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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125425, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476549

RESUMO

Ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) is a type of phosphonosphingolipids with potential trophic activity. In this work, complicated CAEP species from different aquatic products were comprehensively identified and semi-quantified by utilizing normal phase liquid chromatography/Q-Exactive mass spectrometry (NPLC/Q-Exactive-MS). We elucidated the fragment schemes of CAEP molecules and found the presence of methylated CAEP (Me-CAEP) species. Remarkably, quantitative results revealed that Loligo chinensis had the highest CAEP content of 4.9 ±â€¯0.4 mg/g dry weight and the most complex molecular species composition, whereas Asterias amurenis had the lowest CAEP content of 1.9 ±â€¯0.6 mg/g dry weight. The most common molecule was CAEP (d19:3-16:0). Additionally, statistical analysis revealed that five aquatic products can be effectively distinguished from their CAEP species; thus, CAEP molecules can play an important role in identifying processed products from aquatic products.

2.
Dermatol Surg ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleomycin (BLM) foam sclerotherapy is effective in the treatment of venous malformations (VMs). Foam stability is influenced by factors such as sclerosant concentration, viscosity, and liquid-gas ratio. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hyaluronic acid (HA) could increase the stability of BLM foam and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HA-BLM foam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiment: BLM 6.0 IU + human serum albumin (HSA, 2, 1.95, 1.90, and 1.85 mL, respectively) + 1% HA (0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mL, respectively) + air 6 mL to create foam using the Tessari method. The foam half-life (FHL) was used to evaluate foam stability. Clinical study: Twenty-eight patients with head and neck VMs were enrolled between June 2018 and August 2019 treated by HA-BLM foam to evaluate the safety and efficacy. RESULTS: The FHL of the BLM foam was 8.46, 8.95, 10.45, and 14.51 minutes, respectively. All patients achieved significant efficacy, and no obvious side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: Addition of HA could improve the stability of BLM foam.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671907

RESUMO

There are a lot of redundant data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). If these redundant data are processed and transmitted, the node energy consumption will be too fast and will affect the overall lifetime of the network. Data fusion technology compresses the sampled data to eliminate redundancy, which can effectively reduce the amount of data sent by the node and prolong the lifetime of the network. Due to the dynamic nature of WSNs, traditional data fusion techniques still have many problems. Compressed sensing (CS) theory has introduced new ideas to solve these problems for WSNs. Therefore, in this study we analyze the data fusion scheme and propose an algorithm that combines improved clustered (ICL) algorithm low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and CS (ICL-LEACH-CS). First, we consider the factors of residual energy, distance, and compression ratio and use the improved clustered LEACH algorithm (ICL-LEACH) to elect the cluster head (CH) nodes. Second, the CH uses a Gaussian random observation matrix to perform linear compressed projection (LCP) on the cluster common (CM) node signal and compresses the N-dimensional signal into M-dimensional information. Then, the CH node compresses the data by using a CS algorithm to obtain a measured value and sends the measured value to the sink node. Finally, the sink node reconstructs the signal using a convex optimization method and uses a least squares algorithm to fuse the signal. The signal reconstruction optimization problem is modeled as an equivalent l1-norm problem. The simulation results show that, compared with other data fusion algorithms, the ICL-LEACH-CS algorithm effectively reduces the node's transmission while balancing the load between the nodes.

4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; : 165575, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666206

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a well-known cause of lower back pain. Icariin has been shown to exert a protective effect on human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and accordingly has implications for the prevention and treatment of IVDD; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action are not fully established. In this study, the mechanisms underlying its protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress injury were investigated. In vitro, we demonstrated that icariin inhibits H2O2-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It upregulates oxidative stress mediators, i.e., reactive oxygen species, and downregulates mitochondrial membrane potential. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) is a key factor involved in the regulation of the endogenous defense system. It was proved that icariin could activate the Nrf-2 signaling pathway, upregulate the protein expression of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and the mitochondrial transcription factor, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in human NP cells. An Nrf-2 agonist and inhibitor promoted or partly abolished the protective effects of icariin on mitochondrial homeostasis. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the Nrf-2 signaling pathway could be inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT pathway. In vivo, icariin ameliorated IVDD in a rat model by promoting Nrf-2 activity, and preserving extracellular matrix in NP cells. These data suggest that icariin could ameliorate IVDD in rat models in vivo. In summary, the protective effects of icariin on human NP cells may suppress the pathogenesis of IVDD via the Nrf-2 signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the Nrf-2 signaling pathway is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of IVDD.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683560

RESUMO

In this study, an advanced Kinect sensor was adopted to acquire infrared radiation (IR) images for liveness detection. The proposed liveness detection method based on infrared radiation (IR) images can deal with face spoofs. Face pictures were acquired by a Kinect camera and converted into IR images. Feature extraction and classification were carried out by a deep neural network to distinguish between real individuals and face spoofs. IR images collected by the Kinect camera have depth information. Therefore, the IR pixels from live images have an evident hierarchical structure, while those from photos or videos have no evident hierarchical feature. Accordingly, two types of IR images were learned through the deep network to realize the identification of whether images were from live individuals. In comparison with other liveness detection cross-databases, our recognition accuracy was 99.8% and better than other algorithms. FaceNet is a face recognition model, and it is robust to occlusion, blur, illumination, and steering. We combined the liveness detection and FaceNet model for identity authentication. For improving the application of the authentication approach, we proposed two improved ways to run the FaceNet model. Experimental results showed that the combination of the proposed liveness detection and improved face recognition had a good recognition effect and can be used for identity authentication.

6.
Asian J Androl ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670279

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of seminal plasma miR-210-3p in the impairment of semen quality caused by varicocele. This study included 102 patients whose semen quality was normal when they were diagnosed with varicocele. A 2-year follow-up for included patients was performed, and they were divided into Group A (semen quality became abnormal) and Group B (semen quality remained normal) according to the results of semen analysis during the follow-up. Semen parameters and seminal plasma miR-210-3p expression were investigated by semen analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In vitro experiments with GC-2 cells were performed to explore the role of miR-210-3p in spermatogenic cells. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the level of seminal plasma miR-210-3p in Group A was higher than that in Group B both after 2-year follow-up and when they were diagnosed with varicocele (both P < 0.01). Apoptosis and proliferation assays showed that miR-210-3p induces apoptosis of spermatogenic cells by promoting caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, our study indicated that seminal plasma miR-210-3p induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis by activating caspase-3 in patients with varicocele. Seminal plasma miR-210-3p may be a potential biomarker for predicting impaired semen quality caused by varicocele.

7.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729464

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in innate immunity and inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which TLR signaling is fine-tuned remain to be completely elucidated. Cullin 4B (CUL4B), which assembles the CUL4B-RING E3 ligase complex (CRL4B), has been shown to regulate diverse developmental and physiological processes by catalyzing monoubiquitination for histone modification or polyubiquitination for proteasomal degradation. Here, we identified the role of CUL4B as an intrinsic negative regulator of the TLR-triggered inflammatory response. Deletion of CUL4B in macrophages increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in response to pathogens that activate TLR3, TLR4, or TLR2. Myeloid cell-specific Cul4b knockout mice were more susceptible to septic shock when challenged with lipopolysaccharide, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or Salmonella typhimurium infection. We further demonstrated that enhanced TLR-induced inflammatory responses in the absence of CUL4B were mediated by increased GSK3ß activity. Suppression of GSK3ß activity efficiently blocked the TLR-triggered increase in proinflammatory cytokine production and attenuated TLR-triggered death in Cul4b mutant mice. Mechanistically, CUL4B was found to negatively regulate TLR-triggered signaling by epigenetically repressing the transcription of Pten, thus maintaining the anti-inflammatory PI3K-AKT-GSK3ß pathway. The upregulation of PTEN caused by CUL4B deletion led to uncontrolled GSK3ß activity and excessive inflammatory immune responses. Thus, our findings indicate that CUL4B functions to restrict TLR-triggered inflammatory responses through regulating the AKT-GSK3ß pathway.

8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6696-6707, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698583

RESUMO

Microfluidic flow generation plays a fundamental role in microfluidic systems and shows potential for applications in basic biology and clinical medicine. In this study, an enabling technology is proposed to quantitatively generate microfluid flow through the automatic movement of a microsphere in liquid by using optical tweezers. A closed-loop control strategy with visual servoing feedback is introduced to achieve high precision and robustness. The theoretical solution of the generated microfluid is obtained on the basis of Stokes equations. An experimental method is proposed, and experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of our approach. This method does not impose any dedicated fabrication of microtool, and the microfluidic flow can be dexterously adjusted by controlling the direction, speed, and distance of the microsphere from a target location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of optically actuating liquids through the translational movement of microspheres with closed-loop control. The proposed method will be useful in various biomedical applications needing quantitative, precise and controllable localized microfluid.

9.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725255

RESUMO

Soft wearable and implantable electronic systems have attracted tremendous attention due to their flexibility, conformability, and biocompatibility. Such favorable features are critical for reliably monitoring key biomedical and physiological information (including both biophysical and biochemical signals) and effective treatment and management of specific chronic diseases. Miniaturized, fully integrated self-powered bioelectronic devices that can harvest energy from the human body represent promising and emerging solutions for long-term, intimate, and personalized therapies. In this Perspective, we offer a brief overview of recent advances in wearable/implantable soft electronic devices and their therapeutic applications ranging from drug delivery to tissue regeneration. We also discuss the key opportunities, challenges, and future directions in this important area needed to fulfill the vision of personalized medicine.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714544

RESUMO

A Na2SO4 + H2SO4 mixed electrolyte is demonstrated for a tungsten bronze pseudocapacitive electrode. The Na2SO4 supporting salt allows a large potential window while H+ effectively suppresses phase transformation. The electrode delivers a capacitance of 860 mF cm-2 with a -0.9 V-0 V window and 98% capacitance retention over 30 000 cycles.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722173

RESUMO

To elucidate the influence of long-range transported biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) on the Tibetan Plateau, the molecular compositions and light absorption of HUmic-Like Substances (HULIS), major fractions of brown carbon, were characterized during the pre-monsoon season. Under the significant influence of biomass burning, HULIS concentrations increased to as high as 26 times of the background levels, accounting for 54% of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 50% of organic carbon (OC). The light absorption of HULIS also enhanced up to 42 times of the background levels, contributing 61% of the WSOC absorption and 50% of OC absorption. Meanwhile, elevated nitrogen-containing compounds (NOCs) among HULIS were observed. The NOCs from fresh and aged BBOA were unambiguously identified on the molecular level, through comparing with the molecular compositions of NOCs from lab-controlled and field burning experiments. N-heterocyclic bases represent major fractions in the reduced nitrogen compounds from fresh BBOA, and nitroaromatic compounds are important groups among the oxidized nitrogen compounds from aged BBOA. The nitrogen-containing compounds, including nitroaromatics and N-heterocyclic compounds, were also important chromophores, which contributed to the enhanced light absorption of extracted HULIS during biomass burning-influenced periods.

12.
Nanoscale ; 11(42): 20221-20227, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621739

RESUMO

Here, a new type of signal amplification strategy is proposed employing Au nanoparticle (AuNP)-functionalized covalent organic framework (Au-COF) nanosheets and AuNP functionalized ZIF-8(NiPd) (Au@ZIF-8(NiPd)) rhombic dodecahedra nanocomposites for sandwich electrochemical sensor construction. The peroxidase mimics Au@ZIF-8(NiPd) took the place of natural enzymes in enzyme-assisted amplification strategies, both acting as catalysts for H2O2 reduction for signal amplification, and serving as ideal nanocarriers for signal probe anchoring. The cancer biomarker thrombin (TB) was selected as the target. Thrombin binding aptamers (TBA 2) were fixed on Au@ZIF-8(NiPd), and the obtained TBA 2-Au@ZIF-8(NiPd) bioconjugates were employed as tracer labels, and TB was sandwiched between the tracer labels and capture probe TBA 1 which were immobilized on the Au-COF nanosheet modified electrode. Au-COFs with a high specific area, super electroconductivity, and uniformly distributed AuNPs were utilized as the electrode substrate to fix TBA 1. Exploiting the sandwich method, the proposed TB aptasensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.1 pM to 20 nM with a low detection limit of 15 fM (S/N = 3). The ingenious sensing strategy enriched the application diversity of the artificial enzyme and showed promise in research and development of point-of-care diagnostics.

13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 445, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apple is one of the most popular fruit crops world-wide and its skin color is an important quality consideration essential for commercial value. However, the strategy on genetic breeding for red skin apple and the genetic basis of skin color differentiation is very limited and still largely unknown. RESULTS: Here, we reported a bud sport mutant of Fuji apple with red skin color and enhanced anthocyanins accumulation. Quantitative SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry) proteomics investigations revealed proteome changes in the apple red skin bud mutation and a total of 451 differentially expressed proteins were identified in apple skin. The mutant showed significantly increased expression levels of photosynthesis-related proteins, stress-related proteins as well as anthocyanins biosynthesis pathway. On the other hand, substantial downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAPK4) and mevalonate kinase (MVK) were detected, indicating a promising role for the red skin color development in the mutant. Furthermore, we also hypothesize that a post-transcriptional regulation of the skin color formation occurs in the mutant through the advanced SWATH-MS analysis. CONCLUSION: Our work provides important information on the application of proteomic methods for analysing proteomes changes in Fuji apple and highlights a clade of regulatory proteins potentially contributing for the molecular breeding of fruit skin color.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3009-3019, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564827

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the active anti-ischemic components of Pterocypsela elata (P. elata) using a network pharmacology approach to construct an effective component anti-cerebral ischemic target network and systematically analyze this medicinal material. Methods: Pharmacological studies have shown that P. elata has an obvious effect against cerebral ischemia. To identify the potential targets, 14 components of P. elata were docked to each structural element of the targets in the DRAR-CPI database by reverse docking technology. We then compared the identified potential targets with FDA-approved targets for stroke/cerebral infarction treatment in the DrugBank database and identified the active components of P. elata and their potential targets for stroke/cerebral infarction treatment. The active component-target networks were constructed using Cytoscape 3.5.1 software. The target protein-protein interactions were analyzed using the STRING database. KEGG pathway analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis were performed through the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Results: There were 14 active components identified from P. elata and 21 potential targets identified for cerebral ischemia treatment, including carbonic anhydrase 2, ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase, cholinesterase, and glutathione S-transferase P. The main involved pathways include metabolic pathways, complement and coagulation cascades and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Conclusion: Through a network pharmacology approach, we predicted the active components of P. elata and their potential targets for cerebral ischemia treatment. Our results provide new perspectives and clues for further studies on the anti-cerebral ischemia mechanism of P. elata.

15.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653699

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the central regulator of adipogenesis, and its dysregulation is linked to obesity and metabolic diseases. Identification of the factors that regulate PPARγ expression and activity is therefore crucial for combating obesity. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with a known role in xenobiotic detoxification. Recent studies have suggested that AhR also plays essential roles in energy metabolism. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We previously reported that experiments with adipocyte-specific Cullin 4b (Cul4b)-knockout mice showed that CUL4B suppresses adipogenesis by targeting PPARγ. Here, using immunoprecipitation, ubiquitination, real-time PCR and Gst-pulldown assays, we report that AhR functions as the substrate receptor in CUL4B-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4B) complex and is required for recruiting PPARγ. AhR overexpression reduced PPARγ stability and suppressed adipocyte differentiation, and AhR knockdown stimulated adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, we found that two lysine sites on residues 268 and 293 in PPARγ are targeted for CRL4B-mediated ubiquitination, indicating cross-talk between acetylation and ubiquitination. Our findings establish a critical role of AhR in regulating PPARγ stability and suggest that the AhR-PPARγ interaction may represent a potential therapeutic target for managing metabolic diseases arising from PPARγ dysfunction.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621035

RESUMO

Diastolic dysfunction is common in various cardiovascular diseases, which could be affected by adiponectin (APN). Nevertheless, the effects of APN on diastolic dysfunction in pressure overload model induced by transverse aorta constriction (TAC) remain to be further elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that treatment of APN attenuated diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice. Notably, APN also improved active relaxation of adult cardiomyocytes, increased N2BA/N2B ratios of titin isoform, and reduced collagen type I to type III ratio and lysyl oxidase (Lox) expressions in the myocardial tissue. Moreover, APN supplementation suppressed TAC-induced oxidative stress. In vitro, inhibition of AMPK by compound C (Cpc) abrogated the effect of APN on modulation of titin isoform shift and the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN on cardiomyocytes induced by AngII. In summary, our findings indicate that APN could attenuate diastolic dysfunction in TAC mice, which are at least partially mediated by AMPK pathway.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635252

RESUMO

In the present study, we assembled and compared two mitogenomes from the Rhizopogon genus. The two mitogenomes of R. salebrosus and R. vinicolor comprised circular DNA molecules, with the sizes of 66,704 bp and 77,109 bp, respectively. Comparative mitogenome analysis indicated that the length and base composition of protein coding genes (PCGs), rRNA genes and tRNA genes varied between the two species. Large fragments aligned between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of both R. salebrosus (43.41 kb) and R. vinicolor (12.83 kb) indicated that genetic transfer between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes has occurred over evolutionary time of Rhizopogon species. Intronic regions were found to be the main factors contributing to mitogenome expansion in R. vinicolor. Variations in the number and type of introns in the two mitogenomes indicated that frequent intron loss/gain events occurred during the evolution of Rhizopogon species. Phylogenetic analyses based on Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods using a combined mitochondrial gene set yielded identical and well-supported tree topologies, wherein Rhizopogon species showed close relationships with Agaricales species. This is the first study of mitogenomes within the genus Rhizopogon, and it provides a basis for understanding the evolution and differentiation of mitogenomes from the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(45): 42000-42005, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647213

RESUMO

The degradation or dendrite formation of zinc metal electrodes has shown to limit the cycle life of rechargeable aqueous zinc batteries, and a few anode protection methods are proposed. We herein demonstrate that, except for external protections, a simple design of an electrolyte can effectively promote stable and facile Zn stripping/plating from/on zinc electrodes. By using Zn(ClO4)2 in the aqueous electrolyte, reversible Zn stripping/plating is achieved for over 3000 h at 1 mA cm-2 current density and 1 mA h cm-2 capacity, superior to the conventional ZnSO4 electrolyte. The overpotential is constant within each cycle and only increases slightly with the increase of current densities. The excellent performance is guaranteed by the controlled formation of a Cl- containing layer, which limits continuous side reactions. The Zn(ClO4)2 electrolyte shows anodic stability up to 2.4 V, and excellent electrochemical performance is achieved for an example cell with the VO2 cathode, confirming the applicability of the electrolyte for Zn batteries.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661966

RESUMO

The H atom product channels in the ultraviolet photodissociation of 2-propenyl (CH2CCH3) radical were investigated in the wavelength region 224-248 nm using photofragment translational spectroscopy. The CH2CCH3 radicals were generated by 193 nm photodissociation of 2-chloropropene and 2-bromopropene precursors. The H atom photofragment yield spectra from both precursors revealed a broad feature peaking near 232 nm. The translational energy distributions of the H + C3H4 products peaked around 7-8 kcal/mol and extended close to the maximum excess energy. The fraction of the total available energy released as products' translation was nearly a constant (∼0.16 using the 2-chloropropene precursor and ∼0.18 using the 2-bromopropene precursor) in the wavelength range 224-248 nm. The angular distribution of the H atom product was isotropic. Quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations were performed on the ground-state potential energy surface of CH2CCH3 for its decomposition at a 124 kcal/mol excitation energy (equivalent to 230 nm photolysis photon energy). The calculations yielded branching ratios for different dissociation product channels, 32% H + allene, 35% H + propyne, 0.5% H + cyclopropene, and 32% methyl + acetylene. The experimental and QCT translational energy distributions of the H atom loss channels qualitatively agreed, consistent with the main H atom product channels being the H + allene and H + propyne dissociations. The time scale of the 2-propenyl dissociation on the ground electronic state was calculated to be ∼2 ps, smaller compared to that of the overall UV photodissociation (≥10 ps, implied on the basis of the isotropic H atom product angular distribution). The mechanism of the UV photodissociation of 2-propenyl is consistent with unimolecular dissociation proceeding on the ground electronic state after internal conversion of the electronic excited states.

20.
Gut Liver ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554391

RESUMO

Current studies have confirmed that liver diseases are closely related to intestinal microorganisms; however, those studies have mainly concentrated on bacteria. Although the proportion of intestinal microorganisms accounted for by colonizing fungi is very small, these fungi do have a significant effect on the homeostasis of the intestinal microecosystem. In this paper, the characteristics of intestinal fungi in patients with chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis are summarized, and the effects of intestinal fungi and their metabolites are analyzed and discussed. It is important to realize that not only bacteria but also intestinal fungi play important roles in liver diseases.

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