logistic regression was used to estimate the risks of severe pneumonia and requiring in-hospital oxygen therapy associated with obesity. After adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities, obesity was significantly associated with higher odds of severe pneumonia (odd ratio [OR] 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88], P=0.002) and oxygen therapy (OR 1.40 [95% CI 1.10-1.79], P=0.007). Higher ORs of severe pneumonia due to obesity were observed in men, older adults and those with diabetes. Among patients with diabetes, overweight increased the odds of requiring in-hospital oxygen therapy by 0.68 times (P=0.014) and obesity increased the odds by 1.06 times (P=0.028). A linear dose-response curve between BMI and severe outcomes was observed in all patients, whereas a U-shaped curve in those with diabetes. Our findings provide important evidence to support obesity as an independent risk factor for severe outcomes of COVID-19 infection in the early phase of the ongoing pandemic.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1300: 113-136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523431

RESUMO

Anovulatory disorder comprises around 30% of female infertility. The origin of ovulatory failure is rooted in pituitary FSH secretion. Any factor or process that disrupts the finely tuned interactions of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis can potentially lead to anovulation. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified anovulatory disorders into three categories: hypothalamic-pituitary failure, hypothalamic-pituitary dysregulation, and ovarian failure. Due to industrial development, environmental pollution, and global warming, the human living environment has undergone tremendous changes. Industrial waste, noise, pesticides, fertilizers, and vehicular emission are visible pollutants responsible for environmental contamination and ill effects on health of all living systems. A considerable body of research suggests that chemical exposures in the environment or workplace may be associated with endocrine disruption of the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, or elimination of natural hormones. For instance, some advanced biological mechanisms suggest that heavy metals may affect progesterone production, which possibly disturbs endocrine function in pregnant women. On the other hand, our lifestyle factors have also changed accordingly, which greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as nutrition, weight, exercise, and psychological stress can have substantial effects on female ovulation.


Assuntos
Anovulação , Infertilidade Feminina , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progesterona
16.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2021: 8829686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519307

RESUMO

Aims: This study sought to report the 10-year clinical outcomes of patients who underwent unprotected left main (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a large centre. Methods and Results: A total of 913 consecutive patients who underwent unprotected LM PCI from January 2004 to December 2008 at Fu Wai Hospital were retrospectively analysed; the mean age was 60.0 ± 10.9 years, females accounted for 22% of patients, diabetes was present in 27.7% of patients, and an LM bifurcation lesion occurred in 82.9% of patients. During the median follow-up of 9.7 years, major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) occurred in 25.6% (234) of patients, and the rates of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke were 14.9%, 11.0%, and 7.1%, respectively. Cardiac death occurred in only 7.9% of patients. The estimated event rate was 41.9% for death/myocardial infarction/any revascularization and 45.9% for death/MI/stroke/any revascularization. Definite/probable stent thrombosis occurred in 4.3% (39) of patients. According to the subgroup analysis, IVUS-guided PCI was associated with less long-term MACCEs. Further multivariate analysis identified that age and LVEF<40% were the only independent predictors for 10-year death. Age, LVEF<40%, creatinine clearance, and incomplete revascularization were independent predictors for death/MI, while a two-stent strategy, diabetes, a transradial approach, and the use of bare metal stents (BMSs) or first-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) were not. Conclusions: Unprotected LM PCI in a large cohort of consecutive patients in a single large centre demonstrated favourable long-term outcomes up to 10 years even with the use of BMSs and first-generation of DESs.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557303

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to disturbances in intestinal function which can be exacerbated by inflammation and modulated by different factors, e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The mechanisms underlying these alterations are not well understood. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was performed on ileum tissue from WT and fat-1 transgenic mice (which have elevated endogenous n-3 PUFAs). Mice were chronically fed ethanol (EtOH) and challenged with a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose to induce acute systemic inflammation. Both WT and fat-1 mice exhibited significant ileum transcriptome changes following EtOH + LPS treatment. Compared to WT, fat-1 mice had upregulated expression of genes associated with cell cycle and xenobiotic metabolism, while the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-fibrotic genes was decreased. In response to EtOH + LPS, fat-1 mice had an increased expression of genes related to antibacterial B cells (APRIL and IgA), as well as an elevation in markers of pro-restorative macrophages and γδ T cells that was not observed in WT mice. Our study significantly expands the knowledge of regulatory mechanisms underlying intestinal alterations due to EtOH consumption and inflammation and identifies the beneficial transcriptional effects of n-3 PUFAs, which may serve as a viable nutritional intervention for intestinal damage resulting from excessive alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Etanol/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
18.
Med Phys ; 48(4): 1720-1730, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Precise segmentation of clinical target volume (CTV) is the key to stomach cancer radiotherapy. We proposed a novel stochastic width-deep neural network (SW-DNN) for better automatically contouring stomach CTV. METHODS: Stochastic width-deep neural network was an end-to-end approach, of which the core component was a novel SW mechanism that employed shortcut connections between the encoder and decoder in a random manner, and thus the width of the SW-DNN was stochastically adjustable to obtain improved segmentation results. In total, 150 stomach cancer patient computed tomography (CT) cases with the corresponding CTV labels were collected and used to train and evaluate the SW-DNN. Three common quantitative measures: true positive volume fraction (TPVF), positive predictive value (PPV), and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were used to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. RESULTS: Clinical target volumes calculated by SW-DNN had significant quantitative advantages over three state-of-the-art methods. The average DSC value of SW-DNN was 2.1%, 2.8%, and 3.6% higher than that of three state-of-the-art methods. The average DSC, TPVF, and PPV values of SW-DNN were 2.1%, 4.0%, and 0.3% higher than that of the corresponding constant width DNN. CONCLUSIONS: Stochastic width-deep neural network provided better performance for contouring stomach cancer CTV accurately and efficiently. It is a promising solution in clinical radiotherapy planning for stomach cancer.

19.
Circ J ; 85(2): 185-193, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for multivessel lesions in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) remains controversial. This study sought to compare long-term prognosis between single-vessel PCI (SV-PCI) and multivessel PCI (MV-PCI) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MV-CAD) presenting with NSTE-ACS in a real-world population.Methods and Results:NSTE-ACS patients with MV-CAD undergoing PCI in Fuwai Hospital in 2013 were consecutively enrolled. SV-PCI was defined as targeting only the culprit vessel, whereas MV-PCI was defined as treating ≥1 coronary artery(s) in addition to the culprit vessel at the index procedure. The primary endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 2 years, consisting of all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization, or stroke. A total of 3,338 patients were included. Both SV-PCI and MV-PCI were performed in 2,259 patients and 1,079 patients, respectively. During a median follow up of 2.1 years, the MACCE rates and adjusted risk were not significantly different between the SV-PCI and MV-PCI groups (13.1% vs. 14.0%, P=0.735; adjusted HR=0.967, 95% CI: 0.792-1.180). Similar results were observed in propensity-score matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting analyses. Subgroup analysis revealed a consistent effect on 2-year MACCE across different subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In NSTE-ACS patients with MV-CAD, MV-PCI is not superior to SV-PCI in terms of long-term MACCE.

20.
FASEB J ; 35(2): e21377, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481293

RESUMO

Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) is a major human health issue for which there are limited treatment options. Experimental evidence suggests that nutrition plays an important role in ALD pathogenesis, and specific dietary fatty acids, for example, n6 or n3-PUFAs, may exacerbate or attenuate ALD, respectively. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the beneficial effects of n3-PUFA enrichment in ALD were mediated, in part, by improvement in Wnt signaling. Wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice (that endogenously convert n6-PUFAs to n3) were fed ethanol (EtOH) for 6 weeks followed by a single LPS challenge. fat-1 mice had less severe liver damage than WT littermates as evidenced by reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase, hepatic steatosis, liver tissue neutrophil infiltration, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. WT mice had a greater downregulation of Axin2, a key gene in the Wnt pathway, than fat-1 mice in response to EtOH and LPS. Further, there were significant differences between WT and fat-1 EtOH+LPS-challenged mice in the expression of five additional genes linked to the Wnt signaling pathway, including Apc, Fosl1/Fra-1, Mapk8/Jnk-1, Porcn, and Nkd1. Compared to WT, primary hepatocytes isolated from fat-1 mice exhibited more effective Wnt signaling and were more resistant to EtOH-, palmitic acid-, or TNFα-induced cell death. Further, we demonstrated that the n3-PUFA-derived lipid mediators, resolvins D1 and E1, can regulate hepatocyte expression of several Wnt-related genes that were differentially expressed between WT and fat-1 mice. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which n3-PUFAs can ameliorate ALD.

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