Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies have a negative impact on the health and economy of a nation, which can be prevented by effective family planning (FP) services. Postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUCD) is a safe and effective FP method which allows women to obtain long-acting contraception before discharge from the point of delivery. We observed poor coverage of deliveries with PPIUCD at our facility. This was the trigger to initiate a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase the PPIUCD coverage from current rate of 4.5%-10% in 3-month period. METHOD: A fishbone analysis of the problem was done and the following causes were identified: lack of focused counselling for FP, lack of sensitisation and training of resident doctors and inconsistent supply of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A QI team was constituted with representatives from faculty members, residents, interns, nursing officers and FP counsellors. The point of care quality improvement methodology was used. INTERVENTIONS: Daily counselling of antenatal women was started by the counsellors and interns in antenatal wards. A WhatsApp group of residents was made initially to sensitise them; and later for parking of problems and trouble shooting. The residents were provided hands-on training at skills lab. Uninterrupted supply of IUCDs was ensured by provision of buffer stock of IUCDs with respective store keepers. RESULT: The PPIUCD insertion rates improved from 4.5% to 19.2% at 3 months and have been sustained to a current 30%-35% after 1 ½ years of initiation of the project tiding through the turbulence during the COVID-19 pandemic using QI techniques. CONCLUSION: Sensitisation and training of residents as well as creation of awareness among antenatal women through targeted counselling helped improve PPIUCD coverage at the facility. QI initiatives have the potential to facilitate effective implementation of the FP programmes by strategic utilisation of the resources.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Período Pós-Parto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , COVID-19 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128210

RESUMO

The study was aimed to determine fluoride levels in plasma, brain, and bones of Wistar rats following chronic administration of fluoride at different dose levels and the consequent oxidative damage inflicted in these tissues. Brain histomorphology and bone radiographs were also evaluated to assess the extent of damage in these organs. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups with six animals in each group. Group I served as control and groups II and III received 50 and 100 ppm fluoride in tap water, respectively for 180 days. A dose-dependent rise in the levels of fluoride in plasma, brain, and bones was observed in rats. Significant (P < 0.05) alterations in levels of total thiols, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, acetylcholinesterase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, lipids, as well as protein peroxidation in blood and brain were observed as compared to control in a dose-dependent manner. Radiological examination of bone revealed thinning of bone cortex with haphazard ossification, reduced bone density, and widening of marrow cavity indicating occurrence of flawed bone remodeling upon chronic fluoride exposure. Improper mineralization in bones of intoxicated rats indirectly reflected reduced bone tensile strength. Moreover, alterations in plasma Ca:P ratio and high levels of fluoride in bone ash indicated that chronic fluoride exposure leads to alterations in the bone matrix further corroborating the radio-graphical findings. Additionally, severe microscopic alterations were recorded in the cerebrum and cerebellum of treated rats which included neuronal necrosis, gliosis, spongiosis, perivascular cuffing, congestion, and hemorrhage which correlated well with oxidative changes induced by fluoride intoxication in the brain tissue of rats.

3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189676

RESUMO

Concurrent exposure to a multitude of environmental toxicants pose serious health hazard to humans and animals. The present investigation was conceptualized to determine deleterious effects of concomitant subacute arsenic and quinalphos exposure on antioxidant responses of liver and erythrocytes of Wistar rats. Fifty-four Wistar rats were divided into nine groups with six animals in each. Animals were exposed to either quinalphos (1/100th and 1/10th of LD50) through oral gavage daily or arsenic (50 and 100 ppb) in drinking water alone and in combination for 28 days. While treatment with different toxicants alone also significantly reduced hemoglobin concentration, hepatic biomarkers and levels of antioxidant parameters as compared with control values, concomitant exposure significantly (P < 0.05) elevated levels of hepatic transaminases and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, along with significant depletion in activities of SOD, CAT, TTH, AChE, and enzymes of glutathione complex, a significant enhancement of lipid peroxidation was also recorded in liver and erythrocytes in co-exposed animals in a dose-dependent manner when compared with exposure to individual toxicant. More severe alterations occurred in hepatic histo-architecture of rats receiving combined treatment as compared with those treated with either toxicant. Results indicated that oxidative damage in erythrocytes was more than that of the liver of rats on concomitant exposure of arsenic and quinalphos in a dose-dependent manner. In nutshell, our results revealed that combined treatment of quinalphos with arsenic potentiated toxic effects of either toxicant on antioxidant machinery of liver and erythrocytes and hepatic histomorphology of exposed Wistar rats.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21331-21340, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270456

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine alterations in renal biomarkers, antioxidant profile, and histomorphology of renal tissue following subacute exposure to quinalphos alone or in conjunction with arsenic in rats. A total of 54 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups of six rats each and were administered sub-lethal concentrations of quinalphos (1/100th and 1/10th of LD50) orally daily and arsenic (50 and 100 ppb) in drinking water for 28 days. Significantly (p < 0.05) decreased levels of antioxidant biomarkers in renal tissue, viz., total thiols, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and glutathione reductase along with increased (p < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBRAS) levels indicated that significant oxidative damage to renal tissue occurred following repeated administrations of quinalphos at either dose levels or arsenic at the concentration of 100 ppb when compared with the control rats. The alterations in the antioxidant parameters were observed to be more pronounced in co-administered groups as compared with either toxicant administered group. Similarly, activity of renal acetylcholinesterase was decreased after repeated exposure to quinalphos or arsenic, but inhibition was higher (up to 48%) in rat renal tissue co-exposed with quinalphos and arsenic at the higher concentration. These findings corroborated with the histopathological alterations in renal tissue of toxicant exposed rats. The altered plasma and tissue antioxidant biomarkers along with histopathological changes in the kidney at higher dose level of either toxicant indicate that renal tissue is significantly impacted by these toxicants, and these effects become more pronounced after their co-administration.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Animais , Antioxidantes , Catalase , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase
5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 889, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving fiber quality and yield are the primary research objectives in cotton breeding for enhancing the economic viability and sustainability of Upland cotton production. Identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality and yield traits using the high-density SNP-based genetic maps allows for bridging genomics with cotton breeding through marker assisted and genomic selection. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from cross between two parental accessions, which represent broad allele diversity in Upland cotton, was used to construct high-density SNP-based linkage maps and to map the QTLs controlling important cotton traits. RESULTS: Molecular genetic mapping using RIL population produced a genetic map of 3129 SNPs, mapped at a density of 1.41 cM. Genetic maps of the individual chromosomes showed good collinearity with the sequence based physical map. A total of 106 QTLs were identified which included 59 QTLs for six fiber quality traits, 38 QTLs for four yield traits and 9 QTLs for two morphological traits. Sub-genome wide, 57 QTLs were mapped in A sub-genome and 49 were mapped in D sub-genome. More than 75% of the QTLs with favorable alleles were contributed by the parental accession NC05AZ06. Forty-six mapped QTLs each explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Further, we identified 21 QTL clusters where 12 QTL clusters were mapped in the A sub-genome and 9 were mapped in the D sub-genome. Candidate gene analyses of the 11 stable QTL harboring genomic regions identified 19 putative genes which had functional role in cotton fiber development. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high-density genetic map of SNPs in Upland cotton. Collinearity between genetic and physical maps indicated no major structural changes in the genetic mapping populations. Most traits showed high broad-sense heritability. One hundred and six QTLs were identified for the fiber quality, yield and morphological traits. Majority of the QTLs with favorable alleles were contributed by improved parental accession. More than 70% of the mapped QTLs shared the similar map position with previously reported QTLs which suggest the genetic relatedness of Upland cotton germplasm. Identification of QTL clusters could explain the correlation among some fiber quality traits in cotton. Stable and major QTLs and QTL clusters of traits identified in the current study could be the targets for map-based cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding. The genomic region on D12 containing the major stable QTLs for micronaire, fiber strength and lint percentage could be potential targets for MAS and gene cloning of fiber quality traits in cotton.


Assuntos
Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fibra de Algodão/normas , Ligação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fenótipo
6.
Virusdisease ; 30(2): 288-293, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179368

RESUMO

Domesticated fowls, pigeons and turkey birds were screened for avipoxvirus infection from different areas in Jammu region. Based on typical pox lesions the overall occurrence in fowl was found to be 18.52%, 17.03% in pigeons and 57.14% in turkeys. Mortality recorded in chicks was 41.96%, 45.36% in squabs, 100% in poults, and 20.00% in adult turkeys. Both cutaneous and diphtheritic forms of the disease was observed of which the latter was particularly prevalent in young birds. One sample of putative fowlpox virus (FWPV) from skin lesions of a fowl, and two samples of putative pigeonpox virus (PGPV) from skin and diphtheritic lesions each were inoculated on chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-12 days old chicken embryonated eggs. A confirmatory diagnosis was made by PCR amplification of a highly conserved P4b gene locus detected in tissue samples from skin, diphtheritic membrane and virus inoculated CAM yielding a predicted 578 bp product. Phylogenetic analysis based on the same P4b gene locus revealed FWPV and turkeypox virus (TKPV) to be 99% related and belonging to clade 1, while PGPV was found to belong to clade 2. All three isolates illustrate considerable heterogeneity within the conserved P4b gene locus. The study indicates that the closely related FWPV and TKPV isolates may have the potential of cross infection between fowls and turkeys and therefore cross transmission studies are suggested.

7.
Toxicol Rep ; 5: 1114-1119, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456172

RESUMO

The aim of present study was to assess whether No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of imidacloprid (IMI) potentiates the arsenic induced renal toxicity at its maximum contaminant level in drinking water in Wistar rats. Significant elevation of lipid and protein oxidation with reduced level of total thiols and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase) in renal tissue may have contributed to increased renal plasma biomarkers (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) following repeated exposure of IMI and arsenic alone and in-combination. The altered renal biomarkers in co-exposed groups corroborated with histopathological alterations in renal tissue. The observations indicated that altered thiol homeostasis in renal tissue may be associated with increased lipid and protein oxidation in IMI and arsenic administered rats. It is concluded that administration of IMI potentiate the arsenic induced renal damage in Wistar rats.

8.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 19(1): 48, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is an established fact that humans and animals are exposed to more than one chemical concurrently from various sources such as food, air and water. In the past, much emphasis was laid on evaluating the toxic effects of a single chemical. Nowadays an increased attention is being paid to the interaction of xenobiotics with one another. Therefore, a study was aimed to evaluate the potentiating effect of imidacloprid (IMI) on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into eight groups with six in each were subjected to daily oral administrations for 28 days. Group I served as control, group II received IMI at the dose rate of 16.9 mg/kg body weight, group III, IV and V received arsenic at the dose rate of 50, 100 and 150 ppb in drinking water whereas group VI, VII and VIII received both arsenic and IMI. RESULTS: Repeated oral administrations of IMI or arsenic (150 ppb) alone resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) along with significant (P < 0.05) decline in total thiols and antioxidant enzymatic activities indicating reduced antioxidant defense in testicular tissue of exposed rats. These findings were further corroborated with histological alterations in testes like fluid accumulation in interstitial spaces in IMI administered rats. Similarly, rats provided access exclusively to arsenic-containing drinking water induced degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules in a concentration-dependent manner. Concurrent administration of IMI and arsenic produced more severe antioxidant and histopathological alterations of testes as compared to exposure to either toxicant. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced antioxidant activities, increased MDA and AOPP levels with severe histopathological alterations in testes of rats on concurrent exposure indicated that IMI potentiated the arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
9.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 34(10): 726-735, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033815

RESUMO

Imidacloprid (IMI), a newer neonicotinoid insecticide, induces oxidative insult to hepatocytes due to the formation of reactive metabolites during hepatic metabolism. The present study aimed to determine the potentiating effect of arsenic (As) on IMI-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. Rats, randomly divided into eight groups with six in each, were subjected to daily oral administration for 28 days. Group I served as control; group II received IMI at the dose rate of 16.9 mg/kg body weight; groups III, IV, and V received As at the dose rate of 50, 100, and 150 ppb, respectively, in drinking water; groups VI, VII, and VIII received both IMI (16.9 mg/kg) and As in drinking water at the rate of 50, 100, and 150 ppb, respectively. Repeated oral administration of IMI or As resulted in significant ( p < 0.05) elevation of plasma phosphatases, transferases, hepatic malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein product levels, but significantly ( p < 0.05) decreased levels of total proteins, thiols, and activities of antioxidant enzymes that indicate oxidation-induced hepatotoxicity. These findings were further corroborated by histological alterations in hepatic tissue of IMI or As-administered rats. The coadministration of both IMI and As in rats produced more severe alterations in these parameters in hepatic tissue. Reduced antioxidant indices and increased hepatic damage biomarkers with pronounced histopathological alterations in hepatic tissue after combined exposure to toxicants indicate potentiating toxic effect of As on IMI-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
J Parasit Dis ; 41(3): 707-712, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848264

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the changes in oxidative stress parameters on experimental infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in Swiss albino mice. The mice were divided into four groups viz., group I-IV, each group comprising of 15 mice. Group I mice served as healthy control. In Group II mice, C. parvum oocysts @ 104/os were administered, mice of group III were given dexamethasone @ 30 µg/ml in drinking water whereas group IV mice were given dexamethasone @ 30 µg/ml along with C. parvum oocysts @ 104/os. Significant changes were seen in oxidative stress parameters which included significant increase in LPO and decrease in levels of SOD, CAT and GSH in liver and intestine in group IV mice at 10th DPI when compared to others indicating an important role played by free radical induced oxidative stress in the development of C. parvum infection in mice which was clinically characterized by loss of body condition, profuse bloody diarrhoea and peak oocyst shedding intensity occurring at 10th DPI.

11.
JSLS ; 21(2)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare anomalies. We report our experience with foregut duplication cysts including their clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and surgical management. METHODS: We report a 20-year retrospective review of all foregut duplication cysts managed at our institution. RESULTS: Twelve patients with 13 foregut duplication cysts were identified. The ages of the children at the time of surgery ranged from infancy to adolescence, with a mean age of 7.2 years. Half of the patients presented with abdominal pain and vomiting, and the remaining either had respiratory distress or were asymptomatic. All resections were performed electively. Two of the 11 patients had other congenital anomalies, including a congenital pulmonary airway malformation and coarctation of the aorta. One patient had prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Nine patients underwent complete successful excision with no complications. Three patients whose symptoms resolved during hospitalization remained under observation because of parental preference. CONCLUSIONS: Foregut malformation in children may present with a variety of symptoms or can be found incidentally. The decision and timing of surgery is based on the clinical presentation. Surgical intervention in asymptomatic patients should be based on a thorough discussion with the parents.


Assuntos
Cistos/diagnóstico , Cistos/cirurgia , Doenças do Esôfago/cirurgia , Doenças do Mediastino/cirurgia , Gastropatias/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistos/congênito , Doenças do Esôfago/congênito , Doenças do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Mediastino/congênito , Doenças do Mediastino/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gastropatias/congênito , Gastropatias/diagnóstico , Vômito/etiologia
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 505: 253-265, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578288

RESUMO

Combined effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and cubic autocatalysis chemical reaction on the three dimensional flow of stretched nanofluid along a rotating sheet have been investigated in this paper. The flow field is assumed to be suspended with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Hamilton-Crosser model is applied to measure effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Rosseland approximation is employed to obtain the nonlinear radiative heat flux. For novelty and practical point of view, influence of fluctuating surface velocity and periodic surface temperature constraints are incorporated into the governing equations which in turn are made dimension free by employing suitable transformations. For numerical solutions, an explicit finite difference scheme has been proposed under the restrictions of derived stability conditions.

13.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0168910, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045987

RESUMO

Despite the reduction in the price of sequencing, it remains expensive to sequence and assemble whole, complex genomes of multiple samples for population studies, particularly for large genomes like those of many crop species. Enrichment of target genome regions coupled with next generation sequencing is a cost-effective strategy to obtain sequence information for loci of interest across many individuals, providing a less expensive approach to evaluating sequence variation at the population scale. Here we evaluate amplicon-based enrichment coupled with semiconductor sequencing on a validation set consisting of three maize inbred lines, two hybrids and 19 landrace accessions. We report the use of a multiplexed panel of 319 PCR assays that target 20 candidate loci associated with photoperiod sensitivity in maize while requiring 25 ng or less of starting DNA per sample. Enriched regions had an average on-target sequence read depth of 105 with 98% of the sequence data mapping to the maize 'B73' reference and 80% of the reads mapping to the target interval. Sequence reads were aligned to B73 and 1,486 and 1,244 variants were called using SAMtools and GATK, respectively. Of the variants called by both SAMtools and GATK, 30% were not previously reported in maize. Due to the high sequence read depth, heterozygote genotypes could be called with at least 92.5% accuracy in hybrid materials using GATK. The genetic data are congruent with previous reports of high total genetic diversity and substantial population differentiation among maize landraces. In conclusion, semiconductor sequencing of highly multiplexed PCR reactions is a cost-effective strategy for resequencing targeted genomic loci in diverse maize materials.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Zea mays/genética , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Genômica , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zea mays/fisiologia
14.
Pol J Radiol ; 81: 236-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27279925

RESUMO

Hysterosalpingography is an imaging method to evaluate the endometrial and uterine morphology and fallopian tube patency. Contrast intravasation implies backflow of injected contrast into the adjoining vessels mostly the veins and may be related to factors altering endometrial vascularity and permeability. Radiologists and gynaecologists should be well acquainted with the technique of hysterosalpingography, its interpretation, and intravasation of contrast agents for safer procedure and to minimize the associated complications.

15.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 117(10): 1157-64, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25277740

RESUMO

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with orthostatic intolerance is characterized by neurocognitive deficits and impaired working memory, concentration, and information processing. In CFS, upright tilting [head-up tilt (HUT)] caused decreased cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) related to hyperventilation/hypocapnia and impaired cerebral autoregulation; increasing orthostatic stress resulted in decreased neurocognition. We loaded the baroreflex with phenylephrine to prevent hyperventilation and performed n-back neurocognition testing in 11 control subjects and 15 CFS patients. HUT caused a significant increase in heart rate (109.4 ± 3.9 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 beats/min, P < 0.05) and respiratory rate (20.9 ± 1.7 vs. 14.2 ± 1.2 breaths/min, P < 0.05) and decrease in end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2; 42.8 ± 1.2 vs. 33.9 ± 1.1 Torr, P < 0.05) in CFS vs. control. HUT caused CBFv to decrease 8.7% in control subjects but fell 22.5% in CFS. In CFS, phenylephrine prevented the HUT-induced hyperventilation/hypocapnia and the significant drop in CBFv with HUT (-8.1% vs. -22.5% untreated). There was no difference in control subject n-back normalized response time (nRT) comparing supine to HUT (106.1 ± 6.9 vs. 97.6 ± 7.1 ms at n = 4), and no difference comparing control to CFS while supine (97.1 ± 7.1 vs 96.5 ± 3.9 ms at n = 4). However, HUT of CFS subjects caused a significant increase in nRT (148.0 ± 9.3 vs. 96.4 ± 6.0 ms at n = 4) compared with supine. Phenylephrine significantly reduced the HUT-induced increase in nRT in CFS to levels similar to supine (114.6 ± 7.1 vs. 114.6 ± 9.3 ms at n = 4). Compared with control subjects, CFS subjects are more sensitive both to orthostatic challenge and to baroreflex/chemoreflex-mediated interventions. Increasing blood pressure with phenylephrine can alter CBFv. In CFS subjects, mitigation of the HUT-induced CBFv decrease with phenylephrine has a beneficial effect on n-back outcome.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Intolerância Ortostática/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilefrina/administração & dosagem , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância Ortostática/diagnóstico , Intolerância Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Intolerância Ortostática/psicologia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Postura , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste da Mesa Inclinada , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 46(3): 537-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24390793

RESUMO

The efficacy of minidose of pour-on ivermectin and eprinomectin formulations against first instar larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus was observed in naturally infested goats in the Jammu region, North India. The study was performed in mid August 2011. A total of 280 goats were randomly divided in to 7 groups of 40 each. Goats of the first three groups were treated with pour-on ivermectin at dosage of 2, 5, and 200 µg/kg body weight, respectively, whereas animals of the fourth to sixth groups were treated with pour-on eprinomectin at 25, 50, and 500 µg/kg body weight, respectively. Group VII animals were kept as untreated control. The results indicated that no warbles were recorded between December 2011 and March 2012 on back of animals treated with pour-on preparations of ivermectin at dosage of 5 and 200 µg/kg body weight, respectively, and eprinomectin at dosage of 50 and 500 µg/kg body weight, respectively. Thus, it is concluded that administration of minidose of pour-on ivermectin (5 µg/kg body weight) and eprinomectin (50 µg/kg body weight) is cost effective and so can be used for warble fly control campaign in Jammu region.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Miíase/veterinária , Animais , Dípteros/classificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Índia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Larva , Miíase/prevenção & controle
17.
Mol Carcinog ; 53(3): 243-52, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23074020

RESUMO

Dietary prevention is a cost-efficient strategy to reduce the risk of human cancers. More than 85% breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens through a multistep and multiyear disease process. We used our chronically induced cellular carcinogenesis model as a target to search for preventive agents capable of blocking breast cell carcinogenesis. Dipyridamole (DPM), at a non-cytotoxic physiologically achievable dose of 10 nmol/L, effectively blocked breast cell carcinogenesis induced by cumulative exposures to three unrelated carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The ability of DPM to block H-Ras upregulation, thus blocking ERK pathway activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, and DNA damage in each exposure, may account for its mechanisms in intervention of carcinogenesis induced by cumulative exposures to PhIP. Likewise, DPM's ability to block ROS elevation and DNA damage may account for its mechanisms in intervention of carcinogenesis chronically induced by NNK and B[a]P, as well. DPM is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to control platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction in patients. Our study revealed, for the first time, the novel ability of DPM to block breast cell carcinogenesis induced by three unrelated carcinogens. DPM should be seriously considered as a chemopreventive agent in development of strategies for reducing the risk of sporadic breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipiridamol/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzo(a)pireno/efeitos adversos , Western Blotting , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrosaminas/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 438(4): 600-6, 2013 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23942114

RESUMO

More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens and co-carcinogens. To identify co-carcinogens with abilities to induce cellular pre-malignancy, we studied the activity of triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial agent commonly used in household and personal care products. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that chronic exposure to TCC at physiologically-achievable nanomolar concentrations resulted in progressive carcinogenesis of human breast cells from non-cancerous to pre-malignant. Pre-malignant carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly-acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation, without acquisition of cellular tumorigenicity. Long-term TCC exposure also induced constitutive activation of the Erk-Nox pathway and increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. A single TCC exposure induced transient induction of the Erk-Nox pathway, ROS elevation, increased cell proliferation, and DNA damage in not only non-cancerous breast cells but also breast cancer cells. Using these constitutively- and transiently-induced changes as endpoints, we revealed that non-cytotoxic curcumin was effective in intervention of TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy. Our results lead us to suggest that the co-carcinogenic potential of TCC should be seriously considered in epidemiological studies to reveal the significance of TCC in the development of sporadic breast cancer. Using TCC-induced transient and constitutive endpoints as targets will likely help identify non-cytotoxic preventive agents, such as curcumin, effective in suppressing TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbanilidas/efeitos adversos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/induzido quimicamente , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 436(2): 325-30, 2013 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23743194

RESUMO

Human urinary bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and the long-term disease-free survival in patients is still suboptimal with current chemotherapeutic regimens. Development of effective chemotherapeutic regimens is crucial to decrease the morbidity and mortality of this cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of FK228 in increasing cisplatin's ability to induce bladder cancer cell death and reduce drug resistance. Our study revealed that FK228 combined with cisplatin synergistically induced cell death and reduced clonogenic survival of human urinary bladder cancer cells. The Erk-Nox pathway played an important role in mediating signals highly increased by this combined treatment to induce significantly-elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, leading to substantially-induced caspase activation and synergistically-increased death in cancer cells. Cisplatin was able to enhance the ability of FK228 to significantly reduce glutathione, indicating a novel activity of combined FK228 and cisplatin in reducing drug resistance. The ability of combined FK228 and cisplatin to synergistically induce cell death and reduce clonogenic survival was also applicable to colon cancer cells. Hence, combined use of FK228 with cisplatin should be considered in development of therapeutic strategies to control urinary bladder cancer and other cancer development and recurrence.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Immunoblotting , NADPH Oxidase 1 , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
20.
Carcinogenesis ; 33(4): 876-85, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22307971

RESUMO

More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP's mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically achievable, pico to nanomolar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells from a non-cancerous stage to premalignant and malignant stages in a dose- and exposure-dependent manner. Progressive carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly- acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, acinar-conformational disruption, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenicity with metastasis and increased stem-like cell populations. These biological changes were accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes, including upregulated H-Ras gene expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, Nox-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, increased HIF-1α, Sp1, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and reduced E-cadherin. The Ras-ERK-Nox-ROS pathway played an important role in not only initiation but also maintenance of cellular carcinogenesis induced by PhIP. Using biological, biochemical and molecular changes as targeted endpoints, we identified that the green tea catechin components epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, at non-cytotoxic doses, were capable of suppressing PhIP-induced cellular carcinogenesis and tumorigenicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Primers do DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...