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1.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672120977349, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in a case of immune choroiditis following contralateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman with immune choroiditis following contralateral ARN and secondary CNV presented with decreased visual acuity. Fundus examination revealed macular and peripheral yellowish lesions in the right eye. Inflammatory cells were observed in the anterior chamber and the vitreous. OCT revealed retinal exudative changes and subretinal lesions suggestive of CNV. OCTA detected an abnormal vascular net in the outer retina as well as choriocapillaris, corresponding to type 2 CNV, that reduced following intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy. Two weeks after treatment, OCTA showed re-dilated choroidal neovasculature at the outer retina despite no exudative recurrence in OCT. Six weeks after treatment, OCT detected exudative changes around the neovascular lesion. CONCLUSION: This case discusses the use of OCTA detection of CNV in a case of immune choroiditis following contralateral ARN. During anti-VEGF therapy for inflammatory CNV-related diseases, OCTA may be useful not only for CNV detection but also for the follow-up of CNV activity.

2.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(11): e202049, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180136
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998461

RESUMO

An imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant capacity results in oxidative injury to cellular components and molecules, which in turn disturbs the homeostasis of cells and organs. Although retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary disease, non-genetic biological factors including oxidative stress also modulate or contribute to the disease progression. In animal models of RP, the degenerating retina exhibits marked oxidative damage in the nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and anti-oxidant treatments substantially suppress photoreceptor cell death and microgliosis. Although the mechanisms by which oxidative stress mediates retinal degeneration have not been fully elucidated, our group has shown that oxidative DNA damage and its defense system are key regulators of microglial activation and photoreceptor degeneration in RP. In this review, we summarize the current evidence regarding oxidative stress in animal models and patients with RP. The clinical efficacy of anti-oxidant treatments for RP has not been fully established. Nevertheless, elucidating key biological processes that underlie oxidative damage in RP will be pivotal to understanding the pathology and developing a potent anti-oxidant strategy that targets specific cell types or molecules under oxidative stress.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112920

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes in metamorphopsia after administering the treat-and-extend regimen of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for branch retinal vein occlusion-associated macular edema. We retrospectively examined 27 patients (27 eyes) with macula edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion who received intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents using the treat-and-extend regimen for ≥18 months. We evaluated best-corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness, macular edema recurrence, and amount of metamorphopsia quantified by M-CHARTS. The best-corrected visual acuity (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution) and central macular thickness significantly improved at 18 months compared to baseline, the median value (interquartile range [IQR]), 0.30 (0.15-0.52) and 459 (373-542) µm at baseline, and 0 (-0.08-0.16) and 267 (232-306) µm at 18 months. The M-CHARTS score (the mean of vertical and horizontal scores) significantly decreased at 1, 6, and 12 months compared to baseline, but worsened at 18 month, the median value (IQR), 0.45 (0.250-0.925), 0.4 (0.15-0.70), 0.4 (0.150-0.625), 0.4 (0.225-0.550) and 0.45 (0.225-0.750) at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months, respectively. The median cumulative number of macular edema recurrences was 2 (IQR, 0.5-3.0) at 18 months. Simple linear regression and multivariate analyses revealed that the change in the mean M-CHARTS score at 18 months was significantly correlated with the baseline score and the cumulative number of macular edema recurrences. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy using the treat-and-extend regimen improved metamorphopsia in branch retinal vein occlusion-related macular edema in the short to mid-term follow-up period, but not in the long term. Macular edema recurrence may be associated with persistent metamorphopsia.

5.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945715

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the clinical characteristics of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and clarify factors associated with poor visual prognosis. Methods: a nationwide multi-center retrospective chart review study was performed in Japan using data from the medical records of 149 consecutive ARN patients. Demographics, ocular signs, virologic testing of intraocular fluids, and treatment were examined. Factors associated with poor visual prognosis were investigated by regression analysis. Results: At initial presentation, anterior chamber cells or mutton-fat keratic precipitates (97%), unilaterality (93%), and yellow-white retinal lesions (86%) were recognized. In the clinical course, rapid circumferential expansion of retinal lesions (39%), development of retinal break or retinal detachment (55%), and optic atrophy (43%) were recorded. Four variables were identified as associated with poor visual prognosis. Conclusions: The present study identified clinical characteristics and factors associated with poor visual prognosis of ARN.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15715, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973297

RESUMO

Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare disease of B-cell origin with poor prognosis. Regulatory cytokines promote tumor development by suppressing antitumor immunity in several cancer types, including B-cell malignancies. To identify the regulatory cytokines associated with poor prognosis in patients with B-cell VRL, we determined the regulatory cytokines profiles in the vitreous humor of patients with VRL. This retrospective study included 22 patients with VRL, 24 with non-infectious uveitis (NIU), and 20 with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (control). Vitreous concentrations of regulatory cytokines were assessed using a cytometric beads assay and association with clinical data was examined. IL-35 and soluble IL-2 receptor α levels were significantly higher in patients with VRL and NIU than those in the control group. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for the group with high intravitreal IL-35 was significantly poorer than those for the group with low intravitreal IL-35, who were diagnosed with VRL at the onset (P = 0.024, log-rank test). The 5-year OS rates with intravitreal IL-35 levels above and below the median were 40.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that high intravitreal IL-35 levels indicate poor prognosis for patients diagnosed with B-cell VRL at the onset.

7.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Japan has been known as a super-aged society, and ageing is a well-known risk factor for blinding eye diseases. However, epidemiological studies in ophthalmology are still scarce in Japan, and the sizes of the cohorts are relatively small. "Ganka-Ekigaku Network" (GEN, an acronym for the epidemiological network in ophthalmology in Japanese) is established to develop a capacity to boost each epidemiological study and enrich a potential inter-study collaboration to identify risk factors of visual impairment in aged society. METHODS: We reviewed cohort studies in Japan with the inclusion criteria as: (1) at least n = 1000 at baseline, (2) multiple modalities of ophthalmic data, and (3) diagnosis reviewed by ophthalmologist(s), and (4) ophthalmologists are involved in the investigators group. As of January 2020, GEN includes 4 individual Japanese epidemiological studies namely, Hisayama study, Yamagata Study (Funagata), Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort study, and the Nagahama Prospective Genome Cohort for Comprehensive Human Bioscience. RESULTS: GEN includes approximately 25,000 Japanese participants. The baseline surveys started from 1998 to 2012, and since then the data has been prospectively collected approximately every 5 years. A variety of ophthalmic measurements and other factors have been collected in each study in GEN: ophthalmic measurements (fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, etc.), systemic conditions (laboratory data, etc.), and others (DNA, etc.). CONCLUSION: GEN is an open platform for observational ophthalmic epidemiological studies to share standardized methodologies. While each study in GEN pursues specific and original research questions, standardization of the methods will enable us to conduct reliable meta-analysis/pooled data analyses.

8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(11): 30, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936303

RESUMO

Purpose: Retinal degeneration involves neuroinflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines are markedly increased in the eyes of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In this study, we investigated the changes of serum cytokines/chemokines in RP, and their relationships with visual parameters. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with typical RP aged 20 to -39 years and 28 age-matched and gender-matched controls were included. Fifteen cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, 1L-15, IL-17, IL-23, interferon [IFN]-γ, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, TNF-ß) and 9 chemokines (eotaxin, growth-related oncogene [GRO]-α, I-309, IL-8, IFN-γ-inducible protein [IP]-10, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, MCP-2, regulated activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], and thymus and activated regulated chemokine [TARC]) in the serum were simultaneously measured by a multiplexed immunoarray (Q-Plex). Relationships between these cytokines/chemokines and indices of central vision, such as visual acuity (VA), the values of static perimetry tests (Humphrey Field analyzer, the central 10-2 program), and optical coherence tomography measures were analyzed in the patients with RP. Results: Among the 15 cytokines and 9 chemokines, serum IL-8 and RANTES levels were significantly increased in patients with RP compared with controls (IL-8: P < 0.0001; RANTES: P < 0.0001). Among the elevated cytokines/chemokines, the levels of IL-8 were negatively correlated with VA (ρ = 0.3596 and P = 0.0165), and the average retinal sensitivity of four central points (ρ = -0.3691 and P = 0.0291), and 12 central points (ρ = -0.3491 and P = 0.0398), as well as the central subfield thickness (ρ = -0.3961 and P = 0.0094), and ellipsoid zone width (ρ = -0.3841 and P = 0.0120). Conclusions: Peripheral inflammatory response may be activated and serum IL-8 levels are associated with central vision in patients with RP.

9.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2177, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Holding endoscopes by hand when performing eye surgery reduces the dexterity of the surgeon. METHODS: A robotic endoscope holder called "Eye Explorer" is proposed to hold the endoscope and free the surgeon's hand. RESULTS: This device satisfies the engineering and clinical requirements of eye surgery. The force for manual operation is less than 0.5 N. The observable ranges inside the patient's eye considering horizontal and vertical perspectives are 118° and 97°, and the motion of the holder does not interfere with the surgeon's hand and other surgical devices. The self-weight compensation can prevent the endoscope from falling when extra supporting force is released. When comparing the external force exerted on the eye by the Eye Explorer with that in case of manual operation, a decrease of more than 15% can be observed. Moreover, the consumption time of endoscope view adjustment using the Eye Explorer and manual operation does not significantly differ. CONCLUSION: The Eye Explorer allows dual-hand operation, facilitating a successful endoscopic eye surgery.

10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(10): 6, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749464

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the relationship between the macular curvature and the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: We examined the medical records of the right eyes of 65 cases with RP (31 men and 34 women; average age, 47.6 years). There were 31 cases with the EYS variants, 11 cases with the USH2A variants, six cases with the RPGR variants, 13 cases with the RP1 variants, and four cases with the RP1L1 variants. The mean curvature of Bruch's membrane was calculated within 6 mm of the fovea as the mean macular curvature index (MMCI, 1/µm). We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine the independence of the causative genes contributing to the MMCIs after adjustments for age, sex, axial length, and width of the ellipsoid zone. Results: The median MMCI was -31.2 × 10-5/µm for the RPGR eyes, -16.5 × 10-5/µm for the RP1L1 eyes, -13.0 × 10-5/µm for the RP1 eyes, -9.8 × 10-5/µm for the EYS eyes, and -9.0 × 10-5/µm for the USH2A eyes. Compared with the EYS gene as the reference gene, the RPGR gene was significantly related to the MMCI values after adjusting for the other parameters (P = 5.30 × 10-6). In contrast, the effects of the other genes, USH2A, RP1, and RP1L1, were not significantly different from that of the EYS gene (P = 0.26, P = 0.49, and P = 0.92, respectively). Conclusions: The RPGR gene had a stronger effect on the steep macular curvature than the other ciliopathy-related genes.

11.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 64(5): 455-461, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of BBG (Brilliant Blue G250) for lens capsular staining during cataract surgery with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. METHODS: This clinical trial enrolled 30 eyes of 30 patients who underwent cataract surgery with BBG (0.25 mg/mL Brilliant Blue G250) for capsular staining. Visualization of the lens capsule and the ease of capsulorhexis with BBG staining were evaluated in five grades (grade 0 to 4) by the Independent Data Monitoring Committee and the surgeons. The safety of BBG was also evaluated in terms of ocular and systemic tolerance for 7 days after surgery. RESULTS: The use of BBG improved visualization of the lens capsule and complete capsulorhexis was performed in all patients. The major endpoint (Independent Data Monitoring Committee evaluation) showed that use of BBG improved visualization of the lens capsule and the ease of capsulorhexis (grades 2 to 4); the committee's grading results were similar to those of the surgeons. Frequent complications observed in more than two eyes were conjunctival injection, corneal edema and intraocular pressure elevation. No severe complications were observed in ocular and systemic evaluations. CONCLUSION: BBG staining contributed to improved visualization of the lens capsule and aided in the completion of capsulorhexis during cataract surgery. The use of BBG for capsular staining also exhibited favorable safety results.

12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(8): 26, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692839

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the association between aqueous flare and progression of visual field loss using the Humphrey Field Analyzer in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: We examined a total of 101 eyes of 101 patients who were diagnosed with typical RP. Sixty-one percent of the patients were female, and the mean age of the total group was 47.4 years. Aqueous flare, visual field (by an Humphrey Field Analyzer, the central 10-2 SITA-Standard program), and optical coherence tomography measurements were obtained for all patients. The slope, which was derived from serial values of mean deviation, macular sensitivity, or foveal sensitivity for each eye with univariate linear regression, was used for analysis. Results: Aqueous flare values were significantly correlated with the mean deviation slope (r = -0.20, P = 0.046), macular sensitivity slope (r = -0.28, P = 0.005) and foveal sensitivity slope (r = -0.20, P = 0.047). The values of the retinal sensitivity slope significantly decreased as the aqueous flare level increased (all P < 0.05). These associations remained unchanged after adjustment for age, sex, and posterior subcapsular cataract, and epiretinal membrane. Conclusions: Elevation of aqueous flare is a risk factor for the decline of central visual function in RP. Aqueous flare may be a useful marker for disease progression in RP.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719682

RESUMO

In the twentieth century, a conspicuous lack of effective treatment strategies existed for managing several retinal disorders, including age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy (DR); retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); retinitis pigmentosa (RP); uveitis, including Behçet's disease; and vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL). However, in the first decade of this century, advances in biomedicine have provided new treatment strategies in the field of ophthalmology, particularly biologics that target vascular endothelial growth factor or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Furthermore, clinical trials on gene therapy specifically for patients with autosomal recessive or X-linked RP have commenced. The overall survival rates of patients with VRL have improved, owing to earlier diagnoses and better treatment strategies. However, some unresolved problems remain such as primary or secondary non-response to biologics or chemotherapy, and the lack of adequate strategies for treating most RP patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the immunological mechanisms of the eye under normal conditions and in several retinal disorders, including uveitis, DR, ROP, RP, and VRL. In addition, we discuss recent studies that describe the inflammatory responses that occur during the course of these retinal disorders to provide new insights into their diagnosis and treatment.

14.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 64(5): 485-496, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627106

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the clinical course and high resolution images of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) associated with a variant of the RP1 gene (c.4052_4053ins328/p.Tyr1352Alafs*9; m1), a high frequency founder variant in Japanese RP patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Nine patients from 5 unrelated Japanese families were studied. Five patients had the m1 variant homozygously, and 4 patients had the m1 variant compound heterozygously with another frameshift variant (c.4196delG/p.Cys1399Leufs*5). Ophthalmic examinations including adaptive optics (AO) fundus imaging were performed periodically. RESULTS: The fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images, and optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images indicated severe retinal degeneration in all the patients involving the macula even at a young age (20 s). The areas of surviving photoreceptors in the central macula were seen as hyper-autofluorescent regions in the FAF images and preserved outer retinal structure in the OCT images; they were identifiable in the AO fundus images in 8 eyes. The borders of the surviving photoreceptor areas were surrounded by hyporeflective clumps, presumably containing melanin, and the size of these areas decreased progressively during the 4-year follow-up period. The disappearance of the surviving photoreceptor areas was associated with complete blindness. CONCLUSION: Patients with RP associated with the m1 variant have a progressive and severe retinal degeneration that begins at an early age. Monitoring the surviving photoreceptor areas by AO fundus imaging can provide a more precise pathological record of retinal degeneration.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9299, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518264

RESUMO

Ischemic proliferative retinopathy (IPR), such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinal vein occlusion and retinopathy of prematurity is a major cause of vision loss. Our previous studies demonstrated that periostin (PN) and tenascin-C (TNC) are involved in the pathogenesis of IPR. However, the interactive role of PN and TNC in angiogenesis associated with IPR remain unknown. We found significant correlation between concentrations of PN and TNC in PDR vitreous humor. mRNA and protein expression of PN and TNC were found in pre-retinal fibrovascular membranes excised from PDR patients. Interleukin-13 (IL-13) promoted mRNA and protein expression of PN and TNC, and co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed binding between PN and TNC in human microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). IL-13 promoted angiogenic functions of HRECs. Single inhibition of PN or TNC and their dual inhibition by siRNA suppressed the up-regulated angiogenic functions. Pathological pre-retinal neovessels of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice were attenuated in PN knock-out, TNC knock-out and dual knock-out mice compared to wild-type mice. Both in vitro and in vivo, PN inhibition had a stronger inhibitory effect on angiogenesis compared to TNC inhibition, and had a similar effect to dual inhibition of PN and TNC. Furthermore, PN knock-out mice showed scant TNC expression in pre-retinal neovessels of OIR retinas. Our findings suggest that interaction of PN and TNC facilitates pre-retinal angiogenesis, and PN is an effective therapeutic target for IPR such as PDR.

16.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(8): 887-893, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584372

RESUMO

Importance: Myopic maculopathy is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide. Moreover, the burden of myopic maculopathy has been expected to increase owing to the rising prevalence of myopia globally. However, there is limited epidemiologic evidence regarding the incidence of and risk factors for myopic maculopathy. This study from Japan, with a relatively high prevalence of myopia, could provide valuable information related to these issues. Objective: To estimate the incidence of myopic maculopathy and its risk factors in Hisayama in southwestern Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based prospective cohort study in a Japanese community in Hisayama, Japan. The study included a total of 2164 residents 40 years or older who had no myopic maculopathy at the baseline eye examination in 2012 and underwent follow-up eye examinations in 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of myopic maculopathy. The grades of myopic maculopathy were categorized based on the criteria of the Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia Study Group classification system. Results: The mean (SD) age of the study participants was 62.4 (10.9) years, and the proportion of men was 42.5% (920 participants). In the follow-up examination in 2017, 24 patients developed myopic maculopathy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of myopic maculopathy was 1.1% (95% CI, 0.6-1.5) overall, 1.4% (95% CI, 0.6-2.2) for men, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.4-1.4) for women. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (per 1 year; odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) and longer axial length (per 1 mm; OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 2.19-3.95) were associated with incident myopic maculopathy. Conclusions and Relevance: Twenty-four study participants (1%) developed myopic maculopathy during the 5-year study period, which is much higher than the rate in a previous study on a Chinese population. We also confirmed that aging and longer axial length were independent and significant risk factors for myopic maculopathy. These findings should be reviewed among various populations in other parts of the world.

18.
Ophthalmology ; 127(10): 1371-1381, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although there have been many population-based studies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), only limited information is available in Asia on the epidemiology of geographic atrophy (GA). We aimed to determine the prevalence and patterns of GA through an analysis of multiple studies conducted within the Asian Eye Epidemiology Consortium (AEEC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional meta-analyses. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 97 213 individuals aged 40 years and older. METHODS: Data from 22 population-based studies from countries belonging to the AEEC were included. In all studies, AMD was defined on the basis of standardized grading systems. Geographic atrophy was defined as an area of pallor in the fundus with visibility of the underlying choroidal blood vessels and sharply defined borders. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate overall and age-, gender-, and region-specific pooled prevalence of GA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of GA per 1000 persons. RESULTS: The mean age was 60.8 ± 10.0 years, and 42 673 (43.9%) were male. Overall, a total of 223 individuals (0.2%) had GA. The pooled overall prevalence of GA was 1.57 per 1000 persons (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.10), which was 3 times less than that of neovascular AMD of 5.20 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 3.97-6.43). Compared with those aged 50 to 59 years, the prevalence of GA increased from 0.34 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 0.07-0.62) to 2.90 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 1.55-4.25) in those aged ≥70 years. The GA prevalence per 1000 persons was similar between urban (2.22; 95% CI, 1.22-3.23) and rural residents (1.33; 95% CI, 0.70-1.96). Geographic atrophy was more prevalent in South Asia (based on studies from India and Nepal, 3.82 per 1000 persons; 95% CI, 1.72-5.93) compared with East Asia (based on studies from China, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan, and the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, 0.76 per 1000 persons; 95% CI, 0.31-1.22, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is uncommon in Asian populations compared with those of European ancestry. Even within Asia, geographic differences in GA prevalence were seen. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that better dissection of risk factors in the Asian population for GA may provide insights into the biological pathways that drive these late-stage manifestations, thus suggesting better targets for prevention.

19.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 80, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pierson syndrome (PS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by congenital nephrotic syndrome and microcoria. Advances in renal replacement therapies have extended the lifespan of patients, whereas the full clinical spectrum of PS in infancy and beyond remains elusive. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 12-month-old boy with PS, manifesting as the bilateral microcoria and congenital nephrotic syndrome. He was born without asphyxia, and was neurologically intact from birth through the neonatal period. Generalized muscle weakness and hypotonia were recognized from 3 months of age. The infant showed recurrent vomiting at age 5 months of age, and was diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux and intestinal malrotation. Despite the successful surgical treatment, vomiting persisted and led to severely impaired growth. Tulobuterol treatment was effective in reducing the frequency of vomiting. Targeted sequencing confirmed that he had a compound heterozygous mutation in LAMB2 (NM_002292.3: p.Arg550X and p.Glu1507X). A search of the relevant literature identified 19 patients with severe neuro-muscular phenotypes. Among these, only 8 survived the first 12 months of life, and one had feeding difficulty with similar gastrointestinal problems. CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrated that severe neurological deficits and gastrointestinal dysfunction may emerge in PS patients after the first few months of life.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Laminina/genética , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Distúrbios Pupilares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/patologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/patologia , Fenótipo , Distúrbios Pupilares/patologia
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(39): 5291-5294, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271336

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) are a subset of innate-like T cells that are activated by uracil ligands presented by MR1. For the first time, we demonstrate that changes to the 6-aminoalkyl chain on uracil agonist 5-OP-RU can determine agonistic or antagonistic MAIT cell activity. Insomuch, a simplified agonist with a functional profile similar to 5-OP-RU, and a new structural class of antagonist that exhibits similar activity to known MAIT cell antagonist Ac-6-FP, were identified.

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