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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, has previously been shown to extend progression-free survival versus placebo when given to patients with relapsed high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer who were platinum sensitive and who had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation, as part of the SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21 trial. The aim of this final analysis is to investigate the effect of olaparib on overall survival. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was done across 123 medical centres in 16 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status at baseline of 0-1, had histologically confirmed, relapsed, high-grade serous or high-grade endometrioid ovarian cancer, including primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer, and had received two or more previous platinum regimens. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg in two 150 mg tablets twice daily) or matching placebo tablets using an interactive web or voice-response system. Stratification was by response to previous chemotherapy and length of platinum-free interval. Treatment assignment was masked to patients, treatment providers, and data assessors. The primary endpoint of progression-free survival has been reported previously. Overall survival was a key secondary endpoint and was analysed in all patients as randomly allocated. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one treatment dose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01874353, and is no longer recruiting patients. FINDINGS: Between Sept 3, 2013 and Nov 21, 2014, 295 patients were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either olaparib (n=196 [66%]) or placebo (n=99 [34%]). One patient, randomised in error, did not receive olaparib. Median follow-up was 65·7 months (IQR 63·6-69·3) with olaparib and 64·5 months (63·4-68·7) with placebo. Median overall survival was 51·7 months (95% CI 41·5-59·1) with olaparib and 38·8 months (31·4-48·6) with placebo (hazard ratio 0·74 [95% CI 0·54-1·00]; p=0·054), unadjusted for the 38% of patients in the placebo group who received subsequent PARP inhibitor therapy. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse event was anaemia (which occurred in 41 [21%] of 195 patients in the olaparib group and two [2%] of 99 patients in the placebo group). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 50 (26%) of 195 patients receiving olaparib and eight (8%) of 99 patients receiving placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events with a fatal outcome occurred in eight (4%) of the 195 patients receiving olaparib, six of which were judged to be treatment-related (attributed to myelodysplastic syndrome [n=3] and acute myeloid leukaemia [n=3]). INTERPRETATION: Olaparib provided a median overall survival benefit of 12·9 months compared with placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation. Although statistical significance was not reached, these findings are arguably clinically meaningful and support the use of maintenance olaparib in these patients. FUNDING: AstraZeneca and Merck.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539540

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have shown synergistic effects when combining PARP1/2 inhibitors and platinum drugs in BRCA1/2 mutated cancer cell models. After a formulation change of olaparib from capsules to tablets, we initiated a dose finding study of olaparib tablets bidaily (BID) continuously with carboplatin to prepare comparative studies in this patient group. Patients were included in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation schedule: olaparib 25 mg BID and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 3 mg*min/mL d1/d22, olaparib 25 mg BID and carboplatin AUC 4 mg*min/mL d1/d22, followed by increasing dose-levels of olaparib from 50 mg BID, 75 mg BID, to 100 mg BID with carboplatin at AUC 4 mg*min/mL d1/d22. After two cycles, patients continued olaparib 300 mg BID as monotherapy. Primary objective was to assess the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). Twenty-four patients with a confirmed diagnosis of advanced cancer were included. Most common adverse events were nausea (46%), fatigue (33%) and platelet count decrease (33%). Dose-level 3 (olaparib 75 mg BID and carboplatin AUC 4 mg*min/mL; n = 6) was defined as MTD. Fourteen out of 24 patients (56%) had a partial response as best response (RECIST 1.1). Systemic exposure of the olaparib tablet formulation appeared comparable to the previous capsule formulation with olaparib tablet AUC0-12 of 16.3 µg/mL*h at MTD. Polymers of ADP-ribose levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reduced by 98.7% ± 0.14% at Day 8 compared to Day 1 for dose-level 3. Olaparib tablets 75 mg BID and carboplatin AUC 4 mg*min/mL for two cycles preceding olaparib monotherapy 300 mg is a feasible and tolerable treatment schedule for patients with advanced cancer.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The added value of surgery in breast cancer patients with pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) is uncertain. The accuracy of imaging identifying pCR for omission of surgery, however, is insufficient. We investigated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided biopsies identifying breast pCR (ypT0) after NST in patients with radiological partial (rPR) or complete response (rCR) on MRI. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective single-arm study in three Dutch hospitals. Patients with T1-4(N0 or N +) breast cancer with MRI rPR and enhancement ≤ 2.0 cm or MRI rCR after NST were enrolled. Eight ultrasound-guided 14-G core biopsies were obtained in the operating room before surgery close to the marker placed centrally in the tumor area at diagnosis (no attempt was made to remove the marker), and compared with the surgical specimen of the breast. Primary outcome was the false-negative rate (FNR). RESULTS: Between April 2016 and June 2019, 202 patients fulfilled eligibility criteria. Pre-surgical biopsies were obtained in 167 patients, of whom 136 had rCR and 31 had rPR on MRI. Forty-three (26%) tumors were hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative, 64 (38%) were HER2-positive, and 60 (36%) were triple-negative. Eighty-nine patients had pCR (53%; 95% CI 45-61) and 78 had residual disease. Biopsies were false-negative in 29 (37%; 95% CI 27-49) of 78 patients. The multivariable associated with false-negative biopsies was rCR (FNR 47%; OR 9.81, 95% CI 1.72-55.89; p = 0.01); a trend was observed for HR-negative tumors (FNR 71% in HER2-positive and 55% in triple-negative tumors; OR 4.55, 95% CI 0.95-21.73; p = 0.058) and smaller pathological lesions (6 mm vs 15 mm; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1.00; p = 0.051). CONCLUSION: The MICRA trial showed that ultrasound-guided core biopsies are not accurate enough to identify breast pCR in patients with good response on MRI after NST. Therefore, breast surgery cannot safely be omitted relying on the results of core biopsies in these patients.

5.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 91: 102114, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161237

RESUMO

AIM: Oligometastatic breast cancer (OMBC) is a disease-entity with potential for long-term remission in selected patients. Those with truly limited metastatic load (rather than occult widespread metastatic disease) may benefit from multimodality treatment including local ablative therapy of distant metastases. In this systematic review, we studied factors associated with long-term survival in patients with OMBC. METHODS: Eligible studies included patients with OMBC who received a combination of local and systemic therapy as multimodal approach and reported overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS), or both. The Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool was used to assess the quality of each included study. Independent prognostic factors for OS and/or PFS are summarized. RESULTS: Of 1271 screened abstracts, 317 papers were full-text screened and twenty studies were included. Eleven of twenty studies were classified as acceptable quality. Definition of OMBC varied between studies and mostly incorporated the number and/or location of metastases. The 5-year OS ranged between 30 and 79% and 5-year PFS ranged between 25 and 57%. Twelve studies evaluated prognostic factors for OS and/or PFS in multivariable models. A solitary metastasis, >24 months interval between primary tumor and OMBC, no or limited involved axillary lymph nodes at primary diagnosis, and hormone-receptor positivity were associated with better outcome. HER2-positivity was associated with worse outcome, but only few patients received anti-HER2 therapy. CONCLUSIONS: OMBC patients with a solitary distant metastasis and >24 months disease-free interval have the best OS and may be optimal candidates to consider a multidisciplinary approach.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 706-711, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Decrease in skeletal muscle index (SMI) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been associated with worse outcome in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. To validate these findings, we tested if a decrease in SMI was a prognostic factor for a homogenous cohort of patients who received NACT in the randomized phase 3 OVHIPEC-trial. METHODS: CT-scans were performed at baseline and after two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage III ovarian cancer patients. The SMI (skeletal muscle area in cm2 divided by body surface area in m2) was calculated using SliceOMatic software. The difference in SMI between both CT-scans (ΔSMI) was calculated. Cox-regression analyses were performed to analyze the independent effect of a difference in SMI (ΔSMI) on outcome. Log-rank tests were performed to plot recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean number of adverse events per patient were compared between groups using t-tests. RESULTS: Paired CT-scans were available for 212 out of 245 patients (87%). Thirty-four of 74 patients (58%) in the group with a decrease in ΔSMI and 73 of 138 of the patients (53%) in the group with stable/increase in ΔSMI had died. Median RFS and OS did not differ significantly (p = 0.297 and p = 0.764) between groups. Patients with a decrease in SMI experienced more pre-operative adverse events, and more grade 3-4 adverse events. CONCLUSION: Decreased SMI during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with worse outcome in patients with stage III ovarian cancer included in the OVHIPEC-trial. However, a strong association between decreasing SMI and adverse events was found.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy has improved the outcome of human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Uncertainty remains about the optimal timing of trastuzumab treatment. Therefore, we compared long-term outcome after concurrent versus sequential treatment, in a population-based setting, using data from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. METHODS: We identified 1843 women diagnosed in The Netherlands from January 1st 2005 until January 1st 2008 with primary, HER2-positive, T1-4NanyM0 breast cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox regression were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) between women who received trastuzumab concurrently with versus sequentially after chemotherapy. Hazard ratios (HR) were adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, grade, pathological T-stage, number of positive lymph nodes, ER-status, PR-status, socio-economic status, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, ovarian ablation, and type of chemotherapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, RFS events had occurred in 224 out of 1235 (18.1%) concurrently treated women and 129 out of 608 (21.2%) sequentially treated women (adjusted-HR 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.24; P = 0.580). Deaths occurred in 182/1235 (14.7%) concurrently treated women and 104/608 (17.1%) sequentially treated women (adjusted-HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.65-1.29; P = 0.635). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this population-based study are consistent with earlier randomized trials, demonstrating a non-significant difference in outcome for concurrently treated women compared to those who were treated sequentially, suggesting both options are justified.

8.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endocrine therapy (ET) is a standard first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) have demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) with ET in patients with ABC. Recent reports indicate that the addition of the CDK4/6i ribociclib to ET, including fulvestrant, significantly improves PFS and overall survival (OS). AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the efficacy and safety of ribociclib plus fulvestrant in HR+/HER2- ABC and its role in clinical practice. Various post-progression strategies are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: In MONALEESA-3, ribociclib +fulvestrant significantly improved PFS and OS in postmenopausal patients who received no prior chemotherapy and ≤1 prior line of ET for ABC and benefited many patient subgroups, including those with visceral metastases and ET resistance. The safety of this combination is manageable and consistent with the known safety profile of ribociclib, with myelosuppression being a common and expected toxicity; other relevant toxicities requiring monitoring that occur at a low rate include hepatobiliary toxicity, pneumonitis, and QTc prolongation. There is an important role for CDK4/6i + ET, including ribociclib + fulvestrant, in clinical practice. The optimal position of CDK4/6i in first or subsequent lines of treatment and the optimal post-CDK4/6i progression strategies are not yet elucidated.

9.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1149-1156, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An important aim of follow-up after primary breast cancer treatment is early detection of locoregional recurrences (LRR). This study compares 2 personalized follow-up scheme simulations based on LRR risk predictions provided by a time-dependent prognostic model for breast cancer LRR and quantifies their possible follow-up efficiency. METHODS: Surgically treated early patients with breast cancer between 2003 and 2008 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. The INFLUENCE nomogram was used to estimate the 5-year annual LRR. Applying 2 thresholds, they were defined according to Youden's J-statistic and a predefined follow-up sensitivity of 95%, respectively. These patient's risk estimations served as the basis for scheduling follow-up visits; 2 personalized follow-up schemes were simulated. The number of potentially saved follow-up visits and corresponding cost savings for each follow-up scheme were compared with the current Dutch breast cancer guideline recommendation and the observed utilization of follow-up on a training and testing cohort. RESULTS: Using LRR risk-predictions for 30 379 Dutch patients with breast cancer from 2003 to 2006 (training cohort), 2 thresholds were calculated. The threshold according to Youden's approach yielded a follow-up sensitivity of 62.5% and a potential saving of 62.1% of follow-up visits and €24.8 million in 5 years. When the threshold corresponding to 95% follow-up sensitivity was used, 17% of follow-up visits and €7 million were saved compared with the guidelines. Similar results were obtained by applying these thresholds to the testing cohort of 11 462 patients from 2007 to 2008. Compared with the observed utilization of follow-up, the potential cost-savings decline moderately. CONCLUSIONS: Personalized follow-up schemes based on the INFLUENCE nomogram's individual risk estimations for breast cancer LRR could decrease the number of follow-up visits if one accepts a limited risk of delayed LRR detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/economia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines and trastuzumab can increase the risk of heart failure (HF), but long-term cardiotoxicity data in breast cancer (BC) patients treated at younger ages are limited. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aromatase inhibitors are associated with HF risk. METHODS: HF risk was studied in a multicenter cohort of BC survivors treated during 2000-2009, at age < 61 years. Information on treatment and cardiovascular disease incidence was collected through medical records, general practitioners and cardiologists. Analyses included multivariable Cox regression and cumulative incidence curves. RESULTS: In total, 10,209 women with a median age at BC diagnosis of 50.3 years and a median follow-up of 8.9 years were enrolled in the study. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with HF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.39) and risk increased with increasing cumulative anthracycline dose. For trastuzumab, HF risk was highest within the first 2 years after treatment (HR0-2 years: 13.06, 95% CI 5.70-29.92) and decreased thereafter (HR2-4 years: 4.84, 95% CI 1.99-11.75 and HR≥4 years: 0.64, 95% CI 0.23-1.81). The 10-year cumulative incidence of HF was 4.8% (95% CI 3.2-6.8) among patients treated with anthracyclines and trastuzumab. One-third of patients who developed HF after trastuzumab had long-term impaired cardiac function. Patients treated with aromatase inhibitors alone also had higher HF risk (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.24-3.82) compared to patients not receiving endocrine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results stress the importance of considering anthracycline-free regimens in BC patients who need trastuzumab-containing treatment. The association between aromatase inhibitors and HF needs confirmation.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(30): 3528-3537, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749942

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In SOLO1, maintenance olaparib (300 mg twice daily) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with newly diagnosed BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-mutated advanced ovarian cancer compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.30; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.41; median not reached v 13.8 months). We investigated PFS in SOLO1 for subgroups of patients based on preselected baseline factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Investigator-assessed PFS subgroup analyses of SOLO1 included clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy (complete [CR] or partial response [PR]), surgery type (upfront or interval surgery), disease status after surgery (residual or no gross residual disease), and BRCA mutation status (BRCA1 or BRCA2). Additionally, we evaluated PFS in patients with stage III disease who underwent upfront surgery and had no gross residual disease. We also report objective response rate. RESULTS: The risk of disease progression or death was reduced with olaparib compared with placebo by 69% (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46) and 63% (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.58) in patients undergoing upfront or interval surgery; 56% (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.77) and 67% (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.46) in patients with residual or no residual disease after surgery; 66% (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.47) and 69% in women with clinical CR or PR at baseline (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.52); and 59% (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.56) and 80% (HR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.37) in patients with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer achieve substantial benefit from maintenance olaparib treatment regardless of baseline surgery outcome, response to chemotherapy, or BRCA mutation type.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 135: 66-74, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations on adjuvant chemotherapy in pT1N0M0 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) differ among international guidelines owing to lack of randomized trial data. We evaluated associations of adjuvant chemotherapy with a long-term outcome in a population-based cohort of pT1N0M0 TNBC. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with pT1N0M0 TNBC in the Netherlands between 2005 and 2016 were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were recorded. The date and cause of death were obtained from Statistics Netherlands. We used multivariable Cox regression models to evaluate associations of adjuvant chemotherapy with breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS), adjusted for baseline characteristics and performed sensitivity analyses using propensity score (PS) weighting. RESULTS: We identified 4366 patients: 284 with pT1a, 923 with pT1b and 3159 with pT1c tumours. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 53% of patients. Patients receiving chemotherapy had more unfavourable baseline characteristics including younger age, larger tumours and higher tumour grade. At 8.2 years median follow-up (interquartile range = 5.8-10.9), 671 patients had died, of whom 311 because of breast cancer. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, chemotherapy was associated with improved BCSS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.89). The effect of chemotherapy differed by tumour size (pT1a: aHR = 4.28, 95% CI = 1.12-16.44; pT1b: aHR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.51-2.49; pT1c: aHR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.43-0.82; pinteraction = 0.02). Findings for OS were in line with BCSS results. PS-weighting analysis confirmed the results of the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with better BCSS and OS in pT1N0M0 TNBC. Better outcome is most evident in pT1c tumours and may not outweigh harm in pT1a/pT1b tumours.

13.
Oncologist ; 25(9): e1330-e1338, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After 5 years of annual follow-up following breast cancer, Dutch guidelines are age based: annual follow-up for women <60 years, 60-75 years biennial, and none for >75 years. We determined how the risk of recurrence corresponds to these consensus-based recommendations and to the risk of primary breast cancer in the general screening population. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Women with early-stage breast cancer in 2003/2005 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (n = 18,568). Cumulative incidence functions were estimated for follow-up years 5-10 for locoregional recurrences (LRRs) and second primary tumors (SPs). Risks were compared with the screening population without history of breast cancer. Alternative cutoffs for age were determined by log-rank tests. RESULTS: The cumulative risk for LRR/SP was lower in women <60 years (5.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.3-6.6) who are under annual follow-up than for women 60-75 (6.3%, 95% CI 5.6-7.1) receiving biennial visits. All risks were higher than the 5-year risk of a primary tumor in the screening population (ranging from 1.4% to 1.9%). Age cutoffs <50, 50-69, and > 69 revealed better risk differentiation and would provide more risk-based schedules. Still, other factors, including systemic treatments, had an even greater impact on recurrence risks. CONCLUSION: The current consensus-based recommendations use suboptimal age cutoffs. The proposed alternative cutoffs will lead to a more balanced risk-based follow-up and thereby more efficient allocation of resources. However, more factors should be taken into account for truly individualizing follow-up based on risk for recurrence. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The current age-based recommendations for breast cancer follow-up after 5 years are suboptimal and do not reflect the actual risk of recurrent disease. This results in situations in which women with higher risks actually receive less follow-up than those with a lower risk of recurrence. Alternative cutoffs could be a start toward risk-based follow-up and thereby more efficient allocation of resources. However, age, or any single risk factor, is not able to capture the risk differences and therefore is not sufficient for determining follow-up. More risk factors should be taken into account for truly individualizing follow-up based on the risk for recurrence.

15.
Radiother Oncol ; 146: 110-117, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are at increased risk of subsequent acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to study if radiotherapy also influences the prognosis of these ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all 398 patients diagnosed with ACS following radiotherapy from our hospital-based cohort of early breast cancer patients aged <71 years, treated 1970-2009. Cardiovascular disease incidence and cause of death were acquired through questionnaires to general practitioners and cardiologists. Internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation delivers the highest heart doses in breast cancer radiotherapy. Hence, we compared ACS prognosis between patients treated with/without IMC-irradiation. ACS prognosis was assessed through cardiac death, death due to ACS and cardiovascular disease incidence, using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and by estimating cumulative incidence. RESULTS: In total, 62% of patients with ACS had received IMC-irradiation and 38% did not (median age at ACS diagnosis, 67 years). Median time between breast cancer and ACS was 15 years. After ACS, ten-year cumulative risk of cardiac death was 35% for patients who had IMC-irradiation (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 29-41) compared to 24% (95%CI 17-31) for patients without IMC-irradiation (p = 0.04). After correction for confounders, IMC-irradiation remained associated with a less favourable prognosis of ACS compared to no IMC-irradiation (hazard ratio cardiac death = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that radiotherapy, in case of substantial heart doses,may worsen ACS prognosis. This is an important, novel finding that may impact upon the risk-based care for breast cancer survivors with ACS.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(4): 528-534, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999296

RESUMO

Importance: Trials of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) have failed to show a survival benefit in unselected patients with breast cancer, but long-term follow-up is lacking. Objective: To determine 20-year efficacy and safety outcomes of a large trial of adjuvant HDCT vs conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) for patients with stage III breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used data from a randomized phase 3 multicenter clinical trial of 885 women younger than 56 years with breast cancer and 4 or more involved axillary lymph nodes conducted from August 1, 1993, to July 31, 1999. Additional follow-up data were collected between June 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, from medical records, general practitioners, the Dutch national statistical office, and nationwide cancer registries. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Statistical analysis was performed from February 1, 2018, to October 14, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 5 cycles of CDCT consisting of fluorouracil, 500 mg/m2, epirubicin, 90 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m2, or HDCT in which the first 4 cycles were identical to CDCT and the fifth cycle was replaced by cyclophosphamide, 6000 mg/m2, thiotepa, 480 mg/m2, and carboplatin, 1600 mg/m2, followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main end points were overall survival and safety and cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm or cardiovascular events. Results: Of the 885 women in the study (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [6.6] years), 442 were randomized to receive HDCT, and 443 were randomized to receive CDCT. With 20.4 years median follow-up (interquartile range, 19.2-22.0 years), the 20-year overall survival was 45.3% with HDCT and 41.5% with CDCT (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75-1.06). The absolute improvement in 20-year overall survival was 14.6% (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.95) for patients with 10 or more invoved axillary lymph nodes and 15.4% (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.05) for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. The cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm at 20 years or major cardiovascular events was similar in both treatment groups (20-year cumulative incidence risk for second malignant neoplasm was 12.1% in the HDCT group vs 16.2% in the CDCT group, P = .10), although patients in the HDCT group more often had hypertension (21.7% vs 14.3%, P = .02), hypercholesterolemia (15.7% vs 10.6%, P = .04), and dysrhythmias (8.6% vs 4.6%, P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: High-dose chemotherapy provided no long-term survival benefit in unselected patients with stage III breast cancer but did provide improved overall survival in very high-risk patients (ie, with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes). High-dose chemotherapy did not affect long-term risk of a second malignant neoplasm or major cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03087409.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 366-374, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop dose-response relationships for heart failure (HF) following radiation and anthracyclines in breast cancer treatment, and to assess HF associations with trastuzumab and endocrine therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed within a cohort of breast cancer survivors treated during 1980-2009. Cases (n = 102) had HF as first cardiovascular diagnosis and were matched 1:3 on age and date of diagnosis. Individual cardiac radiation doses were estimated, and anthracycline doses and use of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy were abstracted from oncology notes. For HF cases who received radiotherapy, the estimated median mean heart dose (MHD) was 6.8 Gy [interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-13.7]. MHD was not associated with HF risk overall [excess rate ratio (ERR) = 1%/Gy, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 10]. In patients treated with anthracyclines, exposure of ≥20% of the heart to ≥20 Gy was associated with a rate ratio of 5.7 (95% CI 1.7-21.7) compared to <10% exposed to ≥20 Gy. For cases who received radiotherapy, median cumulative anthracycline dose was 247 mg/m2 (IQR 240-319). A dose-dependent increase was observed after anthracycline without trastuzumab (ERR = 1.5% per mg/m2 , 95% CI 0.5-4.1). After anthracycline and trastuzumab, the rate ratio was 34.9 (95% CI 11.1-110.1) compared to no chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In absence of anthracyclines, breast cancer radiotherapy was not associated with increased HF risk. Strongly elevated HF risks were observed after treatment with anthracyclines and also after treatment with trastuzumab. The benefits of these systemic treatments usually exceed the risks of HF, but our results emphasize the need to support ongoing efforts to evaluate preventative strategies.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 382(6): 514-524, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an earlier analysis of this phase 3 trial, ribociclib plus fulvestrant showed a greater benefit with regard to progression-free survival than fulvestrant alone in postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Here we report the results of a protocol-specified second interim analysis of overall survival. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either ribociclib or placebo in addition to fulvestrant as first-line or second-line treatment. Survival was evaluated by means of a stratified log-rank test and summarized with the use of Kaplan-Meier methods. RESULTS: This analysis was based on 275 deaths: 167 among 484 patients (34.5%) receiving ribociclib and 108 among 242 (44.6%) receiving placebo. Ribociclib plus fulvestrant showed a significant overall survival benefit over placebo plus fulvestrant. The estimated overall survival at 42 months was 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.0 to 63.2) in the ribociclib group and 45.9% (95% CI, 36.9 to 54.5) in the placebo group, for a 28% difference in the relative risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92; P = 0.00455). The benefit was consistent across most subgroups. In a descriptive update, median progression-free survival among patients receiving first-line treatment was 33.6 months (95% CI, 27.1 to 41.3) in the ribociclib group and 19.2 months (95% CI, 14.9 to 23.6) in the placebo group. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Ribociclib plus fulvestrant showed a significant overall survival benefit over placebo plus fulvestrant in patients with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. (Funded by Novartis; MONALEESA-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02422615.).


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Fulvestranto/administração & dosagem , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fulvestranto/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor ErbB-2 , Receptores Estrogênicos , Receptores de Progesterona
19.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(2): 303-314, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fatigue is a common and potentially disabling symptom in patients with cancer. It can often be effectively reduced by exercise. Yet, effects of exercise interventions might differ across subgroups. We conducted a meta-analysis using individual patient data of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to investigate moderators of exercise intervention effects on cancer-related fatigue. METHODS: We used individual patient data from 31 exercise RCT worldwide, representing 4366 patients, of whom 3846 had complete fatigue data. We performed a one-step individual patient data meta-analysis, using linear mixed-effect models to analyze the effects of exercise interventions on fatigue (z score) and to identify demographic, clinical, intervention- and exercise-related moderators. Models were adjusted for baseline fatigue and included a random intercept on study level to account for clustering of patients within studies. We identified potential moderators by testing their interaction with group allocation, using a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Exercise interventions had statistically significant beneficial effects on fatigue (ß = -0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.22 to -0.12). There was no evidence of moderation by demographic or clinical characteristics. Supervised exercise interventions had significantly larger effects on fatigue than unsupervised exercise interventions (ßdifference = -0.18; 95% CI -0.28 to -0.08). Supervised interventions with a duration ≤12 wk showed larger effects on fatigue (ß = -0.29; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.20) than supervised interventions with a longer duration. CONCLUSIONS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we found statistically significant beneficial effects of exercise interventions on fatigue, irrespective of demographic and clinical characteristics. These findings support a role for exercise, preferably supervised exercise interventions, in clinical practice. Reasons for differential effects in duration require further exploration.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Neoplasias/complicações , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(5): 2115-2126, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396745

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated factors associated with program adherence and patient satisfaction with a home-based physical activity program (Onco-Move, N = 77) and a supervised exercise program with a home-based component (OnTrack, N = 76). METHODS: We assessed adherence via self-report (home-based program) and attendance records (supervised program). We used logistic regression analysis to identify sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural variables associated with program adherence. Patient satisfaction was assessed with self-report and is reported descriptively. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of Onco-Move and 62% of OnTrack participants were adherent to the home-based program, while 59% of OnTrack participants were adherent to the supervised sessions. Higher baseline physical fitness was associated with higher adherence to home-based components. Higher disease stage and having a partner were associated with adherence to OnTrack supervised sessions. Overall satisfaction with the exercise programs was high, but ratings of coaching provided by professionals for the home-based components were low. Patients offered suggestions for improving delivery of the programs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to factors relevant to program adherence and suggest ways in which such programs can be improved. Providing additional time and training for health care professionals could improve the quality and hopefully the effectiveness of the interventions. The use of online diaries and smartphone apps may provide additional encouragement to participants. Finally, allowing greater flexibility in the planning and availability of supervised exercise training in order to accommodate the variability in cancer treatment schedules and the (acute) side effects of the treatments could also enhance program adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register, NTR2159. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2159.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos , Satisfação Pessoal , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Autorrelato , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
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