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1.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255353

RESUMO

Metabolomics is improving the understanding of the mechanisms of the health effects of diet. Previous research has identified several metabolites associated with the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), but knowledge about longitudinal changes in metabolic biomarkers after a MedDiet intervention is scarce. A subsample of 48 firefighters from a cluster-randomized trial at Indianapolis fire stations was randomly selected for the metabolomics study at 12 months of follow up (time point 1), where Group 1 (n = 24) continued for another 6 months in a self-sustained MedDiet intervention, and Group 2 (n = 24), the control group at that time, started with an active MedDiet intervention for 6 months (time point 2). A total of 225 metabolites were assessed at the two time points by using a targeted NMR platform. The MedDiet score improved slightly but changes were non-significant (intervention: 24.2 vs. 26.0 points and control group: 26.1 vs. 26.5 points). The MedDiet intervention led to favorable changes in biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, including lower LDL-C, ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, remnant cholesterol, M-VLDL-CE; and higher HDL-C, and better lipoprotein composition. This MedDiet intervention induces only modest changes in adherence to the MedDiet and consequently in metabolic biomarkers. Further research should confirm these results based on larger study samples in workplace interventions with powerful study designs.

2.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2071-2079, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943860

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate clinical periodontal status and microbiologic pathogens in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontitis. Patients and Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 60 periodontitis patients with COPD (case group) and 60 periodontitis patients with normal pulmonary function (control group). Their periodontal status and respiratory function were clinically examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure five dental pathogens and four respiratory pathogens in subgingival dental plaque. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r2) were calculated to assess correlations of pathogens. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to assess the similarity of bacterial diversity between the two groups. Logistic regression was performed to examine the associations of periodontal variables and pathogens with COPD risk. Results: COPD patients had fewer remaining teeth, higher plaque index (PLI), and more severe site percentages of clinical attachment level (CAL) than the controls. Although COPD patients tended to have relatively higher ranked means of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, and Haemophilus influenza than control participants, the differences were not significant. Some periodontal pathogens and respiratory pathogens were positively correlated with each other (r2 =0.29 to 0.47, all P < 0.05). The PCA graph showed that the distributions of pathogens were more dispersed but less discriminated in the COPD group than those in the control group. PLI (P = 0.045) and CAL ≥ 5mm site percentages (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD, while pathogens were not associated with COPD. Conclusion: Our results from this study do not indicate periodontal pathogens as potential predictors of COPD risk, despite significantly poor periodontal status associated with COPD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709003

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 lock down on lifestyle in China during the initial stage of the pandemic. A questionnaire was distributed to Chinese adults living in 31 provinces of China via the internet using a snowball sampling strategy. Information on 7-day physical activity recall, screen time, and emotional state were collected between January 24 and February 2, 2020. ANOVA, χ² test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. 12,107 participants aged 18-80 years were included. During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, nearly 60% of Chinese adults had inadequate physical activity (95% CI 56.6%-58.3%), which was more than twice the global prevalence (27.5%, 25.0%-32.2%). Their mean screen time was more than 4 hours per day while staying at home (261.3 ± 189.8 min per day), and the longest screen time was found in young adults (305.6 ± 217.5 min per day). We found a positive and significant correlation between provincial proportions of confirmed COVID-19 cases and negative affect scores (r = 0.501, p = 0.004). Individuals with vigorous physical activity appeared to have a better emotional state and less screen time than those with light physical activity. During this nationwide lockdown, more than half of Chinese adults temporarily adopted a sedentary lifestyle with insufficient physical activity, more screen time, and poor emotional state, which may carry considerable health risks. Promotion of home-based self-exercise can potentially help improve health and wellness.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Emoções , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537455

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the prevalence and associated factors of lupus among adults in the United States. This study included 20,045 participants aged 17 years and older from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III) from 1988 to 1994. Their lupus status was determined by survey questions in terms of a clinician's diagnosis. Demographics and laboratory test results of all participants were collected, including biochemistry, nutrition, and antibody biomarkers. Continuous variables were compared between cases with reported lupus and non-case controls by t-test, while the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Weighted multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models after adjustment of covariates were used to identify associated factors of lupus risk. Of 20,045 participants, 40 people who self-reported a lupus diagnosis were identified, giving a prevalence of 241 per 100,000 (n = 40; 95% confidence interval: 133-349 per 100,000). Many factors differed significantly between lupus cases and controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis further identified previous and current smoking along with elevated serum levels of chloride, globulin, lactate dehydrogenase, uric acid, cholesterol, and lutein or zeaxanthin as risk factors; while protective factors against lupus included non-white race, obesity, elevated serum levels of bicarbonate, creatinine, total calcium, and vitamin B12, as well as elevated urinary albumin and iodine. Our nationwide data indicate that race, obesity, cigarette smoking, and certain biomarkers such as serum lutein or zeaxanthin, calcium, and cholesterol may be associated with the development or progression of lupus, although these findings need to be confirmed in further prospective investigations.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 257-267, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] tend to be lower in African Americans than in non-Hispanic whites, but whether adding information on parathyroid hormone (PTH) can help explain the higher cardiometabolic risk among African Americans is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study examined race (black/white)-specific independent and joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with cardiometabolic biomarkers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ß-cell function (HOMA-B). METHODS: Among 1500 white and 1300 black postmenopausal women without cardiovascular disease from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a weighted linear regression analysis and a novel penalized spline-based semiparametric model with contour plots, accounting for possible nonlinear relations and interactions simultaneously, were used to investigate the race-specific independent and joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with each biomarker. RESULTS: Black women had lower concentrations of 25(OH)D and higher PTH, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, hs-CRP, and eGFR than white women (all P values < 0.0001). Lower 25(OH)D and higher PTH were each independently and jointly associated with higher HOMA-IR in both white and black women, whereas a similar joint relation with HOMA-B was observed in white women only. In contrast, PTH was nonlinearly associated with HOMA-B in black women and positively associated with hs-CRP in white women, independently of 25(OH)D. Whereas there was an inverse linear relation between PTH and eGFR in white women after accounting for 25(OH)D, PTH and 25(OH)D were jointly and nonlinearly associated with eGFR in black women. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the joint association of 25(OH)D and PTH with ß-cell function, systemic inflammation, and kidney function apparently differed between white and black women. Further studies are needed to determine whether differences in the vitamin D-PTH endocrine system contribute to racial disparities in cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Vitamina D/sangue
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351901

RESUMO

Objective: The oral microbiota plays a key part in the initial colonization by pathogens and the chronic inflammatory reaction of the host. We measured variations in the salivary microbiota and evaluated their potential associations with periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: We investigated the salivary microbiota of patients with COPD and periodontitis (n = 21) compared with that in patients with periodontitis alone (n = 36) and with healthy controls (HCs; n = 14), using pyrosequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16s rRNA genes. Results: Bacterial richness and diversity were significantly higher in patients suffering from COPD, and the bacterial family Lachnospiraceae was observed frequently only among patients with COPD and periodontitis. Veillonella, Rothia, Actinomyces, and Fusobacterium were the core bacterial genera that showed significant differences among patients with coincident COPD and periodontitis, patients with periodontitis alone, and HCs (p < 0.05). Veillonella, Rothia, and Actinomyces were observed much more frequently in patients with COPD and periodontitis, compared with that in HCs. All tested populations were divided into subgroups based on sex, smoking, or periodontitis index. In the subgroup with a bleeding index >2, Rothia was significantly different in periodontitis with and without COPD groups compared with HCs. In the subgroup with a plaque index >2.5, Rothia and Veillonella showed significant differences in periodontitis with and without COPD groups compared with HCs. Conclusion: Variations in salivary microbiota may be associated with COPD and periodontitis.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

8.
Hemodial Int ; 24(3): 406-413, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141198

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Large interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Over 50% of patients at our inner city tertiary academic center dialysis unit had IDWG and target weights (TW) above goal. We conducted an open-label nonrandomized study to explore the effects of an individualized dialysate sodium (DNa) prescription using Na gradients in patients at high risk for large IDWG. Thirty-three patients receiving chronic hemodialysis received individualized DNa prescriptions with a DNa bath of 0 to -2 meq/L below their serum Na level in the intervention group, while patients in the control group were prescribed the standard dialysate Na at 138 mmol/L. Serum Na level, predialysis SBP, symptomatic hypotensive episodes, and %hemodialysis treatments with large IDWG (%TxAIDWG) and above TW(%TxATW) were recorded before and three months after the intervention. We used student t tests to compare continuous variables and Chi-square tests to compare binary variables between the groups at baseline and after the intervention. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were also constructed to assess the differences in each continuous outcome between the groups. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted by modeling IDWG decrease and above estimated-dry-weight (EDW) decrease as binary dependent variables with adjustment for age, sex, and EDW change. FINDINGS: Patients with individualized DNa concentrations had 3.6 times greater odds of having lower IDWG than those with standard dialysate Na concentration. This significant association remained after adjustment for age, sex, and changes in EDW (OR: 3.63; 95% CI, 1.03-12.9). There was no difference in predialysis BP or symptomatic hypotensive episodes between the two groups. DISCUSSION: Individualized DNa prescriptions appeared to be well tolerated and may be effective for optimal fluid management in high-risk hemodialysis patients.

9.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(5): 582-590, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are shown to cause small, but significant changes of lipid profiles, we aim to investigate whether such altered lipid profiles can be translated into clinically meaningful changes in dyslipidemia. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared SGLT2 inhibitors with placebo or other oral glucose-lowering drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and reported the events of dyslipidemia. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled estimates with risk ratio (RR) for dyslipidemia risk and weighted mean difference for lipid profiles with their 95% confidential intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 2427 studies identified, 15 RCTs involving 7578 patients were included. This meta-analysis found no association between SGLT2 inhibitors and risk of dyslipidemia (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.91-1.40). However, SGLT2 inhibitors were significantly associated with increases in total cholesterol by 0.15 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.12 mmol/L, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.07 mmol/L while they can significantly decrease triglycerides by -0.12 mmol/L compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitors were not associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia. Further trials with longitudinal assessment are needed to assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on trajectories of changes of lipid metabolism.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180760

RESUMO

Objective: Prolactin and progesterone are implicated in glucose homeostasis in and outside of pregnancy. However, their associations with gestational diabetes (GDM) risk were not well-understood. This study investigates this question in a prospective and longitudinal cohort. Methods: This is a nested case-control study of 107 incident GDM cases and 214 matched non-GDM controls within the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort. Blood samples were collected at gestational weeks 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39. The odds ratios (OR) of GDM were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The longitudinal changes in prolactin and progesterone were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Results: Compared to controls, cases have significantly higher prolactin levels at weeks 10-14 (median: 50.4 vs. 42.1 ng/mL), and significantly lower progesterone levels at weeks 10-14 (median: 109.4 vs. 126.5 nmol/L). Prolactin levels at weeks 10-14 were significantly and positively associated with GDM risk; the adjusted ORs across increasing quartiles were 1.00, 1.13, 1.80, 2.33 (p-trend = 0.02). A similar but slightly attenuated association was observed at weeks 15-26 (p-trend = 0.05). Progesterone was not associated with GDM risk at either time points. Longitudinal changes in prolactin and progesterone between the first two visits were not associated with GDM risk. In addition, prolactin was significantly and positively associated with insulin and C-peptide levels at weeks 10-14, and significantly and inversely associated with C-peptide levels at weeks 15-26; progesterone was significantly and inversely associated with glucose and insulin levels. Conclusions: This study provided the first prospective evidence of a positive association between prolactin levels in early pregnancy and GDM risk.

11.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(2): 161-172, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017292

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the association between sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and pancreatic safety in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched before September 2019 to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SGLT2 inhibitors that reported any event on pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer among patients with T2DM. Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to pool the data. The GRADE framework was introduced to assess the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Of the 35 trials involving 44 912 patients with T2DM included, 41 events of acute pancreatitis (19 trials; 32 932 patients), 72 events of overall pancreatitis (including acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, or nonspecific pancreatitis; 26 trials; 36 688 patients), and 40 events of pancreatic cancer (18 trials; 27 806 patients) were reported during a median follow-up of 52 weeks. SGLT2 inhibitors were not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis compared to controls (placebo or other active drugs; Peto OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.60-2.13; moderate quality evidence). A similar result was found for risk of overall pancreatitis (Peto OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.67-1.75; moderate quality evidence) and pancreatic cancer (Peto OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.71-2.54; very low-quality evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate quality evidence from RCTs shows no significantly increased risk of acute pancreatitis associated with SGLT2 inhibitors, while there is very low-quality evidence suggesting no significant association between SGLT2 inhibitors and pancreatic cancer among patients with T2DM.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082606

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication. Oxytocin (OXT), as a neuropeptide, plays a role in emotional and social behaviors. Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) supplementation led to an OXT-dependent behavioral improvement in ASD mouse models. Despite some promising results from animal studies, little is known about the efficacy of supplementation with L. reuteri, alone or with exogenous OXT therapy, on social-behavioral functions in ASD patients. This paper presents a protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a full trial comparing oral supplementation of L. reuteri probiotics and intranasal OXT spray to placebo on the effect of social and behavioral functions in ASD patients. The study will also capture preliminary estimates of the efficacy of the proposed interventions in ASD patients. Methods: This pilot trial is a two-staged, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Throughout the study (0-24 weeks), 60 patients with ASD will be randomly assigned to receive either oral L. reuteri probiotics or placebo. In the second study stage (13-24 weeks), all participants will receive intranasal OXT spray. As primary outcomes, serum OXT levels will be assayed and social behaviors will be assessed via the Autism Behavior Checklist and the Social Responsiveness Scale which are validated questionnaires, an objective emotional facial matching test, and a new video-based eye-tracking test. Secondary outcomes include the GI-severity-index and Bristol Stool Chart to assess GI function and gut microbiome/short-chain fatty acids. All the outcomes will be assessed at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Discussion: This pilot study will provide important information on the feasibility of recruitment, blinding and concealment, treatment administration, tolerability and adherence, specimen collection, outcome assessment, potential adverse effects, and the preliminary efficacy on both primary and secondary outcomes. If successful, this pilot study will inform a larger randomized controlled trial fully powered to examine the efficacies of oral L. reuteri probiotics and/or intranasal OXT spray on social-behavioral improvement in ASD patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03337035. Registered 8 November 2017.

13.
J Periodontal Res ; 55(3): 354-362, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation on the residual moderate and deep pockets following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation has potential effects on periodontitis, but current evidence remains inconclusive. METHODS: After 3 months of nonsurgical periodontal treatment, 360 patients with moderate or severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to 2000 international unit (IU)/d vitamin D3, 1000 IU/d vitamin D3, or placebo. Clinical periodontal examinations, including probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), plaque index (PLI), attachment loss (AL), and alveolar crest height (ACH), were performed at baseline and after 3 months of intervention. RESULTS: There was a slight but significant decrease in AL and PD in both vitamin D groups compared with placebo group for moderate and deep pockets. About 2000 IU/d vitamin D3 group, 1000 IU/d vitamin D3 group, and placebo group all decreased the AL for both moderate pockets (-0.4 mm vs -0.4 mm vs -0.3 mm) and deep pockets (-1.1 mm vs -1.1 mm vs -1.0 mm) (all P < .05). Similarly, PD was also decreased in these three groups for both moderate pockets and deep pockets (all P < .05). In addition, vitamin D supplementation was well tolerated, and no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Although statistically significant differences were observed in favor to vitamin D supplementation, the magnitude of effect size tended to be modest with limited clinical relevance and the long-term efficacy and safety warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Periodontite/terapia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate overall prevalence and trends of use of any supplements, multivitamins/multiminerals (MVMM), individual vitamins, minerals, and non-vitamin, non-mineral (NVNM) supplements among adults with diabetes in the USA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a nationally representative sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected between 1999 and 2014. Information on supplement use in the preceding 30 days was collected during interview over 8 continuous 2-year waves. To account for the complex sampling design, weighted analyses were conducted among 6688 US adults with diabetes aged 20-85 years and also stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity status, and diabetes duration. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of any supplement use (52%-58%; P for trend=0.08) and that of any mineral use (47%-51%; P for trend=0.23) seemed stable over the years studied. Reported use of MVMM slightly decreased from 36% to 32% (P for trend=0.006). Use of any vitamin products significantly increased from 47% to 52% (P for trend=0.03). Use of some individual supplements, especially vitamin D, choline, lycopene, and fish oil supplements, significantly increased, while some vitamins, minerals and NVNM supplements decreased over the years. In addition, the trend of any supplement use varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, or education, but not by diabetes duration or diabetic comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among US patients with diabetes, use of any dietary supplements or any minerals remained stable, while MVMM use slightly decreased and use of any vitamins increased. Additionally, use of several individual supplements varied significantly over the 16-year period studied.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108840, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish an accurate and reliable equation for kidney depth estimation in adult patients from different Chinese geographical regions. METHOD: This multicenter study enrolled Eastern Asian Chinese patients with abdominal PET/CT scans at 26 imaging centers from six macro-regions across China in 3 years. Age, gender, height, weight, primary disease and its extent on PET scans of the participants were collected as potential predictive factors. Kidney depth on CT, defined as the average of the vertical distances from the posterior skin to the farthest anterior and closest posterior surfaces of each kidney, was measured as the standard reference. The new kidney depth model was constructed using a multiple regression model, and its performance was compared to those of three established models by computing the absolute value of estimation errors in comparison with CT-measured kidney depth. RESULTS: A total of 2502 patients were enrolled and classified into training (n=1653) and testing (n = 849) subsets. In the training subset, two kidney depth models were constructed: Left (cm): 0.013×age+0.117×gender-0.044×height+0.087×weight+7.951, Right (cm): 0.005×age+0.013×gender-0.035×height+0.082×weight+7.266 (weight: kg, height: cm, gender = 0 if female, 1 if male). In the testing subset, one-way analysis of variance showed that the estimation errors of the new models did not significantly differ among the 6 regions. Bland-Altman analysis determined that new equations had lower estimated biases (left: 0.039 cm, right: 0.018 cm) compared with other existing models. CONCLUSION: The new equations were highly accurate for kidney depth estimation in adults from all over China, with lower estimation errors compared to other established models.


Assuntos
Rim/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(1): 37-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine barriers to weight management among firefighters. METHODS: Health risk data collected on 2373 overweight firefighters were used for this cross-sectional study. Barriers to weight management were the dependent variables and demographic characteristics, readiness for change, and health risk factors were the correlates in the multivariate-adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: Overweight firefighters who were ready to begin a weight management program were more likely to identify "lack of knowledge about weight management," "lack of access to exercise opportunities," and "eating helps me cope with stress" and report a greater number of barriers toward weight management. Older firefighters were less likely to identify or report one or more barriers to weight management. CONCLUSION: Understanding barriers, readiness for change, and age may be useful in planning interventions to help firefighters better manage their weight.

17.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(1): 7-12, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829773

RESUMO

Background: Postmenopausal women represent the highest population-based burden of cardiovascular disease, including sudden cardiac death (SCD). Our understanding of the etiology and risk factors contributing to fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and SCD, particularly among women, is limited. This study examines the association between dietary magnesium intake and fatal CHD and SCD. Materials and Methods: We examined 153,569 postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative recruited between 1993 and 1998. Magnesium intake at baseline was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, adjusting for energy via the residual method. Fatal CHD and SCD were identified over an average follow-up of 10.5 years. Results: For every standard deviation increase in magnesium intake, there was statistically significant risk reduction, after adjustment for confounders, of 7% for fatal CHD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97), and 18% risk reduction for SCD (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.58-1.15) the latter of which did not reach statistical significance. In age-adjusted quartile analysis, women with the lowest magnesium intake (189 mg/day) had the greatest risk for fatal CHD (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.40-1.69) and SCD (HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.94-3.07). This association was attenuated in the fully adjusted model, with HRs of 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34) for CHD and 1.24 (95% CI 0.58-2.65) for SCD for the lowest quartile of magnesium intake. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a potential inverse association between dietary magnesium and fatal CHD and a trend of magnesium with SCD in postmenopausal women. Future studies should confirm this association and consider clinical trials to test whether magnesium supplementation could reduce fatal CHD in high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Maturitas ; 130: 50-56, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although both age at menarche and age at menopause may independently affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, their joint association with mortality is less clear. The objectives of this study were to address the relationship between ages at menarche and at menopause with mortality among postmenopausal women. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 75,359 U.S. postmenopausal women aged 50-78 years from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cohort. Information on ages at menarche and menopause was self-reported and collected at baseline, by questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 13 years, we identified 7826 deaths among 75,359 women in the PLCO cohort. Compared with women with an age at menarche of 12-13 years and an age at menopause of 45-54 years, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality for women with early menarche (≤11 years) and menopause (≤44 years) and those with late menarche (≥14 years) and menopause (≥55 years) were 1.20 (1.09, 1.32) and 0.82 (0.71, 0.96), respectively. This association remained significant in a sensitivity analysis that excluded women who did not undergo natural menopause. The indexes for the additive effect of the combined association showed no excess risk due to an interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Early menarche and early menopause seemed to have an exactly additive effect on all-cause mortality. The findings suggest that it is important to evaluate ages at both menarche and menopause rather than to consider either variable on its own in assessing the risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Menarca , Menopausa , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546768

RESUMO

Collecting dietary intake data is associated with challenges due to the subjective nature of self-administered instruments. Biomarkers may objectively estimate the consumption of specific dietary items or help assess compliance in dietary intervention studies. Our aim was to use a panel of plasma and urine biomarkers to assess the validity of self-reported dietary intake using a modified Mediterranean Diet Scale (mMDS) among firefighters participating in Feeding America's Bravest (FAB), an MD cluster-randomized controlled trial. In our nested biomarker pilot study, participants were randomly selected from both the MD intervention group (n = 24) and the control group (n = 24) after 12-months of dietary intervention. At baseline data collection for the pilot study (t = 12-months of FAB), participants in the control group crossed-over to receive the MD intervention (active intervention) for 6-months. Participants in the intervention group continued in a self-sustained continuation phase (SSP) of the intervention. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), 13-item-mMDS questionnaires, 40 plasma fatty acids, inflammatory biomarkers and urinary hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were analyzed at both time points. Spearman's correlation, t-tests and linear regression coefficients were calculated using SAS software. Overall, the mMDS derived from the FFQ was highly correlated with the specific 13-domain-mMDS (r = 0.74). The concordance between the two questionnaires for low and high adherence to MD was high for all the participants in the parent trial (κ = 0.76). After 6 months of intervention in the pilot study, plasma saturated fatty acid decreased in both groups (active intervention: -1.3 ± 1.7; p = 0.002; SSP: -1.12 ± 1.90; p = 0.014) and oleic acid improved in the SSP (p = 0.013). Intake of olive oil was positively associated with plasma omega-3 (p = 0.004) and negatively with TNF-α (p < 0.001) at baseline. Choosing olive oil as a type of fat was also associated with higher levels of plasma omega-3 (p = 0.019) at baseline and lower TNF-α (p = 0.023) at follow up. Intake of red and processed meats were associated with lower serum omega-3 (p = 0.04) and fish consumption was associated with lower IL-6 at baseline (p = 0.022). The overall mMDS was associated with an increase in plasma omega-3 (p = 0.021). Good correlation was found between nutrient intake from the FFQ and the corresponding plasma biomarkers (omega-3, EPA and DHA). In this MD randomized controlled trial, some key plasma biomarkers were significantly associated with key MD diet components and the overall mMDS supporting the validity of the mMDS questionnaire as well as compliance with the intervention.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Bombeiros , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Humanos , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/urina , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e846, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple genetic and environmental factors contribute to the individual-level heterogeneity in stroke. This study aimed to assess how the genetic interactions confer risk of stroke. METHODS: In a Chinese case-control study including 1,405 strokes and 1,263 controls who were followed up (range, 0.1-6.0 years), eight genes, including apolipoprotein(a) (APOA1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP), NOTCH3, chromosome 9p21.3(Chr.9p21.3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), and kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR), were analyzed for interactions by the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method and validated by the multivariate logistic regression models. The genetic associations with carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were examined. RESULTS: The interaction of VKORC1 and Chr.9p21.3 was identified for stroke and its worse prognosis, and subjects having the VKORC1 rs2359612C and Chr.9p21.3 rs10757274G alleles had higher risks for stroke (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.32-2.52) as well as for stroke recurrence (HR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.24-2.73), cardiovascular events (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.15-2.38), and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.79). Supporting, they were associated with higher IMT. Hypertension or physical inactivity increased the risk effect. The interaction of VEGFA rs833061C and KDR rs2305948T was identified for hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified two novel genetic interactions of VKORC1 and Chr.9p21.3 and of VEGFA and KDR for risk of stroke and subtypes as well as future stroke prognosis.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética
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