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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physicians' own screening practices might affect screening in their patients. We conducted a population-based study to evaluate whether family physicians who underwent colorectal cancer testing were more likely to have patients who underwent colorectal cancer testing. METHODS: We collected demographic and healthcare information on residents of Ontario, Canada from administrative databases; the sample was restricted to individuals at average risk of colorectal cancer who were 52-74 years old as of April 21, 2016. We obtained a list of all registered physicians in the province; physicians (n=11,434) were matched with non-physicians (n=45,736) on age, sex, and residential location. Uptake of colorectal tests was defined by a record of a fecal occult blood test in the past 2 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 years, or colonoscopy in the past 10 years. Patients were assigned to family physicians based on billing claim frequency, and then the association between colorectal testing in family physicians and their patients was examined using a modified Poisson regression model. RESULTS: Uptake of colorectal tests by physicians and non-physicians (median age 60; 71% men) was 67.9% (95% CI, 67.0%-68.7%) and 66.6% (95% CI, 66.2%-67.1%), respectively. Physicians were less likely than non-physicians to undergo fecal occult blood testing and were more likely to undergo colonoscopy; prevalence ratios were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.42-0.47) and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.22-1.26), respectively. Uptake of colorectal tests by family physicians was associated with greater uptake by their patients (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of physicians and non-physicians are overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Patients are more likely to be tested if their family physician has been tested. There is an opportunity for physicians to increase their participation in colorectal cancer screening, which could in turn motivate their patients to undergo screening.

2.
JAMA ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705755

RESUMO

Importance: At least 30 case reports have linked the muscle relaxant baclofen to encephalopathy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: To compare the 30-day risk of encephalopathy in patients with CKD and newly prescribed baclofen at greater than or equal to 20 mg per day vs less than 20 mg per day. The secondary objective was to compare the risk of encephalopathy in baclofen users vs nonusers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada (2007-2018) using linked health care data. Participants comprised 15 942 older adults (aged 66 years or older) with CKD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 but not receiving dialysis). The primary cohort was restricted to patients who were newly prescribed baclofen; participants in the secondary cohort were new users and nonusers. Exposures: Prescription for oral baclofen greater than or equal to 20 mg per day vs less than 20 mg per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital admission with encephalopathy, defined as a main diagnosis of delirium, disorientation, transient alteration of awareness, transient cerebral ischemic attack, or unspecified dementia within 30 days of starting baclofen. Inverse probability of treatment weighting on the propensity score was used to balance comparison groups on indicators of baseline health. Weighted risk ratios (RRs) were obtained using modified Poisson regression and weighted risk differences (RDs) using binomial regression. Prespecified subgroup analyses were conducted by eGFR category. Results: The primary cohort comprised 15 942 patients with CKD (9699 [61%] women; median age, 77 years [interquartile range, 71-82]; 9707 [61%] patients started baclofen at ≥20 mg/d and 6235 [39%] at <20 mg/d). The primary outcome, hospitalization with encephalopathy, occurred in 108/9707 (1.11%) patients who started baclofen at greater than or equal to 20 mg per day and in 26/6235 (0.42%) who started baclofen at less than 20 mg per day; weighted RR, 3.54 (95% CI, 2.24 to 5.59); weighted RD, 0.80% (95% CI, 0.55% to 1.04%). In subgroup analysis, the absolute risk increased progressively at lower eGFR (weighted RD eGFR 45-59, 0.42% [95% CI, 0.19%-0.64%]; eGFR 30-44, 1.23% [95% CI, 0.62%-1.84%]; eGFR <30, 2.90% [95% CI, 1.30%-4.49%]; P for interaction, <.001]). In the secondary comparison with 284 263 nonusers, both groups of baclofen users had a higher risk of encephalopathy (<20 mg/d weighted RR, 5.90 [95% CI, 3.59 to 9.70] and ≥20 mg/d weighted RR, 19.8 [95% CI, 14.0 to 28.0]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among older patients with CKD who were newly prescribed baclofen, the 30-day incidence of encephalopathy was increased among those prescribed higher doses compared with lower doses. If verified, these risks should be balanced against the benefits of baclofen use.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(7): 1294-1304, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safely reducing red blood cell transfusions can prevent transfusion-related adverse effects, conserve the blood supply, and reduce health care costs. Both anemia and red blood cell transfusion are independently associated with AKI, but observational data are insufficient to determine whether a restrictive approach to transfusion can be used without increasing AKI risk. METHODS: In a prespecified kidney substudy of a randomized noninferiority trial, we compared a restrictive threshold for red blood cell transfusion (transfuse if hemoglobin<7.5 g/dl, intraoperatively and postoperatively) with a liberal threshold (transfuse if hemoglobin<9.5 g/dl in the operating room or intensive care unit, or if hemoglobin<8.5 g/dl on the nonintensive care ward). We studied 4531 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass who had a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death. The substudy's primary outcome was AKI, defined as a postoperative increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl within 48 hours of surgery, or ≥50% within 7 days of surgery. RESULTS: Patients in the restrictive-threshold group received significantly fewer transfusions than patients in the liberal-threshold group (1.8 versus 2.9 on average, or 38% fewer transfusions in the restricted-threshold group compared with the liberal-threshold group; P<0.001). AKI occurred in 27.7% of patients in the restrictive-threshold group (624 of 2251) and in 27.9% of patients in the liberal-threshold group (636 of 2280). Similarly, among patients with preoperative CKD, AKI occurred in 33.6% of patients in the restrictive-threshold group (258 of 767) and in 32.5% of patients in the liberal-threshold group (252 of 775). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a restrictive transfusion approach resulted in fewer red blood cell transfusions without increasing the risk of AKI.

4.
Transplantation ; 103(6): e164-e171, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living donors may incur out-of-pocket costs during the donation process. While many jurisdictions have programs to reimburse living kidney donors for expenses, few programs have been evaluated. METHODS: The Program for Reimbursing Expenses of Living Organ Donors was launched in the province of Ontario, Canada in 2008 and reimburses travel, parking, accommodation, meals, and loss of income; each category has a limit and the maximum total reimbursement is $5500 CAD. We conducted a case study to compare donors' incurred costs (out-of-pocket and lost income) with amounts reimbursed by Program for Reimbursing Expenses of Living Organ Donors. Donors with complete or partial cost data from a large prospective cohort study were linked to Ontario's reimbursement program to determine the gap between incurred and reimbursed costs (n = 159). RESULTS: The mean gap between costs incurred and costs reimbursed to the donors was $1313 CAD for out-of-pocket costs and $1802 CAD for lost income, representing a mean reimbursement gap of $3115 CAD. Nondirected donors had the highest mean loss for out-of-pocket costs ($2691 CAD) and kidney paired donors had the highest mean loss for lost income ($4084 CAD). There were no significant differences in the mean gap across exploratory subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Reimbursement programs minimize some of the financial loss for living kidney donors. Opportunities remain to remove the financial burden of living kidney donors.

5.
CMAJ ; 191(9): E247-E256, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative corticosteroid use may reduce acute kidney injury. We sought to test whether methylprednisolone reduces the risk of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified substudy of a randomized controlled trial involving patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (2007-2014); patients were recruited from 79 centres in 18 countries. Eligibility criteria included a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death based on a preoperative score of 6 or greater on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation I. Patients (n = 7286) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous methylprednisolone (250 mg at anesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients, caregivers, data collectors and outcome adjudicators were unaware of the assigned intervention. The primary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration (from the preoperative value) of 0.3 mg/dL or greater (≥ 26.5 µmol/L) or 50% or greater in the 14-day period after surgery, or use of dialysis within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 1479/3647 patients (40.6%) in the methylprednisolone group and in 1426/3639 patients (39.2%) in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.11). Results were consistent across several definitions of acute kidney injury and in patients with preoperative chronic kidney disease. INTERPRETATION: Intraoperative corticosteroid use did not reduce the risk of acute kidney injury in patients with a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death who had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results do not support the prophylactic use of steroids during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00427388.

6.
Transplantation ; 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living donors may incur out-of-pocket costs during the donation process. While many jurisdictions have programs to reimburse living kidney donors for expenses, few programs have been evaluated. METHODS: The Program for Reimbursing Expenses of Living Organ Donors (PRELOD) was launched in the province of Ontario, Canada in 2008 and reimburses travel, parking, accommodation, meals, and loss of income; each category has a limit and the maximum total reimbursement is $5,500 CAD. We conducted a case study to compare donors' incurred costs (out-of-pocket and lost income) with amounts reimbursed by PRELOD. Donors with complete or partial cost data from a large prospective cohort study were linked to Ontario's reimbursement program to determine the gap between incurred and reimbursed costs (n=159). RESULTS: The mean gap between costs incurred and costs reimbursed to the donors was $1,313 CAD for out-of-pocket costs and $1,802 CAD for lost income, representing a mean reimbursement gap of $3,115 CAD. Non-directed donors had the highest mean loss for out-of-pocket costs ($2,691) and kidney paired donors had the highest mean loss for lost income ($4,084). There were no significant differences in the mean gap across exploratory subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Reimbursement programs minimize some of the financial loss for living kidney donors. Opportunities remain to remove the financial burden of living kidney donors.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(12): 2847-2857, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of the kidneys for transplant worldwide come from living donors. Despite advantages of living donor transplants, rates have stagnated in recent years. One possible barrier may be costs related to the transplant process that potential willing donors may incur for travel, parking, accommodation, and lost productivity. METHODS: To better understand and quantify the financial costs incurred by living kidney donors, we conducted a prospective cohort study, recruiting 912 living kidney donors from 12 transplant centers across Canada between 2009 and 2014; 821 of them completed all or a portion of the costing survey. We report microcosted total, out-of-pocket, and lost productivity costs (in 2016 Canadian dollars) for living kidney donors from donor evaluation start to 3 months after donation. We examined costs according to (1) the donor's relationship with their recipient, including spousal (donation to a partner), emotionally related nonspousal (friend, step-parent, in law), or genetically related; and (2) donation type (directed, paired kidney, or nondirected). RESULTS: Living kidney donors incurred a median (75th percentile) of $1254 ($2589) in out-of-pocket costs and $0 ($1908) in lost productivity costs. On average, total costs were $2226 higher in spousal compared with emotionally related nonspousal donors (P=0.02) and $1664 higher in directed donors compared with nondirected donors (P<0.001). Total costs (out-of-pocket and lost productivity) exceeded $5500 for 205 (25%) donors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results can be used to inform strategies to minimize the financial burden of living donation, which may help improve the donation experience and increase the number of living donor kidney transplants.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202801, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142223

RESUMO

Several case reports suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is associated with development of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We conducted a matched population-based case-control study using linked administrative healthcare data in Ontario, Canada to assess the relationship between TMA hospitalization and recent exposure to prescription NSAIDs versus acetaminophen (acetaminophen was chosen as the referent drug because it has no known association with TMA). Cases and controls were drawn from a source population of adults who filled a prescription for either NSAIDs or acetaminophen between 1991 and 2015 (restricted to adults with prescription drug benefits [n = 3.6 million]). We identified 44 eligible cases with a hospital admission for incident TMA and a recent prescription for NSAIDs or acetaminophen. We successfully matched 38 cases (1:4) to 152 controls without TMA on demographics, risk factors for TMA, and indications for NSAID use. Cases and controls were similar with respect to age (71 years) and sex (63% women); however, on average, cases had more comorbidities than controls (12 vs. 14; p<0.05) and more primary care visits in the year before the index date (19 vs. 12; p<0.05). Cases were significantly less likely than controls to have received a recent prescription for NSAIDs (19/38 [50%] vs. 115/152 [76%], respectively; adjusted odds ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.84). Results were similar in several sensitivity analyses. Overall, the results of this study do not support a harmful association between NSAID use and the development of TMA.

9.
JAMA ; 319(18): 1870-1879, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801012

RESUMO

Importance: In observational studies, increased water intake is associated with better kidney function. Objective: To determine the effect of coaching to increase water intake on kidney function in adults with chronic kidney disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: The CKD WIT (Chronic Kidney Disease Water Intake Trial) randomized clinical trial was conducted in 9 centers in Ontario, Canada, from 2013 until 2017 (last day of follow-up, May 25, 2017). Patients had stage 3 chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) and a 24-hour urine volume of less than 3.0 L. Interventions: Patients in the hydration group (n = 316) were coached to drink more water, and those in the control group (n = 315) were coached to maintain usual intake. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in kidney function (eGFR from baseline to 12 months). Secondary outcomes included 1-year change in plasma copeptin concentration, creatinine clearance, 24-hour urine albumin, and patient-reported overall quality of health (0 [worst possible] to 10 [best possible]). Results: Of 631 randomized patients (mean age, 65.0 years; men, 63.4%; mean eGFR, 43 mL/min/1.73 m2; median urine albumin, 123 mg/d), 12 died (hydration group [n = 5]; control group [n = 7]). Among 590 survivors with 1-year follow-up measurements (95% of 619), the mean change in 24-hour urine volume was 0.6 L per day higher in the hydration group (95% CI, 0.5 to 0.7; P < .001). The mean change in eGFR was -2.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the hydration group and -1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the control group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI, -1.8 to 1.2; P = .74]). The mean between-group differences (hydration vs control) in secondary outcomes were as follows: plasma copeptin, -2.2 pmol/L (95% CI, -3.9 to -0.5; P = .01); creatinine clearance, 3.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI, 0.8 to 6.4; P = .01); urine albumin, 7 mg per day (95% CI, -4 to 51; P = .11); and quality of health, 0.2 points (95% CI, -0.3 to 0.3; P = .22). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with chronic kidney disease, coaching to increase water intake compared with coaching to maintain the same water intake did not significantly slow the decline in kidney function after 1 year. However, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01766687.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Tutoria , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Água/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Urina/química
10.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 5: 2054358117749532, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326843

RESUMO

Background: When safe to do so, avoiding blood transfusions in cardiac surgery can avoid the risk of transfusion-related infections and other complications while protecting a scarce resource and reducing costs. This protocol describes a kidney substudy of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III (TRICS-III) trial, a multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial to determine whether the risk of major clinical outcomes in patients undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion. Objective: The objective of this substudy is to determine whether the risk of acute kidney injury is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion, and whether this holds true in patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease. Design and Setting: Multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial conducted in 73 centers in 19 countries (2014-2017). Patients: Patients (~4800) undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements: The primary outcome of this substudy is perioperative acute kidney injury, defined as an acute rise in serum creatinine from the preoperative value (obtained in the 30-day period before surgery), where an acute rise is defined as ≥26.5 µmol/L in the first 48 hours after surgery or ≥50% in the first 7 days after surgery. Methods: We will report the absolute risk difference in acute kidney injury and the 95% confidence interval. We will repeat the primary analysis using alternative definitions of acute kidney injury, including staging definitions, and will examine effect modification by preexisting chronic kidney disease (defined as a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Limitations: It is not possible to blind patients or providers to the intervention; however, objective measures will be used to assess outcomes, and outcome assessors will be blinded to the intervention assignment. Results: Substudy results will be reported by the year 2018. Conclusions: This substudy will provide generalizable estimates of the risk of acute kidney injury of a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion in the presence of anemia during cardiac surgery done with cardiopulmonary bypass. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov; clinical trial registration number NCT 02042898.

11.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 23(12): 1145-1151, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215180

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the direct and indirect costs incurred by Australian living kidney donors. METHODS: A total of 55 living kidney donors from three centres in Perth, Australia and one centre in Melbourne, Australia (2010-2014) was studied. Forty-nine donors provided information on expenses incurred during the donor evaluation period and up to 3 months after donation. A micro-costing approach was used to measure and value the units of resources consumed. Expenses were grouped as direct costs (ground and air travel, accommodation, and prescription medications) and indirect costs (lost wages and lost productivity). Costs were standardized to the year 2016 in Australian dollars. RESULTS: The most common direct costs were for ground travel (100%), parking (76%), and post-donation pain medications or antibiotics (73%). The highest direct costs were for air travel (median $1986 [three donors]) and ground travel (median $459 [49 donors]). Donors also reported lost wages (median $9891 [37 donors]). The inability to perform household activities or care for dependants were reported by 32 (65%) and 23 (47%) donors. Total direct costs averaged $1682 per donor (median $806 among 49 donors). Total indirect costs averaged $7249 per donor (median $7273 among 49 donors). Total direct and indirect costs averaged $8932 per donor (median $7963 among 49 donors). CONCLUSION: Many Australian living kidney donors incur substantial costs during the donation process. Our findings inform the continued development of policies and programmes designed to minimize costs incurred by living kidney donors.

12.
Kidney Int Rep ; 2(6): 998-1008, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270511

RESUMO

Millions of workers around the world are exposed to high temperatures, intense physical activity, and lax labor practices that do not allow for sufficient rehydration breaks. The extent and consequences of heat exposure in different occupational settings, countries, and cultural contexts is not well studied. We conducted an in-depth review to examine the known effects of occupational heat stress on the kidney. We also examined methods of heat-stress assessment, strategies for prevention and mitigation, and the economic consequences of occupational heat stress. Our descriptive review summarizes emerging evidence that extreme occupational heat stress combined with chronic dehydration may contribute to the development of CKD and ultimately kidney failure. Rising global temperatures, coupled with decreasing access to clean drinking water, may exacerbate the effects of heat exposure in both outdoor and indoor workers who are exposed to chronic heat stress and recurrent dehydration. These changes create an urgent need for health researchers and industry to identify work practices that contribute to heat-stress nephropathy, and to test targeted, robust prevention and mitigation strategies. Preventing occupational heat stress presents a great challenge for a concerted multidisciplinary effort from employers, health authorities, engineers, researchers, and governments.

14.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 4: 2054358117725106, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In observational studies, drinking more water associates with a slower rate of kidney function decline; whether the same is true in a randomized controlled trial is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the 1-year effect of a higher vs usual water intake on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nine centers in Ontario, Canada. Enrollment and randomization occurred between May 2013 and May 2016; follow-up for the primary outcome will continue until June 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n = 631) with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and microalbuminuria. INTERVENTION: The high water intake group was coached to increase their oral water intake by 1.0 to 1.5 L/day (depending on sex and weight), over and above usual consumed beverages, for a period of 1 year. The control group was coached to maintain their usual water intake during this time. MEASURES: Participants provided 24-hour urine samples at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after randomization; urine samples were analyzed for volume, creatinine, osmolality, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 3- to 6-month intervals after randomization, and analyzed for creatinine, copeptin, osmolality, and electrolytes. Other measures collected included health-related quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index, and diet. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The between-group change in eGFR from baseline (prerandomization) to 12 months after randomization. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Change in plasma copeptin concentration, 24-hour urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, measured creatinine clearance, estimated 5-year risk of kidney failure (using the 4-variable Kidney Failure Risk Equation), and health-related quality of life. PLANNED ANALYSIS: The primary analysis will follow an intention-to-treat approach. The between-group change in eGFR will be compared using linear regression. Supplementary analyses will examine alternative definitions of eGFR change, including annual percentage change, rate of decline, and rapid decline (a P value <0.05 will be interpreted as statistically significant if there is concordance with the primary outcome). TRIAL REGISTRATION: This randomized controlled trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov; government identifier: NCT01766687.

15.
Ann Intern Med ; 166(11): 765-774, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492914

RESUMO

Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURIs) requires a better understanding of the factors associated with this practice. Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial AURIs and whether prescribing rates varied by physician characteristics. Design: Retrospective analysis of linked administrative health care data. Setting: Primary care physician practices in Ontario, Canada (January-December 2012). Patients: Patients aged 66 years or older with nonbacterial AURIs. Patients with cancer or immunosuppressive conditions and residents of long-term care homes were excluded. Measurements: Antibiotic prescriptions for physician-diagnosed AURIs. A multivariable logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations was used to examine whether prescribing rates varied by physician characteristics, accounting for clustering of patients among physicians and adjusting for patient-level covariates. Results: The cohort included 8990 primary care physicians and 185 014 patients who presented with a nonbacterial AURI, including the common cold (53.4%), acute bronchitis (31.3%), acute sinusitis (13.6%), or acute laryngitis (1.6%). Forty-six percent of patients received an antibiotic prescription; most prescriptions were for broad-spectrum agents (69.9% [95% CI, 69.6% to 70.2%]). Patients were more likely to receive prescriptions from mid- and late-career physicians than early-career physicians (rate difference, 5.1 percentage points [CI, 3.9 to 6.4 percentage points] and 4.6 percentage points [CI, 3.3 to 5.8 percentage points], respectively), from physicians trained outside of Canada or the United States (3.6 percentage points [CI, 2.5 to 4.6 percentage points]), and from physicians who saw 25 to 44 patients per day or 45 or more patients per day than those who saw fewer than 25 patients per day (3.1 percentage points [CI, 2.1 to 4.0 percentage points] and 4.1 percentage points [CI, 2.7 to 5.5 percentage points], respectively). Limitation: Physician rationale for prescribing was unknown. Conclusion: In this low-risk elderly cohort, 46% of patients with a nonbacterial AURI were prescribed antibiotics. Patients were more likely to receive prescriptions from mid- or late-career physicians with high patient volumes and from physicians who were trained outside of Canada or the United States. Primary Funding Source: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care, Academic Medical Organization of Southwestern Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, and Lawson Health Research Institute.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Laringite/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Ontário , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 4: 2054358117698666, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491334

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To hear from living kidney donors and recipients about what they perceive are the barriers to living donor kidney transplantation, and how patients can develop and lead innovative solutions to increase the rate and enhance the experiences of living donor kidney transplantation in Ontario. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A one-day patient-led workshop on March 10th, 2016 in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: Participants who were previously engaged in priority-setting exercises were invited to the meeting by patient lead, Sue McKenzie. This included primarily past kidney donors, kidney transplant recipients, as well as researchers, and representatives from renal and transplant health care organizations across Ontario. KEY FINDINGS: Four main barriers were identified: lack of education for patients and families, lack of public awareness about living donor kidney transplantation, financial costs incurred by donors, and health care system-level inefficiencies. Several novel solutions were proposed, including the development of a peer network to support and educate patients and families with kidney failure to pursue living donor kidney transplantation; consistent reimbursement policies to cover donors' out-of-pocket expenses; and partnering with the paramedical and insurance industry to improve the efficiency of the donor and recipient evaluation process. LIMITATIONS: While there was a diversity of experience in the room from both donors and recipients, it does not provide a complete picture of the living kidney donation process for all Ontario donors and recipients. The discussion was provincially focused, and as such, some of the solutions suggested may already be in practice or unfeasible in other provinces. IMPLICATIONS: The creation of a patient-led provincial council was suggested as an important next step to advance the development and implementation of solutions to overcome patient-identified barriers to living donor kidney transplantation.

17.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 4: 2054358117703071, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous peoples in Canada have higher rates of kidney disease than non-Indigenous Canadians. However, little is known about the risk of kidney disease specifically in the Métis population in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and incidence of acute kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease among registered Métis citizens in Ontario and a matched sample from the general Ontario population. DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Métis Nation of Ontario's Citizenship Registry and administrative databases. SETTING: Ontario, Canada; 2003-2013. PATIENTS: Ontario residents ≥18 years. MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and incidence of acute kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease. Secondary outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury included non-recovery of kidney function and mortality within 1 year of discharge. METHODS: Database codes and laboratory values were used to determine study outcomes. Métis citizens were matched (1:4) to Ontario residents on age, sex, and area of residence. The analysis included 12 229 registered Métis citizens and 48 916 adults from the general population. RESULTS: We found the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was slightly higher among Métis citizens compared with the general population (3.1% vs 2.6%, P = 0.002). The incidence of acute kidney injury was 1.2 per 1000 person-years in both Métis citizens and the general population (P = 0.54). Of those hospitalized with acute kidney injury, outcomes were similar among Métis citizens and the general population except 1-year mortality, which was higher for Métis citizens (24.5% vs 15.3%, P = 0.03). The incidence of end-stage kidney disease did not differ between groups (<3.0 per 10 000 person-years, P = 0.73). LIMITATIONS: The Métis Nation of Ontario Citizenship Registry only captures about 20% of Métis people in Ontario. Administrative health care codes used to identify kidney disease are highly specific but have low sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of kidney disease were similar or slightly higher for Métis citizens in Ontario compared with the matched general population.

18.
Kidney Int ; 90(5): 974-984, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498206

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence supporting the application of plasma exchange in renal disease. Our review focuses on the following 6 most common renal indications for plasma exchange based on 2014 registry data from the Canadian Apheresis Group: (i) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)/hemolytic uremic syndrome; (ii) renal transplantation, (iii) anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies-associated vasculitis, (iv) cryoglobulinemia, (v) focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and (vi) Goodpasture syndrome. The rarity of these diseases and their rapid, often fatal course mean that randomized controlled studies of plasma exchange are rarely conducted. Although evidence from an adequately powered randomized controlled trial supports the use of plasma exchange to treat thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, the use of plasma exchange to treat other renal diseases is only supported by observational and mechanistic studies. Larger well-designed trials are needed to clarify the potential role of plasma exchange in renal disease. Growing international collaboration will improve the quality of future studies in this area.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/terapia , Plasmaferese , Crioglobulinemia/terapia , Rejeição de Enxerto/terapia , Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 17(1): 104, 2016 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the role of plasma exchange for treating recurrent post-transplant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) comes largely from individual cases and uncontrolled series. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the remission rate after treatment with plasma exchange, and to determine if remission varied with patient or treatment characteristics. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Science and BIOSIS) for studies of patients with post-transplant recurrent FSGS who were treated with plasma exchange after recurrence (1950-2012). Of 678 studies screened, 77 met our inclusion criteria: 34 case reports (45 patients) and 43 case series (378 patients). We extracted patient-level data from each study and used random-effects models to calculate remission, defined as proteinuria <3.5 g/day (partial) or <0.5 g/day (complete). RESULTS: The overall remission rate in 423 patients with outcome data was 71 % (95 % CI: 66 % to 75 %). In 235 patients with data on age, remission was similar for adults and children: 69.1 % (95 % CI: 59.6 % to 77.2 %) and 70.2 % (95 % CI: 61.1 % to 77.9 %). Males were more likely to achieve remission (OR = 2.85; 95 % CI: 1.44 to 5.62) and patients treated within 2 weeks of recurrence showed a trend towards higher likelihood of remission (OR = 2.16; 95 % CI: 0.93 to 5.01). Proteinuria >7 g/day at recurrence was inversely associated with remission (OR = 0.43; 95 % CI: 0.19 to 0.97). Age and type of kidney transplant (living vs. deceased) did not associate with remission. CONCLUSION: In this systematic review of patients with recurrent post-transplant FSGS, 71 % of patients achieved full or partial remission after treatment with plasma exchange; however, extensive missing data and lack of a control group limit any conclusions on causality.


Assuntos
Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/terapia , Transplante de Rim , Troca Plasmática , Feminino , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/complicações , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/urina , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Am J Nephrol ; 43(4): 281-92, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27161565

RESUMO

We performed a comprehensive literature review to examine evidence on the effects of hydration on the kidney. By reducing vasopressin secretion, increasing water intake may have a beneficial effect on renal function in patients with all forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in those at risk of CKD. This potential benefit may be greater when the kidney is still able to concentrate urine (high fluid intake is contraindicated in dialysis-dependent patients). Increasing water intake is a well-accepted method for preventing renal calculi, and current evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and heat stress from extreme occupational conditions is the most probable cause of an ongoing CKD epidemic in Mesoamerica. In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), increased water intake has been shown to slow renal cyst growth in animals via direct vasopressin suppression, and pharmacologic blockade of renal vasopressin-V2 receptors has been shown to slow cyst growth in patients. However, larger clinical trials are needed to determine if supplemental water can safely slow the loss of kidney function in PKD patients.


Assuntos
Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Nefropatias/terapia , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
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