Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119025732, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409268

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, identifying the underlying stroke mechanisms may inform secondary prevention. We aimed to propose reproducible classification criteria for stroke mechanisms based on routine neuroimaging in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and explore their clinical implications. Methods- We recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to 50% to 99% intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in anterior circulation from 2 centers. Two investigators independently classified probable stroke mechanisms as parent artery atherosclerosis occluding penetrating artery, artery-to-artery embolism, hypoperfusion, and mixed mechanisms, with prespecified criteria based on infarct topography and magnetic resonance/computed tomography angiography. These stroke mechanisms were correlated with features of the patients at baseline and recurrent ischemic stroke in the same territory or relevant transient ischemic attack within 1 year. Results- Among 153 patients recruited, the most common stroke mechanisms were isolated hypoperfusion (35.3%) and mixed mechanism of artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion (37.3%) that was associated with higher incidence of dyslipidemia (P=0.045) and hypertension (P=0.033) than patients with other stroke mechanisms. The proposed criteria showed substantial to excellent intrarater and interrater reproducibilities (κ, 0.791-0.908). Overall, 31 patients received interventional treatment of the diseased intracranial artery; 122 received medical treatment, among whom a mixed mechanism of artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion at baseline was associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke in the same territory within 1 year (24.4% versus 7.8%; hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.25-9.20; log-rank P=0.010) than other mechanisms combined. Conclusions- Artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion commonly coexist in ischemic stroke attributed to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, which may be associated with higher risk of stroke relapse.

2.
J Clin Neurosci ; 64: 187-193, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876936

RESUMO

Autonomic dysregulation is common in post-stroke patients. We aimed to correlate beat-to-beat blood pressure variability (BPV) and heart rate variability (HRV) with Ewing's test classification. We enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke. Autonomic function was assessed by Ewing battery and dichotomized into minor or significant group. Beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate were monitored for calculating the frequency components of BPV and HRV using power spectral analysis [very low frequency (VLF; <0.04 Hz); low frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz); high frequency (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz); power spectral density (PSD; <0.40 Hz) and LF/HF ratio]. In minor autonomic dysregulation group, BPV and HRV were similar with those in controls (all p > 0.05). However, LF/HF ratio in BPV and HRV significantly reduced in significant autonomic dysregulation group compared with that in controls (all p < 0.05). LF BPV in significant group was lower than that in controls. In patients, LF and LF/HF BPVs were positively correlated with parasympathetic parameters, while VLF HRV was negatively correlated with sympathetic parameters and the others were positively correlated with parasympathetic parameters. With cut-off values of 1.80 for LF/HF diastolic BP, 0.96 for the LF/HF systolic BP and 1.80 for LF/HF HRV, the sensitivity (53.80%, 69.20% and 53.80%, respectively) and specificity (92.50%, 80.00% and 92.50%, respectively) of these parameters were observed to predict autonomic dysregulation. Autonomic dysregulation is associated with lower variation of blood pressure and heart rate in acute ischemic stroke. Non-invasive monitoring of beat-to-beat BPV and HRV may be an alternative to autonomic dysregulation measure.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
3.
Ann Neurol ; 85(5): 752-764, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hemodynamic features of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (sICAS) might correlate with the risk of stroke relapse, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. METHODS: In a cohort study, we recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to 50 to 99% ICAS confirmed by computed tomographic angiography (CTA). With CTA-based CFD models, translesional pressure ratio (PR = pressurepoststenotic /pressureprestenotic ) and translesional wall shear stress ratio (WSSR = WSSstenotic - throat /WSSprestenotic ) were obtained in each sICAS lesion. Translesional PR ≤ median was defined as low PR and WSSR ≥4th quartile as high WSSR. All patients received standard medical treatment. The primary outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke in the same territory (SIT) within 1 year. RESULTS: Overall, 245 patients (median age = 61 years, 63.7% males) were analyzed. Median translesional PR was 0.94 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.87-0.97); median translesional WSSR was 13.3 (IQR = 7.0-26.7). SIT occurred in 20 (8.2%) patients, mostly with multiple infarcts in the border zone and/or cortical regions. In multivariate Cox regression, low PR (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.16, p = 0.026) and high WSSR (adjusted HR = 3.05, p = 0.014) were independently associated with SIT. Patients with both low PR and high WSSR had significantly higher risk of SIT than those with normal PR and WSSR (risk = 17.5% vs 3.0%, adjusted HR = 7.52, p = 0.004). INTERPRETATION: This work represents a step forward in utilizing computational flow simulation techniques in studying intracranial atherosclerotic disease. It reveals a hemodynamic pattern of sICAS that is more prone to stroke relapse, and supports hypoperfusion and artery-to-artery embolism as common mechanisms of ischemic stroke in such patients. Ann Neurol 2019;85:752-764.

4.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(4): 428-435, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which predict future intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), may guide anticoagulant decisions for atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the risk of warfarin-associated ICH in Chinese patients with AF with CMBs. METHODS: In this prospective, observational, multicentre study, we recruited Chinese patients with AF who were on or intended to start anticoagulation with warfarin from six hospitals in Hong Kong. CMBs were evaluated with 3T MRI brain at baseline. Primary outcome was clinical ICH at 2-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, mortality of all causes and modified Rankin Scale ≥3. Outcome events were compared between patients with and without CMBs. RESULTS: A total of 290 patients were recruited; 53 patients were excluded by predefined criteria. Among the 237 patients included in the final analysis, CMBs were observed in 84 (35.4%) patients, and 11 had ≥5 CMBs. The mean follow-up period was 22.4±10.3 months. Compared with patients without CMBs, patients with CMBs had numerically higher rate of ICH (3.6% vs 0.7%, p=0.129). The rate of ICH was lower than ischaemic stroke for patients with 0 to 4 CMBs, but higher for those with ≥5 CMBs. CMB count (C-index 0.82) was more sensitive than HAS-BLED (C-index 0.55) and CHA2DS2-VASc (C-index 0.63) scores in predicting ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with AF on warfarin, presence of multiple CMBs may be associated with higher rate of ICH than ischaemic stroke. Larger studies through international collaboration are needed to determine the risk:benefit ratio of oral anticoagulants in patients with AF of different ethnic origins.

5.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X18805209, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351176

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the roles of antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Patients with apparently normal cerebral perfusion distal to a symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA)-M1 stenosis were enrolled. Computational fluid dynamics models were built based on CT angiography to obtain a translesional pressure ratio (PR) to gauge the residual antegrade flow. Leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs) were scaled on CT angiography. Cerebral perfusion metrics were obtained in CT perfusion maps. Among 83 patients, linear regression analyses revealed that both translesional PR and LMC scale were independently associated with relative ipsilesional mean transit time (rMTT). Subgroup analyses showed that ipsilesional rMTT was significantly associated with translesional PR ( p < 0.001) rather than LMC scale in those with a moderate (50-69%) MCA stenosis, which, however, was only significantly associated with LMC scale ( p = 0.051) in those with a severe (70-99%) stenosis. Antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow have complementary effects in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an ICAS, while cerebral perfusion may rely more on the collateral circulation in those with a severe stenosis.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196344, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Repeated testing using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) increases risks for practice effects which may bias measurements of cognitive change. The objective of this study is to develop two alternate versions of the MoCA (Hong Kong version; HK-MoCA) and to investigate the validity and reliability of the alternate versions in patients with DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (Mild NCD) and cognitively healthy controls. METHODS: Concurrent validity and inter-scale agreement were examined by Pearson correlation of the total scores between the original and alternate versions and the Bland-Altman Method. Criterion validity of the two alternate versions in differentiating patients with Mild NCD was tested using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. One-month test-retest and inter-rater reliability were examined in 20 participants. Internal consistency of the alternate versions was measured by the Cronbach's α. RESULTS: 30 controls (age 73.4 [4.5] years, 60% female) and 30 patients (age 75.4 [5.5] years, 73% female) with Mild NCD were recruited. Both alternate versions significantly correlated with the original version (r = 0.79-0.87, p<0.001). Mean differences of 0.17 and -0.40 points were found between the total scores of the alternate with the original versions with a consistent level of agreement observed throughout the range of cognitive abilities. Both alternate versions significantly differentiated patients with Mild NCD from healthy controls (area under ROC 0.922 and 0.724, p<0.001) and showed good one-month test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation [ICC] = 0.92 and 0.82) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.99 and 0.87) and high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.79 and 0.75). CONCLUSION: The two alternate versions of the HK-MoCA are useful for Mild NCD screening.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(7): 680-686, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are radiological markers which predict future intracerebral haemorrhage. Researchers are exploring how CMBs can guide anticoagulation decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) exposure and prevalence of CMBs in Chinese patients with AF. METHODS: We prospectively recruited Chinese patients with AF on NOAC therapy of ≥30 days for 3T MRI brain for evaluation of CMBs and white matter hyperintensities. Patients with AF without prior exposure to oral anticoagulation were recruited as control group. RESULTS: A total of 282 patients were recruited, including 124 patients in NOAC group and 158 patients in control group. Mean duration of NOAC exposure was 723.8±500.3 days. CMBs were observed in 103 (36.5%) patients. No significant correlation was observed between duration of NOAC exposure and quantity of CMBs. After adjusting for confounding factors (ie, age, hypertension, labile hypertension, stroke history and white matter scores), previous intracerebral haemorrhage was predictive of CMBs (OR 15.28, 95% CI 1.81 to 129.16), particularly lobar CMBs (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 22.6). While white matter score was predictive of mixed lobar CMBs (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), both exposure and duration of NOAC use were not predictive of presence of CMBs. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with AF, duration of NOAC exposure did not correlate with prevalence and burden of CMBs. Further studies with follow-up MRI are needed to determine if long-term NOAC therapy can lead to development of new CMBs.

8.
Neuroradiology ; 60(4): 357-363, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426978

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intracranial artery calcification (IAC) has been demonstrated to be correlated with ischemic stroke, cognitive decline, and other vascular events by accumulating evidences from both Western and Asian populations. The proposed study aimed to investigate its potential mechanisms by evaluating the blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral arteries. METHODS: Consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital were recruited after excluding those with atrial fibrillation or poor temporal window. Quantitative measurements of IAC severity were assessed on brain CT scans. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and vertebral-basilar artery (VBA). RESULTS: In total, 318 patients were analyzed. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated both high MCA systolic flow velocity and high MCA PI were correlated with IAC Agatston score, p < 0.001 individually. Similar correlation was also found between IAC Agatston score and high VBA velocity/high VBA PI, p ≤ 0.001 individually. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed IAC Agatston score was an independent risk factor for high MCA velocity (OR 1.533; 95% CI 1.235-1.903), high VBA velocity (OR 1.964; 95% CI 1.381-2.794), and high VBA PI (OR 1.200; 95% CI 1.016-1.418), respectively. CONCLUSION: Heavier IAC might cause generalized artery flow velocity changes and increased pulsatility index, which may indicate high resistance within cerebrovasculature.


Assuntos
Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Pulsátil/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 33(5): 729-734, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is psychometrically superior over the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive screening in stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). It is free for clinical and research use. The objective of this study is to convert scores from the MMSE to MoCA and MoCA-5-minute protocol (MoCA-5 min) and to examine the ability of the converted scores in detecting cognitive impairment after stroke or TIA. METHODS: A total of 904 patients were randomly divided into training (n = 623) and validation (n = 281) samples matched for demography and cognition. MMSE scores were converted to MoCA and MoCA-5 min using (1) equipercentile method with log-linear smoothing and (2) Poisson regression adjusting for age and education. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to examine the ability of the converted scores in differentiating patients with cognitive impairment. RESULTS: The mean education was 5.8 (SD = 4.6; ranged 0-20) years. The entire spectrum of MMSE scores was converted to MoCA and MoCA-5 min using equipercentile method. Relationship between MMSE and MoCA scores was confounded by age and education, and a conversion equation with adjustment for age and education was derived. In the validation sample, the converted scores differentiated cognitively impaired patients with area under receiver operating characteristics curve 0.826 to 0.859. CONCLUSION: We provided 2 methods to convert scores from the MMSE to MoCA and MoCA-5 min based on a large sample of patients with stroke or TIA having a wide range of education and cognitive levels. The converted scores differentiated patients with cognitive impairment after stroke or TIA with high accuracy.

10.
Stroke ; 49(1): 215-218, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Central autonomic dysfunction increases stroke morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether poststroke autonomic dysfunction graded by Ewing battery can predict clinical outcome. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we assessed autonomic function of ischemic stroke patients within 7 days from symptom onset by Ewing battery. On the basis of the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction, we stratified patients into significant (definite, severe, or atypical) or minor (normal or early) autonomic function impairment groups and correlated the impairment with the 3-month modified Rankin Scale score (good outcome: modified Rankin Scale score 0≈2; poor outcome: modified Rankin Scale score 3≈6). RESULTS: Among the 150 patients enrolled (mean age, 66.4±9.9 years; 70.7% males), minor autonomic dysfunction was identified in 36 patients (24.0%), and significant autonomic dysfunction was identified in 114 patients (76.0%) based on Ewing battery. In 3 months, a poor functional outcome was found in 32.5% of significant group patients compared with 13.9% in the minor group (P=0.031). Crude odds ratios of the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction and 3-month unfavorable functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke were 2.979 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-8.284; P=0.036). After adjusting for confounding variables with statistical significance between the 2 functional outcome subgroups identified in univariate analysis (including sex and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission), the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction still independently predicted an unfavorable outcome, with an odds ratio of 3.263 (95% confidence interval, 1.141-9.335; P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Autonomic dysfunction gauged by Ewing battery predicts poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Neurology ; 89(23): 2317-2326, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and future spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in ischemic stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) taking oral anticoagulants. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of cohort studies with >50 patients with recent ischemic stroke and documented AF, brain MRI at baseline, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment, and ≥6 months of follow-up. Authors provided summary-level data on stroke outcomes stratified by CMB status. We estimated pooled annualized ICH and ischemic stroke rates from Poisson regression. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of ICH by CMB presence/absence, ≥5 CMBs, and CMB topography (strictly lobar, mixed, and strictly deep) using random-effects models. RESULTS: We established an international collaboration and pooled data from 8 centers including 1,552 patients. The crude CMB prevalence was 30% and 7% for ≥5 CMBs. Baseline CMB presence (vs no CMB) was associated with ICH during follow-up (OR 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-6.01, p = 0.017). Presence of ≥5 CMB was related to higher future ICH risk (OR 5.50, 95% CI 2.07-14.66, p = 0.001). The pooled annual ICH incidence increased from 0.30% (95% CI 0.04-0.55) among CMB-negative patients to 0.81% (95% CI 0.17-1.45) in CMB-positive patients (p = 0.01) and 2.48% (95% CI 1.2-6.2) in patients with ≥5 CMBs (p = 0.001). There was no association between CMBs and recurrent ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CMB on MRI and the dichotomized cutoff of ≥5 CMBs might identify subgroups of ischemic stroke patients with AF with high ICH risk and after further validation could help in risk stratification, in anticoagulation decisions, and in guiding randomized trials and ongoing large observational studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 26(8): 1760-1765, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) have been correlated to cognitive decline and dementia. It was previously considered only visible on microscope, but was recently reported to be visible on 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and linked to presence of intracranial stenosis. We aimed to investigate CMIs on 3.0 Tesla MRI in patients with M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA-M1) stenosis. METHODS: Patients with a recent non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and an atherosclerotic MCA-M1 stenosis were recruited. The severity of MCA stenosis was defined as moderate (50%-69%) or severe (70%-99% or focal flow void) on time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA). The distal to proximal signal intensity ratio (SIR) of MCA stenosis was measured on time-of-flight MRA to represent its hemodynamic significance. The presence of CMI(s) in the ipsilateral hemisphere was assessed on axial T1- or T2-weighted images and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images. RESULTS: Overall, 86 patients (mean age: 62.8 years; 77.9% males) were analyzed, 66 (76.7%) and 20 (23.3%), respectively, having moderate and severe MCA-M1 stenoses. The median SIR was .91. Forty-five (52.3%) patients had ipsilateral CMI(s). Multivariate logistic regression showed a history of dyslipidemia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.83, P = .008), and an SIR lower than the median (OR = 4.73, P = .014) were independently associated with presence of CMI(s) in ipsilateral hemisphere to an MCA-M1 stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with stroke and intracranial stenosis had a high burden of CMI. Except for a history of dyslipidemia, the hemodynamic significance of the arterial stenosis may contribute to the presence of ipsilateral CMI(s) in these patients, which warrants further investigation in prospective, longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Incidência , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 88(9): 744-748, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing globally, and the fivefold increase in stroke risk constitutes significant healthcare burden. AIMS: We aim to evaluate the trends of AF-related stroke and transient ischaemic attack (AF-stroke/TIA), prior anticoagulant use and their risk factors in different age groups in Chinese population. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the stroke registry at Prince of Wales Hospital. We compared the data at 5-year intervals over a 15-year period (years 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014). RESULTS: A total of 3894 patients were included, 712 patients had AF-stroke/TIA. Over the 15 years, the total number of ischaemic stroke/TIA fluctuated slightly during the period from year 1999 to 2009, and increased by 21.5% in the year 2014. While AF-stroke/TIA increased continuously with time by 282.1%. Increasing trend of AF-stroke/TIA was observed in all age groups. Absolute growth was highest in patients aged ≥80 years; relative growth was most pronounced in those between 65 and 72 years (>3.5 fold increase). Throughout the 15 years, >70% of AF-stroke/TIA occurred in non-anticoagulated patients, and this proportion increased with age. Increasing trends in both hypertension and ischaemic heart disease were also observed in patients with AF aged ≥73 years. CONCLUSION: AF-stroke/TIA has increased continuously by >2.5 fold in Chinese population over a 15-year period, with the majority of AF-stroke/TIA occurring in non-anticoagulated patients. Strategic planning is needed to optimise anticoagulant use, particularly non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in elderly patients, low-income group and those with ischaemic heart disease requiring concomitant antiplatelet therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 26(7): 1487-1492, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External counterpulsation (ECP) is a noninvasive method used to augment cerebral perfusion in ischemic stroke. However, the response of beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with ischemic stroke during ECP remains unknown. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with unilateral ischemic stroke at the subacute stage and 14 healthy controls were recruited. Beat-to-beat heart rate before, during, and after ECP was monitored. The frequency components of HRV were calculated using power spectral analysis. Very low frequency (VLF; <.04 Hz), low frequency (LF; .04-.15 Hz), high frequency (HF; .15-.40 Hz), total power spectral density (TP; <.40 Hz), and LF/HF ratio were calculated. RESULTS: In stroke patients, although there were no statistical differences in all of the HRV components, the HRV at VLF showed a trend of increase during ECP compared with baseline in the left-sided stroke patients (P = .083). After ECP, the HRV at LF and TP remained higher than baseline in the right-sided stroke patients (LF, 209.4 versus 117.9, P = .050; TP, 1275.6 versus 390.2, P = .017, respectively). Besides, the HRV at TP also increased after ECP compared with baseline in the left-sided stroke patients (563.0 versus 298.3, P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the side of the ischemia, patients showed an increased beat-to-beat HRV after ECP. Additionally, sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac modulations were increased after ECP in patients after right-sided subacute stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Contrapulsação , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Contrapulsação/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 14(2): 149-157, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is the dominant cause for ischemic stroke worldwide, with hemodynamic compromise as a crucial contributor. Prolonged perfusion is commonly observed in ICAS patients on CT perfusion (CTP) maps, while the clinical significance of this perfusion pattern has not been elucidated. METHOD: Patients having symptomatic ICAS of 50-99% stenosis with sustained downstream cerebral blood flow (CBF) were enrolled in this study. Prolonged perfusion was defined as increased mean transit time (MTT) in vascular territories of the target ICAS on CTP maps. The primary clinical outcome was recurrence of ipsilateral ischemic stroke, and secondary outcome was any ipsilateral ischemic events at 2 years follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 95 patients (median age 61y; 70% males) with symptomatic ICAS, 29 patients (30.5%) had prolonged perfusion. Such delayed perfusion was persistent in a majority of patients according to the 1-year imaging follow-up. The prolongation of cerebral perfusion was associated with subsequent risk for ipsilateral ischemic stroke (HR 7.01; 95% CI 1.86-26.46; p = 0.004), but not for any ipsilateral ischemic events (HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.63-3.68; p = 0.348). Further comparison of perfusion measures showed lower CBF (p = 0.034) and higher MTT (p = 0.064) in patients with recurrent ischemic stroke, but not in those with recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA). Among patients with recurrent stroke, a majority had multiple infarcts along the borderzone regions. CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic ICAS, persistent prolonged cerebral perfusion might contribute to the relapse of ischemic stroke, but not TIA.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Volume Sanguíneo Cerebral/fisiologia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfusão , Imagem de Perfusão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Neuroepidemiology ; 48(1-2): 48-54, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, sex difference in outcomes among patients with intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) has rarely been discussed in China as well as in the world. This study aimed to estimate the sex difference in outcomes among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients. METHODS: We analyzed 1,335 men and women with ICAS who were enrolled in the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis study. They were followed-up for ischemic stroke recurrence, any cause of death, cerebral vascular events (including transient ischemic attack, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), combined end points (including cerebral vascular events, angina or myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, peripheral vascular events), and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score of 3-6) at 1 year. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 59 (13.44%) combined end points were documented in women and 107 (11.94%) in men. Of the combined end points, 47 were recurrent ischemic stroke events (14 in women and 33 in men), and 51 other causes of deaths (24 in women and 27 in men). There were 349 unfavorable end points (117 in women and 232 in men). The cumulative probability of death was higher in women, but after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of stroke, current smoker, heavy drinking, hyperhomocysteinemia, and heart disease, there was no significant difference. There was also a lack of difference in 1-year ischemic stroke recurrence, cerebral vascular events, combined end points, and unfavorable outcome between women and men at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest no sex difference in outcome among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 88(1): 86-94, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute symptomatic seizure (AS) after ischaemic stroke is defined as a seizure occurring ≤7 days of the stroke. There remains a lack of information on the prognosis of AS after ischaemic stroke and how it should be treated. METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients after their incidents of ischaemic stroke from a population-based stroke registry. Stroke aetiology was defined according to Trial-of-ORG-10172 in acute-stroke treatment (TOAST). Patients were examined for any transient complete-occlusion with recanalisation (TCOR) and haemorrhagic transformation. The seizure outcomes were (1) acute clustering of seizures ≤7 days, (2) seizure recurrence associated with stroke recurrence beyond the 7-day period and (3) unprovoked seizure (US) >7 days. RESULTS: 104 patients (mean age 65 years/55% female) with AS after ischaemic stroke were identified (mean follow-up 6.17 years). Comparison of the group of patients with AS and those without seizures showed that patients with AS had significantly less large-vessel and small-vessel disease but more cardioembolisms (p<0.05) and a higher proportion of TCOR (p<0.01), multiple territory infarcts (p=0.007) and haemorrhagic transformations (p<0.01). Using Kaplan-Meier statistics, the risk of acute clustering of seizures ≤7 days was 22%, with a statistical trend for TCOR as a predictive factor (p=0.06). The risk of seizure recurrence associated with worsening/recurrence of stroke beyond 7 days was 13.5% at 2 years, 16.4% at 4 years and 18% at 8 years. Presence of >2 cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.05) and status epilepticus (P<0.05) are predictive risk factors on Cox regression model. The risk of US was 19% at 2 years, 25% at 4 years and 28% at 8 years with epileptiform EEG as a predictive factor (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Seizure recurrence following AS after ischaemic stroke may appear as acute clustering. Afterwards, seizures may occur as often with a recurrent stroke as without one within 4.2 years. We recommend the use of antiepileptic agents for up to 4 years if the underlying stroke aetiology cannot be fully treated.


Assuntos
Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Embolia/complicações , Feminino , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Eur Neurol ; 77(1-2): 80-86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT perfusion (CTP) imaging provides quantitative evaluation of cerebral perfusion flow and volume. Our previous findings showed that benign oligemia caused by intracranial large artery disease may be existent in subacute stroke. AIMS: We aimed at comparing the topographic patterns and clinical outcome of stroke patients with and without persistent benign oligemia as defined by CTP imaging. METHODS: Consecutive ischemic stroke patients who were referred for CTP in 2009 were screened. The topographic patterns (cortical, borderzone or perforating artery territory infarcts) were assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The clinical outcome was defined by modified Rankin score at 6 months after stroke onset. RESULTS: Totally, 26 stroke patients were recruited. Benign oligemia in subacute stage was detected in 15 patients. The occurrence of borderzone infarction was higher in stroke patients with benign oligemia than those without (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The topographic pattern of DWI may be different between the intracranial arterial disease patients with and without benign oligemia on CTP in subacute stroke.


Assuntos
Infarto/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162846, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the frequencies of neuropsychiatric symptom clusters in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) by cognitive level and stroke subtype; and 2) to evaluate effect of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes and amyloid upon neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. METHODS: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. 518 patients were administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 3-6 months post index admission. NPI symptoms were classified into four symptom clusters (Behavioral Problems, Psychosis, Mood Disturbance & Euphoria) derived from a confirmatory factor analysis of the 12 NPI items. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent associations between demographic, clinical and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes (white matter changes, old infarcts, whole brain atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy [MTLA] and frontal lobe atrophy [FLA]) with the presence of NPI symptoms and all symptom clusters except euphoria. 11C-Pittsburg Compound B Positron Emission Tomography (11C-PiB PET) was performed in 24 patients to measure amyloid retention for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. RESULTS: 50.6% of the whole sample, including 28.7% cognitively normal and 66.7% of patients with mild cognitive symptoms, had ≥1 NPI symptoms. Frequencies of symptom clusters were largely similar between stroke subtypes. Compared to patients with cardioembolic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage, those with TIA had less frequent mood disturbance. Stroke severity at admission and MTLA were the most robust correlates of symptoms. FLA was associated with behavioral problems cluster only. Frequency of symptom clusters did not differ between patients with and without significant amyloid retention. CONCLUSION: Frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms increased with level of cognitive impairment but was largely similar between stroke subtypes. Stroke severity and MTLA were associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms. AD pathology appeared to be unrelated to neuropsychiatric manifestations but further studies with larger sample size are required to substantiate this finding.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA